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l•^. > 




1 8»7 











X * 




TOttb an introduction bs 


5n (Two It^olumea. 







Printed by Hazell, Watson, & Vine)-, Ld., London and Aylesbury. 


'T^WELVE months ago, when the first volume of 
■^ this book made its appearance, it was intended 
that the second should quickly follow. Serious 
illness and slow convalescence, by which I was for a 
long time disabled, have prevented this. And sincere 
thanks are due to many who have patiently waited 
throughout the year until the work could be com- 
pleted. Now, upon the eve of my return to China, 
it is sent forth with the prayerful and earnest hope 
that God, Who from the lips of babes can perfect 
praise, will use it to His own glory. 

The story of such a Mission — as of every move- 
ment that is of Him — is a story without an end. 
So much has been omitted from this book, in order 
to bring it within necessary limitations, that to 
those who read between the lines it will seem sadly 
inA)mplete. In regretting many an omission, they 
have the author's fullest syrfipathy. 

When a large number of facts and dates arc dealt 
with, it is difficult to attain perfect accurary. Cor- 


rections and suggestions will be thankfully welcomed 
and much appreciated. 

One pleasant duty remains in connection with the 
loved task now laid down. No small part of the 
blessing that has come to me personally through 
this book has been due to the generous sympathy 
and invaluable aid of many a fellow-worker. 
Amongst these, none has been more helpful than my 
own beloved sister — the Editor of Regions Beyond — 
who has given weeks of ungrudging toil to this 
volume, and whose able and practised pen has not 
a little brightened and enriched its pages. 

Knowing all, the Master says — " Inasmuch as ye 
have done it unto one of the least of these ... ye 
have done it unto Me." 






I. Twenty Years Ago 3 

II. Early Days in Cheh-kiang 15 

III. The Chicago of China; or, Founding the 

Western Branch of the C. I. M. . . 37 

IV. Stories from Shao-hing 47 

V. A Confucianist City : its Customs and Converts 60 

VI. ** The Lame take the Prey " . .75 

VII. Pioneers in Gan-hwuy and Kiang-si . -90 

VIII. Facts about Funds 97 

IX. The Lowest Ebb, and the Turn of the Tide . 109 


X. Inland China closed, and yet the Eighteen 

given 125 

XI. The Gates of the West, and the Workers 

who might not enter . .136 

XII. The Chefoo Convention, 1876 . . .149 




XIII. "South OF THE River," AND "South OF THE Lake" 159 
Mr. Henry Taylor's itinerations in Ho-nan, and Mr. 
Judd's first visit to Hu-nan, 1875 ^"^ 1876. 

XIV. A Two Months* Trip to Shen-si • .174 

Journey of Messrs. Bailer and King, September and 
October, 1876. 

XV. C. I. M. Pioneers in Shan-si . . . .180 

First journey of Messrs. James and Turner, October, 
1876, to January, 1877. 

XVI. To THE Far North-West and Back. . .186 

Messrs. King and Budd, Easton and Parker, in 
Shen-si and Kan-suh, October, 1876, to April, 


REACHED .... ... 193 

Pioneering journey of Messrs. Judd and Broumton 
to KwEi-CHAU. Reinforcements — Messrs. George 
Clarke, Edward Fishe, and Landale. January to 
September, 1877. 

XVIII. MrI McCarthy's Walk across China . 206 

January to August, 1877. 

XIX. Through the Famine in Shan-si . . 225 

Relief work 1877-1879. 

XX. Among Eternal Snows 240 

Mr. James Cameron's journey through Eastern Thibet. 
August, 1877, to January, 1878. 

XXI. Thirty Thousand Miles in Safety . . . 265 

Widespread evangelisation that followed the Chefoo 
Convention. 1876-1878.' 










. 277 



Chinas Homes and China's Women 

Then and Now: A Rbtrospbct and Survey 291 

The First Women who went West, 1878 . 299 

A Five Years' Story, 1878-1883 .311 

Present-Day Pictures; and Facts for the 
Thoughtful 354 


XXVII. The Story of the Seventy, i 881 -1884 


XXIX. The Cambridge Band and Shan-si. 

XXX. The Coming of the Hundred, 1887 

XXXI. Our Last Six Years 

XXXII. *• Much more than This ' 






Scene in a busy Street 

Rest Pavilion on a Hill 

Photograph of Mr. and Mrs. Judd 

Buddhist Devotees 

Gospel Tract, with Large Character for Happiness 

A Chinese Junk, full Sail 

French Settlement, Shang-hai 

Photogpraph of Miss Blatchley 

Cover of Occasional Papers . 

His Excellency Li Hung-Ch'ang . 

The City of Yoh-chau . 

Scene on the Upper Han . 

Bridge over a Chinese Stream 

A River Scene in China 

Scene on the Yang-tsi . 

A Village in Si-ch'uen 

Mr. James Cameron, in travelling Dress 

A Si-CHU*EN Junk 

One of the Yang-tsi Gorges 

Temple at Ta-li Fu . . . 

The Mission House at Ta-li Fu . 

Station, Ho-k'eo, Kiang-si . 

Chinese Dinner, in the Mission House at Yuh-Shan 

The Bluflf, near Chefoo 

A Village in Shan-si . 

The Cambridge Band . 



















A Country Road in China 459 

The China Council of the C. I. M .473 
Portraits of the Hundred 482 


Map of China, Showing the Nine Unevangelised Provinces in 

Black 13 

Sketch-map of Gan-hwuy and Kiang-si 91 

Sketch-map of Burmah 127 

Black Map Showing Itinerations of C. I. M. Missionaries . 266 

Sketch-map Showing the Kwang-sin River 364 

Diagram of the Eleven Inland Provinces ..... 404 

Sketch-map of Shan-si 456 

Black Map Showing principal Stations of all Protestent Missions 

in China 5^7 

Diagram of the Population of China 508 

Large Folding Map of China At the end 


VOL. n. 

" Take your Bible, and carefully count, not the chapters or verses, 
but the letiers from the beginning of Genesis to the * Amen ' of the 
Revelation ; and when you have accomplished the task, go over it 
again and again and again — ten times, twenty times, forty times — 
nay, you must read the very letters of your Bible eighty times over 
before you have reached the requisite sum. It would take something 
like the letters of eighty Bibles to represent the men, women, and 
children of that old and wondrous Empire of China. Fourteen hun- 
dred of them have sunk into Christless graves during the last hour; 
thirty-three thousand will pass to-day for ever beyond your reach. 
Dispatch your missionary to-morrow, and one million and a quarter 
of immortal souls, for whom Christ died, will have passed to their 
final account before he can reach their shores. Whether such facts 
touch us or not, I think they ought to move our hearts. It is enough 
to make an angel weep." — Rev. Silvester Whitehead. 



WE stand upon the threshold of 1873 — ^ second 
stage of our journey lying before us. Seven 
years have elapsed since the good ship Lainmermuir 
launched the first party of the newly formed Inland 
Mission upon its untried way. Theirs was a venture 
of faith, but, as we have seen, faith that was justified 
and rewarded. And now that pioneer band has 
grown into a company of more than thirty men and 
women settled in no fewer than sixteen Chinese 
cities, of which twelve before their coming had been 
utterly unreached by the Gospel. 

They are richer in experience, these workers, than 
they were ; richer in knowledge of GOD, in patience, 
and in hope. Their tears have fallen over distant 
graves, and their hearts have been disciplined by 
many a difficulty and sorrow. But it has been 
theirs, too, to rejoice over blessing given, and an 
entrance won for Chrlst into many darkened lives. 

After an absence from China of just a year, Mr. 
and Mrs. Hudson Taylor are once again upon their 
outward way. The Council recently formed at home 



is thus left in full charge of its new responsibilities, 
evidently no sinecure ; for all the funds Mr. Taylor 
was able to hand over to them upon his departure 
amounted to the modest sum of i^2i 2s, Sd, 

And now, while the outgoing party are steadily 
traversing tropical seas to the land of their longing, 
let us imagine ourselves raised to some lofty eminence, 
far in the heart of China, from which we may take 
a bird's-eye view of the position of that great country 
and people in relation to the important questions 
with which we shall have to deal in following out 
the story of the next twenty years. 

• «««•« 

Twelve years have already elapsed since the Treaty 
of Pekin, closing a disastrous campaign, forced 
China into regular diplomatic relations with the 
outside world* Before that time foreigners were 
only allowed a footing at the five ports opened in 
1842, and China still held aloof from the great family 
of nations. But when, in 1 860, the Treaty of Pekin 
stipulated for the residence of European and American 
ambassadors at her Imperial court on terms of fullest 
equality, the dawn of a new era had begun. 

From that time this million-peopled Empire was 
destined to be drawn into ever closer contact with 
professedly Christian powers. How important for 
her, and for them, the far-reaching consequences, 
for good or ill ! These we do not purpose to trace. 

- - -- ~-  — — •  n- - -> - ^ - ^ — 

• Vcl i., p. 42. 



Indeed, it still remains a problem what the future 
is to be of China's intercourse with other lands. 
Given a fair chance, freed from the opium-curse 
and enlightened by the Gospel, what is there to 
which her intelligent, hardworking, skilful peoples 
might not attain ? But, for the present, facts of the 
past are our province, not future possibilities. 

On the threshold of 1873 twelve years of this new 
relationship were already gone. What had been 
their story, politically, and from a missionary point 
of view? 

When the allied forces retired from Pekin after 
the campaign of i860, leaving China with her 
military routed, her defences taken, her fbsources 
crippled, and the pride and flower of her army lying 
dead in heaps around her abandoned forts ; with the 
Emperor, Hien-fung, a fugitive from the capital, and 
his magnificent summer palace a pile of blackened 
ruins, the outlook was dark indeed for the be- 
wildered statesman who had to assume the reins of 

Hien-fung, a weak and unfortunate monarch, 
could do nothing to meet the emergency. He never 
returned to the capital ; and within a year he died, 
leaving his distracted country to his little six-year- 
old son, and the regency of his brother Prince Kung, 
and the Dowager Empresses. His reign had been a 
failure. Lacking the strength and decision of his 
father, Tao-kwang, he had succeeded to the throne in 
turbulent times. Never had the Empire needed a 


firm hand more. Rarely had the reins been held so 
slackly. But in Prince Kung» now thirty years of 
age, the people found a ruler as marked for force of 
character and ability as his Imperial brother had 
been for incapacity. 

" Appearing when the capital was surrendered to 
the allies, he bore the brunt of that unpleasant task, 
signing the treaties, and undertook almost alone the 
management of affairs with foreigners, while the 
Government was recovering from its paralysis of 
defeat." * 

By a shrewd coup d'etat he succeeded in ex- 
tinguishing a powerful conspiracy of the ministerial 
war-parW, and enthroning the young prince " Happy 
Omen.^ And four years later, in 1865, his steady 
rule, with the help of the " Ever Victorious Force," 
under the noble leadership of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Gordon, had quelled the T'ai-p'ing rebellion. Such 
ability was the supreme need of China at that hour. 
With it she quickly recovered balance, and was able 
to cope successfully with the wide-spread Moham- 
medan rebellion in the west, thus ending, in 1873, 
the internal upheavals of the country. 

The remarkable vitality and resources of the nation 
were never more noticeable than in this serious 
crisis. "To the ordinary outlays of the Empire," 
writes Dr. Wells Williams, " were superadded the 
immense burdens of a foreign invasion just concluded, 

• The Middle Kingdom, Dr. Wells Williams, vol. ii., p. 691. 


and a terrible struggle with domestic enemies ; yet 
neither the Regent nor his colleagues appear during 
this period of stress to have lost a particle of their 
confidence in the loyalty of the people. Through 
loss or gain, failure of material or resource, treachery 
in palace or camp, abuse or assistance from foreigners, 
this faith in one another failed not The face of 
China in 1865 was perhaps as wretched as that of 
Central Europe after the peace of Westphalia ; indeed, 
a more general desolation could hardly be imagined. 
Nevertheless the rapidity with which its inhabitants 
not only resumed their occupations as best they 
could, but rebuilt dwellings and re-organised trade, 
startled even their habitual disparagers into praise, 
and testified to the marvellous recuperative powers 
of this much-despised civilisation." 

In February 1873 the young Emperor Tung-cht 
came of age, and assumed the government ; and the 
spring of that year saw " the last struggle of Chinese 
seclusion to resist the incoming wave of western 
power." This battle was fought out in the social 
sphere. March, April, May, and June at Pekin were 
filled with a weary series of ministerial and Imperial 
conferences, correspondences, and delays, d propos of 
the time immemorial Koh-feo to the Emperor. Chinese 
ceremonial requires that the latter, as the representa- 
tive of Divine power, be honoured with the same 
prostration as that paid to the gods. Ceremonies 
performed in his presence are not mere etiquette, to 
be altered according to circumstances, but partake 


of a religious character ; and to omit the supreme 
obeisance of the Koh-feo^ the climax of laudation 
and worship, — kneeling and knocking the head three 
times on the ground, and rising and kneeling again 
to repeat the action thrice over, is equivalent in 
Chinese thought to the rejection of the joint authority 
of the Emperor and of Heaven. Of course no 
European minister would condescend to the Koh-feo^ 
and no European minister, consequently, had ever 
been received by Chinese royalty. The accession 
audience question was worn threadbare as the months 
went by, the Imperial ministers putting off the in- 
evitable with endless arguments and excuses, the 
foreign embassies urging and demanding a proper 
settlement at the earliest possible date. Prince Kung 
and his colleagues took a month to discuss the 
dilemma among themselves. Signs of yielding were 
apparent, and issued in an April Legation-interview. 
The old ground was gone over, further notes and 
protocols were exchanged in May, and at last, on 
June 29th, the embarrassments found their finale 
when the Emperor received the Japanese ambassador 
by himself, and immediately afterwards the five 
ministers of Russia, the United States, Gr^at Britain, 
France, and Holland, accompanied only by the 
German Secretary, who acted as interpreter. 

The scene was deeply significant. 

" Against what tremendous odds of superstition 
and national prejudice the officials were pitted in 
this curious contest, those who have never lived in 


the Empire can hardly appreciate."* But new in- 
fluences were at work, rapidly breaking down the 
old ideas and safeguards, and that June day, when 
the boy-monarch — only sixteen at his marriage, 
and seventeen at his accession t — acknowledged the 
equality and independence of foreign nations, pro- 
bably as great an advance had been made in the 
opening of China as this century has seen. 

Such, in brief, were the main political events of 
the twelve years under review. From a missionary 
standpoint this period had been fully as critical and 

At the time of the Treaty of Pekin missionary 
efforts, although fruitful and increasing, were still 
rigidly confined to the five centres in which foreigners 
were allowed to reside. But, in i860, not only were 
seven other cities constituted free ports, along the 
coast and up the Yang-tsi, the capital itself was also 
rendered accessible to the representatives of other 
lands. Twenty Protestant Societies, with a staff* of 
about one hundred missionaries, including ladies, were 
then in the field, and all these new centres were speedily 
occupied. But the China Inland Mission was as yet 

Twelve years later, at the time of the commence- 
ment of this volume, twenty-eight societies were repre- 

• The Middle Kingdom^ vol. ii., p. 715. 

t Two years later Tung-chT died heirless, and his cousin, the 
present Emperor Kwang-su, then a child of four, succeeded 
under the same regency. 


sented in China, occupying no less than thirty stations, 
with a staff of about two hundred and forty workers, 
including the C. I. M. Several mission presses were- 
at work, widely scattering Christian literature ; eight 
thousand native converts were already gathered in the 
little churches ; mission hospitals and schools were 
busy at the open ports ; and a Mandarin version 
of the Bible, the sixth translation made within the 
century, was nearing completion. These years had 
witnessed great advance. 

But still, far, far beyond the reach of all existing 
agencies, lay the vast interior, in hopeless heathen 
darkness — eleven great inland provinces, almost un- 
touched by the Gospel. Several noble pioneering' 
journeys had been made by missionaries of various 
societies, an outline of whose itinerations is subjoined,* 
but in nine, at any rate, of those vast provinces, no 
one had ever attempted to settle among the people or 
commence permanent work. 

The China Inland Mission, founded in 1865, was 
now seven years old. The story of its inauguration 

• The most remarkable of these journeys were, as follows : — 

1864. — I^r. Williamson, to Eastern Mongolia. 
1865. — Mr. Bagley, "to remote provinces." 
1866. — Dr. Williamson and Mr. Lees to Smen-si, through 
Shan-si, returning via Ho-nan. 

1867. — Mr. Johnson of B.S. to Ho-nan. 
1868. — Mr. Wylie, and Dr. John, L.M.S., to Si-ch'uen. 
1868. — Mr. Oxenham, from Pekin to Hankow, through Ho-nan. 
1870-72. — Mr. Mollman of B.S. in Shan -si. 


and development up to this point, has been fully told 
in our first volume, and need only be alluded to 
here. After a brief absence in England Mr. and Mrs. 
Hudson Taylor were again upon their way to China, 
hoping to spend Christmas at Hang-chau. Early in 
December 1872 they reached their destination, and 
made their way once more to the old home on the 
Sin-k*ai Lung. Many changes had taken place since 
that very time six years before, when the first party 
of the Inland Mission arrived, homeless, in that great 
city, to find out the place the Lord had provided for 
them. Now the beloved Director and his wife were 
greeted by familiar faces, in scenes endeared to them 
by many memories, and were received at once into 
the midst of the well-loved little church that had been 
gathered by God'S blessing on their labours. 

" It has been very pleasant," wrote Mr. Hudson Taylor, 
" to meet the native Christians here again. Tsiu Sien-seng 
is in Hang-chau just now, helping in the boys' school. We 
were talking the other day of the time when we first met 
in Ningpo, more than fifteen years ago, before Mr. Jones 
and myself had been cheered by our first baptism ; and 
recalling the way by which the Lord has led us ever since, 
causing times of discouragement and adversity, to be followed 
by further developments of His gracious purposes, as winter 
is followed by spring. Together we remembered the 
gratitude with which we met, at the end of 1858, a little 
church of six native Christians beside ourselves ; four of 
whom are still serving the Lord, while one has fallen asleep 
in Jesus, and one, alas ! has gone back into the world. 
And looking round upon the stations and out-stations now 


scattered over four provinces, and the helpers and native 
Christians engaged in this service, we were cheered and 
encouraged to hope still in God, and look for greater things 
than these. . . . 

"The work here and in the out-stations is quietly but 
steadily progressing, and some of the helpers are manifestly 
growing in grace and efficiency. . . . The assistants from 
Hang-chau are so widely spread — some of them being three 
or four hundred miles apart — that it has become needful to 
adopt the plan of preparing a monthly news-letter, in the 
Romanised Ningpo dialect, giving accounts of the work, 
extracts from the correspondence of the native brethren, 
etc., in order that all may be informed of the proceedings 
of the church. A copy of this news-letter is sent to each 
station, and thus the brethren share each other's joys and 
trials, and the interests of each become the interest of all. 
Extracts are read also at meetings held in the various 
places, leading to more intelligent and sustained mutual 

Prayer ? Yes, for prayer was needed ! 

What was a total staff of two or three hundred 
workers of all societies among two to three hundred 
million heathen souls? Foreign arms and treaties 
had forced open the gates of the Empire of the East, 
and at a few scattered coast-towns and half-a-dozen 
points slightly inland, a handful of men and women 
were heralding the news of the redemption of the 
world, around them teeming thousands of densely 
ignorant and superstitious idolaters, thronging the 
crowded cities and thickly populated land. And 
beyond them? Beyond them lay in blank and 
absolute darkness the millions of the vast interior, 

among whom not a single Protestant worker had ever 
lived and laboured to spread the Glad Tidings. 

Oh, the unentered fields — the vast, unevangelised 
provinces of Inland China ! 

Oh, the cold hearts of Christendom, content to 


celebrate their Christmas, and leave these innumerable 
souls in misery and sin ! 

On their knees, while half across the world the 
merry bells of Christmas rang out the Old Year and 
ushered in the New, should not that little band of 
workers in the Sin-k'ai Lung cry out to Goi) for 
//lese ? 



HALFWAY down the long coast-line of China, 
bathed for over four thousand miles by the 
broad Pacific, lies the lovely province of Cheh- 
KIANG, birthplace and cradle of the China Inland 
Mission. Smallest among all the provinces of the 
empire, Cheh-KIANG is at the same time one of 
the most important. Populous, fertile, and healthy, 
rich in produce and manufactures, the energy and 
industry of its inhabitants are justly famed. Larger 
than the whole of Ireland, or Scotland and Wales put 
together, its great cities, densely peopled plains, and 
endless waterways teem with human life, and have 
long offered a wide field to missions. Here in the 
city of Ningpo, twelve miles from the sea, the first 
station of the Inland Mission was planted ; and here, 
at Hang-chau, in the winter of 1 866, the Lammermuir 
party foynd a home. 

Politically, Cheh-KIANG is divided into eleven 
departments, each with its own capital ; and these 
are subdivided into seventy-four counties, represented 
by as many district cities, and scores of lesser towns. 



Before the commencement of the Inland Mission 
members of other Societies had long been labouring 
in Ningpo, and recently a footing had been gained in 
Hang-chau also, but the remainder of the province 
was unoccupied. Nine of the capital cities, and over 
seventy others — with populations varying from five 
to fifty thousand — were still without any missionary, 
not to mention all the rural districts that surrounded 

Imagine Scotland and Wales, side by srde, peopled 
with considerably more than double their present 
inhabitants, plunged into the depths of heathen 
darkness, with jus^ one mission station for eac/i^ and, 
beyond that, no other light-centre among all their 
teeming millions ! 

Surrounded on all hands by conditions such as 
these, it was not long before the little band of 
workers in the Inland Mission began to think of 
extension. Ningpo and Hang-chau soon became a 
basis for wider operations, and in 1866-67 five of 
the remaining cities were added to the sphere of the 

Before passing on to the larger developments of 
succeeding years, our attention is claimed by these 
first stations. Fung-hwa, Shao-hing, T*ai-chau, and 
Wun-chau are names that mean little outside China, 
but to us of the Inland Mission how much ! Pioneer- 
ing effort, amid dense heathen darkness, here and there 
a spark of light kindled amid the gloom, then long 
and patient toil crowned at last by rising day, as 


hearts were one by one "illuminated"* In thought 
we see those simple men and women, hundreds of 
them, once " having no hope, and without GOD, in the 
world," but now rejoicing in the Light of Life. Is it 
not worth while pausing to ask how rose on them the 
Sun of Righteousness ? 

Day Dawn in T'ai-chau. 

Southward from Ningpo stretches a rugged coast-line, 
broken by multitudinous creeks, bays, rocky headlands, and 
lovely islands. Inland the country is equally mountainous 
and beautiful ; and a journey of about a hundred miles 
brings the traveller to the city of T'ai-chau, capital of a 
prefecture containing more than a million inhabitants. 

In the summer of 1867 this prosperous and beautiful 
city was first visited with the Gospel by Messrs. Meadows 
and Jackson. They were followed by Mr. and Mrs. 
Rudland, who found there, in 1870, a promising little 
native church of six or seven members, besides several 
genuine inquirers. One of the native assistants, Tsiang 
Ah -Hang, became specially helpful to them in the work, 
having the preaching of the Gospel deeply at heart. 

His past had been a dark one. A wild and reckless 
life, bad enough when wholly heathen, had been still 
further vitiated when, on board a French man-of-war, he 
added to his own evil ways a knowledge of the wickedness 
of foreigners, and learned to blaspheme God in the language 
spoken around him. Want of work led him to apply to 
Mrs. Hudson Taylor at Hang-chau for a situation, and he 
was engaged to do washing. 

The foreigners amongst whom he now found himself 

* Heb. X. 32. 
VOL. II. 2 


were strangely different from any he had met before, and 
for a while Ah-liang was sorely puzzled. They wore 
Chinese garments, ate with chop-sticks, and lived on 
Chinese food. Moreover, they had a curiously persistent 
way of talking to every one about certain unheard-of reli- 
gious beliefs, that seemed to afford them much satisfaction 
and peace of mind. One of the household, for example, a 
tall Scotchman, having discovered that Ah-liang could read 
the Romanised colloquial, would frequently spend hours 
beside him at the washing-tub or ironing-table reading 
aloud the foreign sacred books, trying to make himself 
understood in the language still so strange to his un- 
accustomed lips, and getting the busy washerman to correct 
his many blunders. So persistent was he in these efforts 
that Ah-liang, who had been inclined to laugh at it all as a 
good joke, began seriously to ask himself — 

" Is there not something real in convictions that impel 
a man like this Duncan to such earnest efforts on our 
behalf? One can plainly see that his only object in learning 
Chinese is to preach these strange doctrines." 

The man was impressed ; but not converted. 

Amongst the large family at Sin-k*ai Lung was a Swiss 
lady who, at times, was not a little startled to hear a voice 
swearing roundly in her own tongue. Ah-liang thought 
that no one understood his vehement speech ; but it was 
his turn to be surprised when one day, having discovered 
the offender, Miss Desgraz reproved him for the use of 
expressions that could not be allowed in the Mission home. 

" There must be foreigners and foreigners ! " was his 
mental comment. "These people are certainly different 
from any I have met before ! " 

By degrees, as the Spirit of God wrought in his soul, 
Ah-liang began to listen more attentively at morning and 
evening prayers and in the various meetings. A change 
became noticeable in his life and character. And at last the 


once swearing washerman confessed himself a follower of 
Christ. He was baptised, and a consistent walk during 
the remaining years of his life testified to the reality of his 
change of heart. 

Very soon after his own conversion Ah-liang began to 
long for the salvation of his younger brother, and persuaded 
him to come up to Hang-chau on the plea of obtaining 
employment in the Mission press. The young man left the 
old home in the country with the strongest protestations to 
his family and friends that he would never do as his brother 
had done — cast off the worship of his ancestors, and the 
gods of his native land. But ere long the Spirit of the one 
true God took possession of his heart also, and Liang-iong 
became lost to the circle of his indignant clan, but was found 
in the fold of the Good Shepherd. Both brothers proved 
earnest Christians ; and the younger was the first evangelist 
sent out by the Hang-chau native missionary society. To 
this day he labours faithfully in connection with the Inland 
Mission ; but Ah-liang sleeps in Jesus, having finished his 
course with joy. 

** He was one of my best helpers in the early days of the 
T'ai-chau work," wrote Mr. Rudland. " I loved him as a 

The Power of Kindness. 

The first T^ai-chau out-station was in the busy, growing city 
of Huang-yen, distant about twenty miles, across the river, 
seaward. It was some time before suitable premises could 
be secured in this place, but ultimately the Lord raised up 
a friend in the person of an old woman living on the spot, 
through whom the native evangelist, Chu Sien-seng, rented 
a house at his own expense, early in 1869. 

The story is interesting, as showing how important first 
impressions may be in their results upon those whom the 
missionary is seeking to win to Christ. 


Like most of the people ih her city, this dear old lady had 
never seen the foreigners, but had heard plenty against 
them. One summer day, however, while on a visit to her 
daughter at T'ai-chau, some of the neighbours told her that 
they had been to call on Mrs. Rudland, who had received 
them kindly. This set the old woman longing to go, too, 
and curiosity conquering fear the visit was paid. A kindly 
reception awaited the strangers from the missionary lady, 
who was found neither too busy nor too tired to take them 
all over the house, letting them see for themselves that there 
was really nothing to be afraid of, A cup of tea followed, 
and a friendly talk about their own affairs, and the true way 
of finding happiness. The visit over, the old woman carried 
back to her home in Huang-yen a heart in which the 

Early days in cheh-k/ang, li 

foreigners had found a warm place. Mrs. Rudland, 
although she little knew it, had made a valuable friend. 

Not long after this the native evangelist, Chu Sien-seng, 
was passing along the busy streets of Huang-yen, selling 
his tracts and books. His heart was heavy. Every effort 
to gain an entrance for the Gospel in that city seemed 
unavailing. No one would hear of letting "the foreign 
devils " a house. 

" Good-day, Chu Sien-seng ! '' 

With a bright face our old friend is standing before him. 

" Ts^ing'la kfiioh dzo^ " Do come and have some tea." 

In a few minutes they were talking together in her 
guest-room, the hostess graphically relating all about Mrs. 
Rudland's courtesy. 

" Ah," remarked the evangelist, " the teachers earnestly 
desire to rent a house in your own honourable place of 
residence, but I have twice tried to obtain one and failed ; 
and do not now know where to turn." 

What were his surprise and thankfulness when his new 
friend at once responded that it was well they had met, for 
she would be able to help him. 

In the evening when her son came home, the old 
woman told him what had occurred, and had no difficulty 
in enlisting his sympathy, for he also had been to the 
chapel in T'ai-chau, and had received pleasant impressions. 
The outcome was that the young man went next day to a 
friend of his, a silversmith, and urged him to let one of 
his houses to the missionaries, offering to act himself as 
middle-man in the transaction. The arrangement was 
soon made, and possession promised on the fifteenth day 
of the first moon. At the time appointed the house was 
placed at Mr. Rudland's disposal, and the neighbours 
seemed very friendly. 

"I spent the whole of one day amongst them," wrote 
Mr. Rudland, "talking, till quite wearied, about the Gospel. 


I trust blessing will rest upon that place. It is growing 
rapidly, and the people come and go from many other 

How TO OPEN Prison Doors. 

Soon after the chapel was opened at Huang-yen, a poor 
woman came into the city from her village home, some 
eight miles distant. Her husband was constable of the 
place in which they lived, and they had one much-loved 
son. Just a little old Chinawoman, wrinkled and bent 
with years, dusty and footsore from her tramp along the 
country ways ; merely a common-place, peasant-body 
entering the city gates ; no dignity nor pathos surely, here ? 
Hearts differ strangely, sometimes, from outward seeming. 
Who would suppose all the sad story of quest and longing 
hidden behind that quiet face ? 

A devout Buddhist, she has tried by every means in 
her power to obtain peace of heart, but in vain. She has 
made many a distant pilgrimage to famous shrines, and 
has given herself to chanting prayers and other methods 
of accumulating merit. What is the use of it all? Still 
the same heart-hunger appeals to the Unknown. And now 
she is growing old. Soon she will be unable to drag her 
weary feet up the unending treadmill of good works. And 
what if, after all, the whole thing should prove a blunder, 
all one's religion wrong — wrong at the last ! What then ? 

Once she had found her way to a Roman Catholic chapel. 
Things had seemed little more promising there. Though 
it was doing still, it was not doing only; and the poor 
weary soul thought to cast in her lot with them. But this 
market day has brought her into the city, where j)eople 
are talking of the " Jesus doctrine " station. 

" I will go there," she said to herself, little dreaming how 
near she was drawing at last to the Saviour of the world. 

What is this novel message ? 


" It is not doing that can help us. All that we need is 

So the teacher is saying; and with wondering joy she 
learns for the first time that no good works are of any avail 
in bringing us to God, that all we can do is to trust the 
finished work of Christ. 

Soon after this the poor woman fell into grievous trouble. 
A murder was committed in the country district, for which 
her husband was responsible ; and the culprit disappeared. 
Failing to find the offender, the constable, himself, became 
liable to punishment ; but he was only an old man, whose 
life was of no account. 

* Leave him to hunt out the criminal," said the enraged 
Mandarin. " Imprison his son instead." 

So the only son of the poor old couple, a promising 
young fellow of good character, was imprisoned under 
threat of execution if the real offender were not soon forth- 
coming. Heartbroken, the mother made her way to 
Huang-yen to ask the evangelist's help. Chu Sien-seng 
was away, but his place was supplied by another native 
preacher, who told the distressed mother that, although no 
political influence could be used on the young man's behalf, 
she could pray to God for him, and that the hearts of all 
men are in His Almighty Hand. 

" Alas ! " replied she sadly, " I don't know how to 

The assistant taught and helped her, prayed for them all 
in their extremity, and asked that the Mandarin's heart 
might be changed, the young man delivered, and that both 
he and his mother might be eternally saved, and made a 
blessing to many. 

" We have now committed the matter to God," said he. 
" Go home, Lao Nai-nai\ in peace. Your trouble you have 
given over to the Lord. You must leave it with Him ; 
your son will soon be set free." 


Quite comforted, the poor mother went hotne in simple 
faith, and told her neighbours the good news. 
" It is all right. My son will come back again." 
They, of course, did not believe her, and waited in- 
credulously to see the result of so strange a proceeding. 
But when, in a few days, the Mandarin, after beating the 
young man nearly to death, did actually release him, they 
were beyond measure amazed. The grateful mother made 
him kneel down in the midst of their bewildered friends, 
and, kneeling herself beside him, publicly gave thanks to 
God for this wonderful answer to her prayers. The neigh 
hours naturally grew anxious to have a teacher and lear« 
more about the strange new doctrine ; and thus the blessing 

The End of the Idols' Empire. 

Another case, no less interesting and encouraging, 
occurred during the first year of the Huang-yen work. It 
was a story of iconoclasm. 

One autumn day a respectable-looking man walked into 
the chapel where Yih-chiin, one of the native helpers, was 
sitting to receive visitors. He seemed from the first quite 
interested in what the assistant had to say, and bought 
several books about the doctrine. 

"You, then, were not always a Sing Yios-su-go nying ? " 
" Believe-in-Jesus-man." 

" No," answered Yih-chiin, — naming the religious order to 
which he once belonged. 

" Strange ! I am an unworthy member of that sect," 
exclaimed the guest ; and a discussion of the reasons that 
had induced the Christian to abandon his former mode 
of worship followed. As Yih-chiin explained the matter, 
dwelling upon the one and only way of obtaining peace 
with God, the stranger's heart was touched. 

" This is just what I want," he answered, with evident 


conviction. And away he went with his books and tracts, 
to rehearse it all to his friends and neighbours in the country. 
The truth commended itself to the hearts of these simple 
people. They heard it gladly. After a while the man 
came back, bringing others with him. They continued 
visiting the station from time to time, and finally sent a 
deputation to ask that some one might go and live amongst 
them to teach them more fully from the Scriptures. 

" We will provide a chapel," they said, " and a preacher's 

In fact, one man had already bought a property, which he 
placed at the missionaries' disposal. 

Yih-chiin was sent to visit these interesting inquirers, and 
found all just as they said. The proposed chapel had 
formerly been a Buddhist nunnery and temple. A man 
and his wife of the name of Ling were then occupying the 
premises. He was a carpenter by trade, and she had 
formerly been a novice in the temple. When the abbess 
died the place had been sold, with the pretty bamboo 
grove belonging to it. Some of the idols were taken away 
by the people, but others still remained, w^itnesses to the 
great change wrought by the power of God. 

Later on Chu Sien-seng also visited Dien-tsi, and found 
the people still earnestly inquiring after the truth. Long 
before he reached the little hamlet he was told of one and 
another who had become disciples of Jesus, and it seemed 
widely known that the old nunnery had been bought for a 
Christian chapel. The people pressed him with perpetual 
questions about the new faith. To learn how to pray tp 
the true God seemed their chief desire. 

" How must we pray to Him, and where ? How often 
in the day ? And will He hear us ? " 

Two or three of the men seemed to have a clear grasp of 
the truth ; and the wife of the man who bought the nunnery 
appeared to be truly converted. One of the ancient idols. 


2L Goddess of Mercy, accompanied Chu Sien-seng on his 
return, and found a strange home in the house of the 

Early next year Mr. Jackson formally opened the Dien- 
tsi temple as a place for Christian worship. It was the 
evening of a lovely spring day when he reached the village, 
with two of the native helpers. Very warm was the 
welcome that awaited them from the Carpenter Ling and 
his wife, whose faces lit with joy as they saw their friends 
approaching. Supper was soon served, and at evening 
worship the missionary's heart overflowed with thankfulness 
to hear those joyous believers telling how they had been 
brought out of darkness into God's marvellous light. 

Two days were spent in visiting the neighbouring towns 
and villages, preaching the Gospel, and inviting the people 
to come and witness the dedication of the temple and 
nunnery to the worship of the one true God. On Saturday 
afternoon, while Mr. Jackson was still thus engaged, his 
native helpers were busy preparing the place for its new uses, 
removing the last of the old idols, and clearing out cobwebs 
and dust. 

** We got back just in time," he wrote, " to assist in dis- 
mantling the last Goddess of Mercy. The incense-table 
we used for a preaching desk, and I myself occupied the 
chair upon which she used to sit." 

How brightly the sunshine of that Sunday morning rose 
on the little village in the heart of Cheh-kiang ! The old 
temple was thronged. And to many of the audience the 
change in the building around them pictured a still greater 
change wrought deeply in themselves. All listened with 
intense interest, and some remained behind to ask questions. 
" I left the young Christians," wrote Mr. Jackson, " happy, 
and full of hope for the success of the Gospel in that district." 

The good work continued, and in January 1874 Mr. 
Hudson Taylor found a warm welcome at Dien-tsi, where, 


during a brief visit, he preached twice to attentive audiences, 
and examined eight candidates for baptism. Half-a-dozen 
more were shortly added, and the little church grew as time 
went on. 

Thus the work spread from Huang-yen, gathering in those 
prepared to receive the Truth, and gladdening all with a con- 
sciousness that the Lord Himself was with them, " confirm- 
ing the Word with signs following/* 

Twenty miles south of Huang-yen and Dien-tsi 
lies the important city of T'ai-p*ing, opened as 
another out-station from T*ai-chau in January 1874. 

"In the early dawn of a cold winter day,'* wrote Mr. 
Taylor, " we first drew near this busy city. Oh, the crowds 
of people that filled the main streets ! . . . We walked 
through two or three miles of thoroughfare in which it was 
difficult to pass along for the multitudes. It was market- 
day, and sometimes we were brought to a standstill by the 
throng. At the west gate I ascended the city wall. . . . 
Smaller in area than Huang-yen, T'ai-p'ing is more densely 
populated ; indeed, it is more closely packed with houses 
than any city I have seen in China. I could but sit down 
on the wall and pray God to have mercy upon the people, 
to set before us an open door, and to draw many hearts to 
the Saviour. . . . Next day, as we were breakfasting in an 
eating-house, the people began to ask many questions. One 
young man showed much earnestness in inquiring about 
the Truth, listening to all we said. I think we shall . hear 
of him again. ... On our way back to the boat I went into 
the City Temple, and preached to the people who gathered 
about us, some appearing to listen with pleasure. As we 
neared the boat, we met two men who had come to tell' us 
of a house we could obtain. I sent the native brethren to 
see it, and finding it suitable, we took it at a moderate 


rental. They met two women on their way, whose deep 
earnestness to learn the plan of Salvation much moved and 
encouraged them." 

While waiting, alone, for the return of his helpers, 
an incident occurred of which we subjoin Mr. Taylor's 
own account. It is noteworthy as showing the deep 
longing wrought by the HOLY SPIRIT in the hearts 
of some with whom the missionary has never come 
in contact, and as illustrating the way in which He 
guides His servants to such seeking souls, no matter 
how remote. 

At the Eleventh Hour. 

" An old man of seventy-two found me out in the boat, 
I know not how, and entering into conversation, manifested 
a solicitude about spiritual things such as I have never 
seen exceeded in China. 

" I asked him to sit down, which he did in a preoccupied 
manner ; and I began, as usual, by inquiring his honourable 

" * My name is Dzing,' he replied ; * but the question 
which troubles me, and to which I can find no satisfactory 
answer, is this, What am I to do with my sins ? ' 

" * Yes,' I responded, * that is the question of questions ; 
but many do not consider it. It is to answer this supreme 
question that God has sent us missionaries to China.' 

" * Our scholars say there is no hereafter,' he interrupted ; 
*that the three Ifuen and six FaA, of which the soul is 
composed, are scattered at death, after which there is no 
personal existence ; but I cannot think that it really is so.' 

" * Indeed, it is not so,' I replied. * After death comes 
the Judgment.' 

" * Ah, yes ! ' he exclaimed, * I know it is so ; I feel it is 


so. I think again and again about it, and I don't know 
what is to be done with my sins. I pray to this and that 
and the other of our gods/ mentioning a long string of 
them ; * I burn incense and candles when I can. But all 
that seems to leave the question of sin untouched. Oh ! 
I am very old, and cannot expect to live long. What can I 
do ? What am I to do with my sins ? ' 

"How easy it would have been at home to urge the 
truth, * Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt 
be saved ' ; but such words would have had no meaning to 
him. He had never heard of Jesus Christ, much less 
of salvation through His Name. I was deeply moved ; and 
as I raised my heart to God, the old man continued, — 

" * Some people say one must abstain from all animal 
food. Should I live, sir, on a vegetable or mixed diet ? ' 

"* There is no merit in the one, nor sin in the other,' I 
replied. * Both affect the stomach, and not the heart.' 

" * Ah ! so it has always appeared to me. It seems to 
leave the question of sin quite untouched. Oh, sir ! I lie 
on my bed, and think, and think ; I sit in the daytime and 
think, and think. I think, and think, and think again ; but 
I cannot tell what is to be done with my sins. I am 
seventy-two years of age ; I cannot expect to complete the 
decade. * To-day knows not to-morrow's lot,^ And if this is 
true of all, how much the more of me ! Can you tell me 
what I must do with my sins ? ' 

" * I can, if you will listen ; I can point you to the only 
true way of escape from them. You know the saying — 
" We are heaven-begotten, heaven-nourished, heaven-fed'^ ?' 

"*True, true,' said he; *and how is such mercy, such 
goodness, such grace to 1^ recompensed ? Our scholars 
say we only need to thank Heaven and the gods at the end 
of the year, that nothing further is required ; but I cannot 
feel satisfied with this. I do not see how we can recom- 
pense it.' 


*' * And you do not yet know half of all there is to give 
thanks for/ I continued. *The favour of Heaven can 
never be recompensed. The true God is indeed a Father ; 
and as He supplies our bodily wants, so has He met our 
spiritual need. He saw that we had sins we could not 
deal with, and sent His own Son to be our Substitute and 
die for us. His name is Jesus. He was nailed to a cross 
of wood with four nails \ one in each hand and one in each 
foot. He freely gave His life for us, and shed His blood 
for our forgiveness. What you have to do with your sins is 
to accept free forgiveness for them all.* 

** * Will He forgive my sins ? ' said the old man slowly. 

" * Yes,' I responded. * He was raised from the dead on 
the third day, and ascended into heaven, a great Saviour, 
not only to pardon our sins, but to give us power against sin.' 

" * Ah ! * he exclaimed ; * and what can we do to recom- 
pense such favour?' 

** * Nothing,' I answered, * absolutely nothing. It must be 
all received just as freely as the air we breathe or life itself.' 

** Deliverance from the power of sin was the one thing 
my aged visitor seemed most to feel the need of. 

** * We all know what is right,' he said, ' but who can do 
it ? The whole course of the world is wrong. What is 
government but fraud? What is trade but fraud? What 
is life but wrong upon wrong, wrong upon wrong? The 
whole world is full of vanity and hollowness.' 

" Much more that he uttered was of the deepest interest 
to me ; and in it all the question of sin, how to get rid of 
its thraldom and its consequences, was the one thing he 
was most agonisingly alive to. I directed him to many 
passages from the Word to meet the questions he raised ; 
and he was evidently much comforted, and will, I doubt 
not, seek the living God in prayer. But it was painfully 
bewildering to him to realise that his one, his only hope — 
the idolatry of seventy years — was utterly worthless ! 


— - — - -1 - -   I Ml^^l" ■! I II I I I I 

" When my companions returned he listened as they 
repeated again the story of the Cross, and finally retired to 
think calmly over all that he had heard, greatly delighted 
to find that we had rented a house, and purposed soon to 
station two native brethren in that city. May God grant 
to him light and peace in believing. 

" Ah, beloved friends," continues Mr. Taylor, " how 
grateful should we be for our Gospel privileges ; and how 
deeply should we feel the sad condition of those who are 
destitute of them all ! 

" There are yet fifty cities, capitals of countries, in this 
sea-board province of Cheh-kiang alone, as destitute of 
the Gospel as was the city of T'ai-ping. Each of these 
counties has its many unwalled towns and villages, and 
contains on an average a population of three or four hundred 
thousand souls — all as needy, if not all as awakened, as this 
old man. 

* Shall we whose souls are lighted with wisdom from on high, 
Shall we to men benighted the Lamp of Life deny ?' 

" If the Lord graciously provide the men and the 
means ... we might very soon place a Gospel light in 
each one of these dark districts. We are asking God for 
this ; will you not join your prayers with ours ? " 

The work at T'ai-p'ing continued with much 
encouragement. And when next year five persons 
were baptised in a mountain .stream outside the city, 
one of them, whose face shone, was an old man of 

While the Gospel was winning its way in these 
districts, encouragement was not wanting in other 
out-stations connected with T'ai-chau. A warm inte- 
rest sprung up amongst the relatives and friends of the 


evangelist, Yih-chiin, and no less than three different 
buildings were offered by them for missionary purposes. 

** Only send us a teacher," came the message, " that 
we may hear more of GOD." 

*' For the present," wrote Mr. Rudland, " I have 
left Yih-chiin to work in his own and the neighbour- 
ing villages. His relatives, who are a large clan, 
implored me to do so. Several of them seemed to 
be really anxious inquirers, and I hope soon to see 
many truly converted." 

On visiting this place early in 1873, Mr. Rudland 
heard of the following incident, which had recently 
made a deep impression upon the people :— 

" God can and will Restore ! " 

One of the newly received members had been called 
away from home, and during his absence his wife fell 
seriously ill. Her friends summoned the native doctor, 
who ordered incense and candles to be burned in the house 
to a famous idol, and several other performances of the same 
sort. While the proceedings were going on the husband 
returned, and, seeing the unusual stir, asked what it all 
meant. The doctor answered it was to save the life of his 
wife, which entirely depended upon his instructions being 
fully carried out. 

"Take away these things!" replied the indignant 
husband ; " stop the ceremony at once ! I will not have such 
folly in my house." 

In the midst of the curses and abuse of the crowd he 
threw the candles and incense out of doors. 

" I will pray to the true God, who can and will restore 
my wife." 

The words fell impressively on the noisy disputants, who 


were further solemnised as they watched him kneel down 
and simply pray. What was their wonder when, in a few 
days, the sufferer was restored I A real impression was 
produced, especially amongst the women, several of whom 
came into the city to see Mrs. Rudland and learn more. 

The interest of the people throughout that whole 
district was most encouraging, and illustrates one of 
the happiest phases of missionary work. Of another 
busy centre visited upon the same journey Mr. 
Rudland wrote : — 

" Immediately on our arrival we were besieged for 
Christian books, of which they had seen some before our 
coming. The sun had set behind the mountains, but we 
had to keep on selling till we could no longer distinguish 
the titles of the books. Then we had supper ; but before 
we could finish the people were asking for further supplies, 
and we went on selling and preaching the Gospel till nearly 
midnight. Next morning two of us went into the street, 
while one remained at the inn. Soon our whole book-stock 
was exhausted. I had never seen a crowd listen so eagerly 
in a Chinese street before, nor ever found one so well 
behaved. . . . The people asked us to come again, and 
bring more Testaments. One of the inquirers has been in 
the habit of visiting us at T'ai-chau for some months past, 
and latterly he has brought friends. They are very anxious 
for a teacher." 

In T'ai-chau itself the work was no less promising, 
as may be gathered from the following letter written 
by Mrs. Hudson Taylor in the autumn of 1873 : — 

"I think T'ai-chau is perhaps the prettiest city I have 
ever seen. I wish I could picture it for you. Fine hills 
rise, range upon range, all around, and a river, fed from 

VOL. II 3 


mountain streams far away, winds its circuitous course below 
the city with Its white-washed houses, and grey-tiled roofs, 
brightened by the green foliage of peach, tallow, and 
camphor trees. The streets are regular, except where they 
encircle ihe base of a two-[>eaked hill, upon which stands a 
pair of pagodas. . . . 

" It looks such a peaceful spot ! and yet, as I have 
learned, it is often the scene of bloody executions. Being 
the chief city of the department, all prisoners convicted of 
capital crimes are brought here ; and at the busiest point in 
the city, just where the two principal thoroughfares cross, 
these poor wretches are publicly beheaded, and their bodies 
left till sundown, to be an example to all passers-by. Twice 


during the two months of my visit I was warned not to take 
that road, lest I should be sickened by the sights that might 
meet my gaze. 

" My native woman, a nice middle-aged creature and a 
good walker, for the modest sum of twopence daily, used to 
come for me each afternoon, when we would go out visiting 
together, from two o'clock till dark. She was ready to go 
anywhere, and took me lo see all her friends, seeming 
thoroughly interested herself in my message. Often she 
would repeat in one house what she had heard me say in 
another, adding comments of her own. . . . The women all 
received us very kindly, and came flocking to the chapel in 
answer to our invitations. My heart was specially drawn to 
them. They seemed so ready for the Gospel. They would 
listen quietly and attentively, and often put such questions 
as — 

" * How can we be saved ? * 

*' * How may we get to heaven ? * 

" One poor woman, who had come a long distance, listened 
to all I said, and then with tears in her eyes responded — 

" ' Ah ! that is very nice for others ; but there can be no 
happiness for me ; my only son is dead.' 

" I tried to comfort her, telling her again of Jesus, but I 
know not with what result. ... 

** The Northern wall of the city winds along the brow of 
the hills, on which there are many temples. I visited 
several, and was especially interested in one which had 
been the first home of our friends, Messrs. Meadows and 
Jackson, when they commenced work here. I saw the 
window from which their things had been stolen, and the 
old priest who received the strangers, and who, because of 
the theft, was put into prison until they obtained his re- 
lease. He seems now on the verge of the grave. He 
believes in the foreigners, and in the foreigners' medicine, 
but alas ! not in their God. 


" In November our hearts were rejoiced by an addition 
of four to the little church — two men and two women. . . . 
The people for miles around T'ai-chau, like those inside the 
city, are wonderfully open to the Gospel. In several places 
they are really begging for a preacher, and willingly offer to 
provide the chapel themselves." 

This was the story of twenty years ago. 

What of to-day ? What has been the sequel of so 
much bright beginning ? 

Come out to China and sec. Short of that it 
would be difficult to obtain an adequate view of the 
deep work for Eternity that the last two decades 
have witnessed in CHEH-KIANG. Labourers who 
twenty years ago broke up the untouched soil and 
went forth often weeping, bearing precious seed, have 
gathered golden harvests season by season, and are 
busy reaping yet. Mr. Meadows is still there — now 
Superintendent of the province, and the oldest worker 
in the Inland Mission next to Mr. Taylor himself. 
Mr. Rudland still holds the fort in the old T'ai-chau 
centre. " I have just bapti.sed one hundred and 
eighty-five," he writes, "out of over three hundred 
hopeful candidates and inquirers." 

" The growth of the converts is most healthy," adds 
Mr. Meadows. " The number and efficiency of our 
unpaid pastors and teachers never increased more 
rapidly ; the progress of the schools was never so 
encouraging, and evangelistic effort never of greater 
extent in Cheh-KIANG, than it has been this year." 

But we anticipate. 



THE C /. M. 

IN the closing days of 1872 the members of the 
Inland Mission were cheered by the return of 
Mr. and Mrs. Hudson Taylor to the field. In several 
of the stations at this time special prayer was being 
made about the needs of the growing work. Very 
rapid had been its extension during the six years 
since the arrival of the Lammertnuir party, and the; 
responsibility and difficulty of its management had in- 
creased in proportion to its enlarging sphere. Already 
there were sixteen stations and thirty workers, 
scattered in four provinces ; but, far from satisfied 
with this result, Mr. Taylor and those associated with 
him turned with ever-deepening desire to the still 
unreached Beyond. 

New Year's Eve was devoted, as usual, to prayer 
and fasting; and one special petition was that 1873 
might witness definite advance towards the evan- 
gelisation of the far interior — the nine vast inland 
provinces without a missionary. 




" We arc not discouraged/' wrote Mr. Taylor, ** by 
the greatness of the difficulties, by the smallness of 
our numbers, or by the fact that during the past 
year, with a large and rapidly growing Mission, our 
faith has been more than ever tried with regard to 
funds. If God be for us, difficulties are of no 
account. He can save by few as easily as by many ; 
and it is still true that * Man shall not live by bread 
alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the 
mouth of God.' Share with us, then, in present 
prayer, and soon we shall join in grateful praise." 

The year thus entered was one of steady work and 
progress. Eleven new stations and out-stations were 
opened in the four provinces already occupied, in- 
cluding one at Shanghai, in charge of Mr. and Mrs. 
Edward Fishe, which from that time became the 
business centre of the Mission. The work in Su-chau 
was given up for more needy openings, that great 
and important centre having been occupied by other 

Two more brethren — Messrs. Groombridgc and 
Donovan— came out ; but the staff was still insufficient 
to permit of any advance. Funds also continued 
low ; and towards the end of 1 873, in spite of all the 
hopeful anticipations that had been entertained, it 
became a grave question as to whether extension 
should be attempted. Prayer was the only resource ; 
and as the year drew to a close the matter was 
constantly remembered before the Lord. Meanwhile 
in England, all unknown to His ser\'ants on the 


field, answers had been given to their petitions. 
Reinforcements were already on the way. 

It had not seemed likely to happen. It had looked 
all but impossible. 

The Council and friends of the Mission at home, 
in hearty sympathy with the longings of those in 
China, earnestly desired to send out more labourers 
and increased funds ; but even when an opportunity 
occurred in the return of Mr. and Mrs. Judd, after 
a brief furlough, the realisation of their wishes ap- 
peared distant as ever. None of the candidates were 
ready to go at once, and even had the men been 
forthcoming, there was no money in hand to meet 
their expenses. 

Just at this juncture two young brethren from 
the East London Institute for Home and Foreign 
Missions * volunteered for China, and were com- 
mended to the Council as men for whom the Directors 
entertained a warm regard, and in whom they placed 
the fullest confidence. Henry Taylor and Frederick 
Bailer were ready to start without delay, and were 
glady accepted to join the returning party. For the 
men had not been given without the means to send 
them forth. A considerable sum of money had just 
been handed to Mr. Judd, specially for the use of 

• This Missionary Institute was founded in 1872 by Dr. and 
Mrs. H. Grattan Guinness. During the twenty-one years of its 
existence, five hundred and eighty-eight young men and women 
have been sent out to all parts of the world, in connection with 
thirty different Societies. Messrs. Bailer & Taylor, who joined 
the Inland Mission, were the first of this large band. 


new missionaries and the opening up of fresh work 
in China, quite apart from other help that he was 
receiving towards the passage and outfit of his own 
family. " Whoso is wise, and will observe these 
things, even he shall understand the iovingkindness 

of the Lord." 

Nor was this all. Other remarkable answers to 
the .same prayers quickly followed, looking back upon 
which Mr. Taylor wrote* in the succeeding year : — 

"The Lord is indeed our Seiepherd. 

"Infinite in wi.sdom and unbounded in resources, 
no human needs are ever unforeseen by Him — though 
they may often take us by surprise — and no circum- 
stances can be difficult for Him to meet. 

" * The Lord is my Shepherd ' ; it is the unchang- 
ing present. And ' The Lord is my Shepherd * ; for 
large as is His flock, and various as are its cir- 
cumstances and needs, I have a special, personal 
relationship to Him, and He to me. His eye is ever 
upon me. Nothing that concerns me is unknown by, 
or uninteresting to Him. The fondest mother who 
treasures in loving memory her infant's smile never 
thinks of counting the hairs upon his head. But the 
very hairs of my head are all numbered.. Not a 
sparrow falls to the ground without His notice ; how 
much more docs the LoRD care for me whom He 
purchased with His own precious blood ! 

• Occasional Papers^ No. 38, October 1874. 


" * The Lord is my Shepherd/ The supply of all 
my need is therefore secured ; the guidance I require 
is guaranteed ; protection, not from trial, danger, and 
sorro^v, but in them from all evil, is made certain ; and 
on these blessings I can depend at all times and in all 
places, for *The Shepherd of Israel' * shall neither 
slumber nor sleep.' How true, then, how natural, 
how inevitable the conclusion — * I shall not want ' ; 
I shall have no lack ; shall not fall short of any good 
thing. ... 

" But we can only rest in these blessed facts in so 
far as we give ourselves up wholly to Him, to submit 
to His rule, and unhesitatingly to accept His discip- 
line. Doing this, how safe, how sure, how blessed is 
our position ! We cannot be forsaken ; we cannot 
. be put to shame. In times of drought we shall be 
satisfied. And we shall learn by glad experience, 
through the teaching of the HoLY Spirit, to see in 
all difficulties and obstacles simply means for the 
manifestation of God'S faithfulness, love, and power. 

" More than eight years have elapsed since the 
Lammermuir party sailed from London in the faith 
that the LORD was our Shepherd, and indeed He 
has proved so. In journeyings oft, and in opening up 
more than forty stations and out-stations, through 
His protecting care, no life has been lost, and a 
wonderful measure of peace has been enjoyed. 

" Often as our faith has been tried with regard to 
funds, the LORD has ever proved faithful. Beloved 
brethren and sisters have been marvellously helped 


when brought very low. One brother, in the absence 
of funds, was sustained for days (if not weeks) by 
presents of food from the heathen around him. 
Another brother and sister were tided over a difficulty 
by a birthday present made to their child from one 
of the native Christians. A third was sustained for 
a time through money given him by a native helper, 
who had raised it by pawning his own clothes. A 
fourth in great need received a present of money 
from a native sister, who in a dream had been 
directed to aid him, and was helped on several 
other occasions in ways equally marked. Continually 
do I receive letters telling me how opportunely the 
supplies which GOD has ministered through me have 
come to hand. Sympathy has not been excited by 
publishing these letters, nor has our need been made 
known to man, but to GOD alone. There are more 
than a hundred labourers now in connection with the 
Mission, counting the missionaries and their wives, 
and the native helpers. Sometimes for weeks to- 
gether I have not had a dollar of Mission money in 
hand ; yet in His own good time the needed supplies 
have come. Brethren with their families have urgently 
required to return to England when there have been 
no funds in hand even for the ordinary outlay of the 
Mission. Prayer has been made ; and in remarkable 
ways, which we cannot now detail, the LORD has 
supplied the means. We have ever found it a safe 
thing, and a blessed, to trust in the living GOD. 

" One very important question, however, was raised 


by these frequent and increasingly severe trials. 
Were we to regard them simply as tests of faith ? or 
were we to learn from them that the Lord would not 
have us attempt any further extension of the work at 
present ? We waited much upon GOD, and frequently 
sought His guidance with regard to this. . . . 

" During November, December, and the first part of 
January, I asked the LORD to make it unmistakably 
clear whether He would have us prepare to commence 
work in some of the totally unreached provinces or 
not ; and also whether we should seek to occupy 
more stations in Cheh-KIANG. My mind was assured 
that wc ought to do both ; and I felt constrained in 
prayer to ask the LORD to give us . . . labourers to 
extend the work into every unoccupied department 
and county of CuEH-KlANG, of which there were 
fifty, and also men and means to commence opera- 
tions in the nine unevangelised provinces as well. 

"While we were thus waiting upon the LORD in 
China, He was putting it into the heart of one of His 
stewards at home to devise and execute liberal things 
for the spread of the Gospel. A letter was received 
by Mr. Hill, one of the honorary secretaries, dated 
December 5th, 1873, in which the writer said : — 

" * In two months' time I hope to place in the 
/lands of your Council of arrangement the sum of £%QO^ 
for the further exte?ision of inland China mission work. 
Please remember, for fresh provinces! 

" Need I say that when a copy of this letter 
reached me in China it caused our hearts to sing for 


joy? This generous donation was received in due 
course ; and now, ' assuredly gathering ' that the 
Lord had indeed called us ' to preach the Gospel in 
the regions beyond,' Mr. Judd has secured premises in 

Wu-ch'ang, the capital city of HU-PEll and Hu-NAN, 
the latter one of the unoccupied provinces ; and he 
will there (D,V.) superintend the formation of a 
Western Branch of the China Inland Mission. 
"The task before us is a mighty one, and the 


difficulties can scarcely be exaggerated. But we 
know Who it is that holds the keys of David. When 
He opens none can shut ; when He shuts none can 

Shortly after this a further sum of ;f 3,000 was 
also set apart for Western China, by donors who 
desired their names to remain unknown. Thus was 
inaugurated the first decided movement towards 
the evangelisation of those great and populous 
regions, which through long centuries had lain in 
hopeless heathen darkness. 

The summer of 1874 was spent by Mr. and Mrs. 
Judd at Wu-ch'ang, the metropolis of Central China, 
in seeking to establish a basis from which extended 
journeys could be made to North, South, and West, 
throughout the interior. 

Wu-ch*ang was at that time the furthermost point 
which missionary effort had reached on its westward 
march into the darkness of unbroken heathenism. 
Situated at the junction of the Han river with the 
mighty Yang-tsi, one of a group of three immense 
cities that stand triangularly upon the three shores 
formed by the confluence of these streams, Wu-ch'ang 
represents, with Han-kow and Han-yang, a resident 
population of at least a million. Countless numbers 
of travellers from all parts of the empire seek its busy 
marts. It occupies relatively to the coast and to 
Western China a position similar to that of Chicago 
in the United States. And as Chicago thirty years 
ago was pretty much the boundary at which the 


westward-flowing tide of material civilisation stopped, 
so Wu-ch'ang, at the time of which we write, was the 
furthest point to which missionary effort had pene- 
trated ; beyond it there was scarcely a gleam of 
Gospel light. 

While Mr. Judd was seeking to obtain a basis of 
operations in this most important centre, the younger 
brethren recently arrived from home were busy 
studying the language at Nan-king, preparing to go 
inland as soon as the LORD should open the way. 
Deeply interesting is the series of events by means 
of which that way was opened in due season. Not 
easily could it be, nor just at once. Months of sifting 
and trial had yet to come, bringing their precious 
discipline ; the night had still to darken before the 
dawn of that day of golden opportunity which burns 
around us now. But assuredly when the time was 
fully ripe, God's hand would remove all barriers and 
"out of weakness " make His servants strong. 


" T^HE child is father to the man," — true of organi- 

-^ sations as well as of individual life. 

Extension was at hand. Inland China was soon 
to be opened to the Gospel. When GOD works, 
everything fits in. Men and means were needed for 
coming enlargements, and He sent them ; free access 
to the interior, and it was given ; experienced workers 
to direct future developments, and these, too. He 

As Mr. Taylor travelled at this time from place to 
place, visiting stations, consulting senior helpers and 
encouraging younger ones in the work, how little could 
even he foresee the needs of the future — how much 
less provide for them ! But there was One who knew 
it all. God had His leaders in training ; and changes, 
simple, yet significant, began to appear.* Some who 
were to direct future forward movements were set free 
for wider spheres; while others, charged with new 
responsibility, were being educated for difficult duties 
to come. 

Among the most important of the^e changes was 



the return of Mr. Stevenson to England for a brief 
furlough. Many years were to elapse ere he should 
resume his much-loved work in China. New toils 
and pioneering efforts awaited him, in seeking to enter 
— from Upper Burmah — the western provinces of the 
great Empire.* But all his varying experiences were 
to prove a precious training and discipline for more 
important service, still to follow.. Sint:e 1886 he has 
occupied the responsible position of Deputy Director 
of the Mission in China. From the earlier years of 
his missionary life are gathered the facts and pictures 
here subjoined. 

Stories from Shao-hing. 

A bright, mild autumn day ; t an amphitheatre of hills 
at whose feet a mountain stream glints through the feathery 
foliage of a graceful bamboo grove ; above, the blue 
canopy of a cloudless sky ; and for actors in this scene a 
Chinese crowd from the city close at hand. A group by 
the waterside is evidently the centre of attraction. 

** Is that the foreign teacher ? " some one asks. 

A glance at the tall figure of J. W. Stevenson answers the 

What is there in this Chinese crowd to light that quiet 
Scotchman's face ? 

" All nature seems to praise Thee, my God ! *' his heart 
is saying, " and these ..." 

His eye passes from one to another of the little company, 
and his spirit overflows with gratitude. Follow his thoughts 
a moment : — 

• See Chapter XI. t November 27th, 1873. 


Here is Tao-bsing, whose name means " Truth flourishing 
or triumphant,^* Evil and violence were once the only 
elements that flourished in his life. His house, a gambling 
hell, the haunt of the most abandoned, afforded him a 
lucrative business, plenty of companions, and fame as the 
leader of so notorious a set and host at their acknowledged 
resort. To-day his old associates seek him in vain. Tao- 
hsing, by the grace of God, is a new creature. The rooms 
that once were scenes of sin are set apart for the preaching 
of the Gospel. 

" Will you not send an evangelist to our town ? " is his 
one plea. " I will gladly give him a home and all the help 
in my power." 

Not far from him stand the two Laos, father and son. 
The young man, like Tao-hsing, has been notoriously 
wicked, so violent and ungovernable when enraged as to 
be a terror to the neighbourhood, in which he was known 
as " the Lion." Now the wondering neighbours ask — 
" What is it that has so altered his heart ? " 
Earnest and consistent Christians, he and his aged father 
delight to testify to the grace of God which has wrought so 
great a change. 

Beside them stands old Foh Nai-nai, the mother of the 
travelling crockery-mender, " who," the missionary is fond 
of saying, " is one of the most devoted and zealous Christians 
it has ever been my privilege to meet." To-day she, too, 
is confessing her faiih in Christ by baptism, having been 
brought to the Lord through a remarkable answer to her 
own prayers for her son. 

" He is dying of the fever ! " had been her distressed cry 
six months before. ** Will you send some one to pray with 
him?" The native assistant went daily, and the poor 
mother joined her prayers to the God of whom she had 
heard so much, vowing that if her son were but restored 
she would give herself to His service. The fever abated. 

VOL. II. 4 


The young man lived. And the old mother, true to her 
word, began to attend the meetings. She received the 
Gospel with great simplicity ; and several other members 
of the family seemed hopefully impressed. 

And now in the quiet sunshine of this autumn day these 
first-fruits are ingathered from amongst the hills and valleys 
of lovely Shing-hien. After the baptism a band of twenty 
native Christians meets in the chapel, joyfully to com- 
memorate the Lord's death in anticipation of His return — 
only a little company, but all brought by His grace out of 
the hopeless darkness of heathenism, and all baptised by 
the man whose privilege it is to have been the first light- 
bearer in this district, never before reached with the Name 
of Jesus. 

"Can you wonder," wrote Mr. Stevenson, "that my 
heart overflowed with joy and gratitude at being permitted 
to see so striking a proof of the power of God to regenerate 
this mighty people ? " 

What lies behind this picture ? 

Seven years before (May 23rd, 1866), a pioneer 
visit to the populous city and plain of Shao-hing, when 
the millions of that great centre were laid as a burden 
upon the heart of the young Scotch missionary, then 
only a few months in the field. After that a small 
beginning — a Chinese house upon a crowded street ; 
three tiny rooms above, forming a simple missionary 
home ; and below, the shop, used for a chapel, or 
Ye-su T'afig, open all day long to visitors. Then 
patient years of plodding until initial difficulties were 
conquered, and an entrance was won for the Gospel 
into the homes and hearts of the people. 


Trophies from the "Jesus-Hall." 

Centrally situated, at the junction of four busy streets, 
' hard by a well-known bridge, the little chapel in Shao-hing 
attracted many a passer-by, and the fiwo. large characters 
over the doorway soon became as widely known as the 
name of the bridge itself. The audiences from the first 
were large and interested, and much inclined to animated 
discussion ; for though spiritually dark the people were 
anything but intellectually deficient. They were by no 
means prepared to take the preacher's statements for 

" Where, then, did evil come from ? " they would ask. 
" How did sin get into the world ? " 

" Is praying really any use ? Can it do anything ? " 

Fond of argument, and subtle, ingenious reasoners, their 
questions on these and kindred subjects were sometimes 
difficult to meet. 

One of the earliest converts was a man who has since 
been much used of CioD among his fellow-countrymen as 
pastor of the Shao-hing church. It was as a boatman 
in that city of canals — the Venice of China — that Chang 
Siao-fung first became known to Mr. Stevenson, and sub- 
sequently as a servant in his own employ. But after his 
conversion he developed remarkable evangelistic gifts, and 
it was felt that his sphere lay in the ministry of the Gospel. 
He became Mr. Stevenson's most valued assistant, and is 
one for whom, after five-and-twenty years, he still entertains 
the warmest affection and regard. 

The bold stand taken by an old shopkeeper in the 
observance of the Lord's day was the first public testimony 
for Christ in Shao-hing. He was a breadmaker, and 
occupied premises on one of the busiest streets in the city. 
On professing Christianity he not only regularly closed his 


shop on Sunday, but suspended a notice in large characters 
outside the door, giving his reasons for so doing. 

This strange proceeding soon !)ecanie widely known, and 
was for a time the talk of the town. But the old bread- 
maker, unmoved, maintained his testimony, until two years 
after his baptism he peacefully passed away to be with the 

In answer to prayer, the wives and families of both these 
men were also blessed, the only son of the breadmaker 
being early brought to the Lord, and all the evan^elist^s 
children becoming a joy to their father's heart. 

Another man who proved a valued helper was amongst 
the first-fruits of the Gospel in Shao-hing — the shoemaker, 
Fung Che-pao. Standing one day in the door of his shop, 
he saw the foreign teacher with a native assistant sitting at 
one of the tables outside a neighbouring tea-house, talking 
with the guests and passers-by about the new doctrine. He 
listened, and found that the drift of their conversation con- 
cerned a God whom they were urging those present to 
worship. Interested, he joined the group. 

** May I be instructed as to what manner of doctrine the 
foreigner is preaching? " 

** Our message," was the answer, " concerns the one true 
God who has made heaven, earth, and all things." 

This was a strange and new idea. The shoemaker could 
not forget it. He had always been accustomed to think of 
the gods as merely deified men, and of creation as the out- 
come of a mythical process of evolution, such as intelligent 
Chinamen delight in discussing.* 

• The Chinese theories of cosmogony are by no means con- 
fined to the scholars ; many of those who have never studied the 
classics are well acquainted with them by hearsay. And these 
theories are not without an interesting correspondence with some 
now prevalent hi the Western world. They recognise, in the first 
place, a state of matter termed by them " Wu-kih " — the unformed, 


This loftier conception of a Supreme Being whose power 
had created all things, so commended itself to his mind that 
it led him to make further inquiries, and he was invited to 
come on Sunday to the chapel and hear more. Having 
an acquaintance who was in the habit of attending, Fung 
Che-pao began by accompanying him. But soon his interest 
deepened : he came of his own accord, and before long 
confessed himself a sincere and earnest Christian. . 

As the Truth began to take possession of his mind he 
was seriously troubled about his idols and ancestral tablets. 
At first he thought of giving the latter, which he had so 
long reverenced, an honourable interment. But on further 
reflection he decided that this would be making too much 
of them ; so, taking advantage of his wife's absence one day, 
he put them all into the fire. At another time he was in 
the act of destroying his god of riches, and had already 
split it in two, when one of the native assistants coming in 
begged it for Mr. Stevenson as a trophy of the power of the 

But though brightened from the first by cases of 
blessing such as these, all was not plain sailing at 
Shao-hing. Several of the converts had to suffer 
persecution, and some were, in consequence, afraid to 
confess the Saviour. 

illimilable stage — comparable to the nebulous fire-mist supposed 
by some to have been one of the earliest processes of creation. 
Then follows the T'ai-kih^ a stage of greater condensation, with 
limit and form. And this, by still further condensation of some 
parts and separation of others, divides into the heavens and the 
earth, which by mutual interaction and gradual development pro- 
duce all things animate and inanimate. Though now almost 
forgotten, their most ancient writings do recognise a personal 
God, the Creator of all things ; but more recent authorities have 
explained all this away, substituting " law " and " nature " for 
Him whose will and work they are. 


"^ '  • • • ^c j^g^riy seventy was 

of God under very 

She had been for 
■eventeeti years a devout 
'egetarian, and had ac- 
:umulated, as everj-- . 
wdy considered, a large 
iinount of merit through 
ler unwearied devotions 
>y day and night. Left 
. young widow years 
before, she had deter- 
mined, as an act of 
I virtue, never to marry 
"""«ii again, but lo abandon heiself 

chapel .-^^^ to the life of a Buddhist devotee, with 

full of "^^^ the resolute purpose to leave nothing 
idols, to ' ._ undone that might secure 

which many __~_, happiness in. or at any rate 

women of . alleviate the suffer- 

her acquaintance ^' ,ngs, of the future 

came. With them ^'^^^bis. ^^'^''^- ^^^ 

often, or alone, she would "-a^^^^Ss* ''•''t' a pri- 

spend long nights in the  '.^saBBSB 

wearisome and dreary round 
of her devotions. She was one 
of those whom the missionary 
loves to meet — souls led by the ■■' 
Spirit of Goii, and sincerely 
seeking the heavenward way. 
Upon such the Light of Life can- 
not fail to shine. In her case the ~ 
change was decided and compleie 
when she grasped the precious truths of the Gospel. Her 


idols, beads, and other idolatrous possessions she brought 
to the missionaries, and, by eating an egg, broke her religious 
abstinence of seventeen years, cutting all connection with 
her old manner of life. Severe persecution and bitter re- 
proach came upon her, but the dear old lady kept firm in 
spite of all, and ultimately was baptised and received into 
the rapidly growing church. 

Before long the good work began to spread from 
Shao-hing itself to neighbouring cities ; and in 1869 
and 1870 two important out-stations sprung up in a 
lovely mountainous district to the south of the great 
plain. Converts were won, and little churches formed 
in each of these places, although intense opposition 
was encountered at first. In both the work has gone 
steadily forward ever since, and the childrerw of the 
earliest converts are in many cases foremost amongst 
the Christians of to-day. 

Shing-hicn, the first of these out-stations, distant* 
about seventy miles from Shao-hing, is pleasantly 
situated on the banks of a mountain stream. Here, 
in the summer of 1872, a remarkable case of conver- 
sion occurred, which greatly cheered the missionaries, 
evidencing the power of GOD to convince even a proud 
Confucianist of the truth of the Gospel. 

How A Siu-ts'ai entered the Kingdom. 

Ning Sien-seng was a gentleman of considerable influ- 
ence and standing in Shing-hien, an able literary man, 
holding the Siuts'aiy or B.A. degree. He had become 
acquainted with foreign thought through studying transla- 
tions of our scientific works, and had seen something of 


Christian literature ; but finding the Scriptures dry and 
unintelh'gible he had given up reading them. Careless and 
sceptical as to spiritual things, he considered prayer absurd. 

"If there be any God/* he would say, "which is more 
than doubtful, of course He must be far too great a Being, 
and too distantly removed from contact with men to take 
any interest in the little affairs of our daily life." 

One summer day he met Mr. Stevenson, who, at the 
close of a long and serious conversation, felt greatly drawn 
to the man, and yet pained at his open infidelity. 

" l^et me freely confess it, teacher," concluded Ning 
Sien-seng ; " I do not believe the doctrines taught by you 

With an earnestness which surprised the Confucianist, 
the missionary replied — 

" I shall remember you constantly in prayer to the true 
and living God." 

Ning Sien-seng went away, but could not forget the 

" Here," thought he, " is a foreigner, a perfect stranger to 
me, and yet so concerned about my soul that he will pray 
for me ; and I do not even pray for myself ! " 

The next thought was not far off, " What if I should 
begin ? " 

But prayer such as the missionary had urged seemed 
impossible to the proud Confucianist. 

"And yet," he thought, "the experiment is worth 

Thus, doubtfully but earnestly, a cry went up from that 
heathen heart to the Unknown : — 

" O God, if there be a God, give me light, if light is to 
be had ! " 

Again he turned to the Bible, and this time it seemed 
an entirely new revelation, while the scholar, to his surprise, 
found in himself, too, a change for which he could not 


account. The book so interested him that he read far 
on into the night. The study of the Word became his 
great delight. He was led to believe its truths, and to 
trust the Lord Jesus as his personal Saviour. 

" Prayer has saved me ; could it not also save my re- 
latives ? •' Ning Sien-seng began to ask. 

His wife, like himself, had been a rigid Confucianist, and 
he greatly feared confessing to her his new faith. At last 
he summoned up courage to call her into his study one 
evening, when, the children having gone to bed, he thought 
the scene that must inevitably ensue might perhaps be less 
noticed. She sat down opposite to him, across the room, 
as is proper for Chinese wives, and waited in silence. But 
his courage failed him, and he could not speak. Finally 
his wife remarked — 

" You have something to say to me." 

It had to come at last — and he poured out his story : 
" Wife, I have found that there is a Father in heaven." 

The ex-Confucianist was probably never more surprised 
than by her ready answer — 

" How glad 1 am ! " 

Hers, too, had been a waiting soul. All unknown to her 
husband, she had been longing for light, and to his con- 
fession added her own : — 

" For years I have felt that our doctrines and idols were 
nothing. When the rebels came to the town they sacked 
the temples and took away the gods. Of course 1 knew 
that if they could not save themselves they certainly could 
not save me. When the soldiers came to our house I got 
into the clothes-press to hide, in dreadful fear, and there 
I prayed". I thought there might be somewhere a real 
God, and I called to Him — * Venerable, Heavenly Father, 
keep me ! ' He did keep me, for the rebels came into the 
room, and ransacked all about, but did not open the cup- 
board where I was hiding. I have thought, ever since, that 


there must be some Great Spirit that we do not know. Can 
it be true that you have found Him ? " 

Ere long, to Ning Sien-seng*s joy, his wife also 
confessed her faith in the Saviour. 

On a subsequent visit to this city Mr. Stevenson 
wrote : — 

** I was very much encouraged at Shing-hien. God ha,s 
owned Ning Sien-seng*s simple faith, and blessed him there 
to the conversion of several. I baptised him, with two 
other men (February 23rd, 1873), . . . and am thankful to say 
that he has fully counted the cost in taking this bold and 
decided stand. Last Sabbath, unasked by me, he stood up 
in the chapel, when I had done preaching, and spoke for 
a considerable time, explaining the Christian faith, relating 
his own experience, and exhorting his hearers to become, 
with him, believers in the Saviour. As I heard this noble 
testimony to ihe power of the Gospel ... I could not 
but thank God, and take courage. When I consider this 
man's position, and see what he has done, and the great 
persecution to which he is exposed, I frequently realise 
that the age of heroes and martyrs has not yet passed 

A few months later, in the scene outside the walls 
of Sin-ch'ang with which this chapter opens, ten of the 
converts from that district, including Ning Sien-seng*s 
own son and several others who were spiritually the 
fruit of his labours, confessed their faith in CHRIST 
by baptism. 

Well might the missionary's heart be filled with 
joy ! The seven years of his patient labour had not 
been unrewarded, — fifty precious souls won for jESUS ; 


self-propagating Christian churches formed in these 
three cities ; and a work commenced which has gone 
on growing in blessing and power to this day. Cause 
enough, truly, for grateful thanksgiving and profound 
encouragement ; for the same Divine power that had 
saved the fifty could equally regenerate fifty millions. 
Are there no other hearts that long to share such 
gladness ? There are still scores — yes, hundreds — of 
similar districts waiting, waiting to-day in China, for 
the light that has never yet dawned upon their gloom. 
There are still more than nine hundred important 
walled cities in which no herald of the Cross is found. 
Where are the men and the women whom the Master 
would fain send forth into these regions — forerunners 
of His own coming footsteps, messengers to prepare 
the way of the LORD ? Let us see to it that we do 
not miss the privilege if it might be ours. 



FUNG-HWA— a Confucianist city. The title 
suggests a people governed by sage maxims, an 
unbending code of high morality, just judges wel- 
comed by an obedient, admiring, and exemplary 
populace, all parents honoured, all children filial — in 
a word, China's ideal. In point of fact, Fung-hwa 
was anything but that. 

" We found in Fung-hwa," wrote Mr. Crombie, its first 
missionary, " that a large proportion of the men and many 
of the women were opium-smokers. Although the city was 
comparatively small, Confucianism had a stronger hold 
there than in many places ten times its size. But it must 
not be thought that on this account the people were specially 
good, honest, or moral. On the contrary, unusually proud, 
self-righteous, and wicked, the inhabitants of Fung-hwa were 
notorious as wild, unruly, and dangerous characters ; so 
much so that a few years previously our consul did not 
think it prudent to allow British subjects to visit the city 
at all. 

" On one occasion the chief Mandarin of the place gave 

offence to the people, and several hundreds of them 



rebelled against his authority, and having seized and forced 
him into a Sedan chair, carried him off to Ningpo, and 
coolly told the officials there that they would not have him 
any longer to rule over them. In ordinary cases such 
conduct would have incurred the severest punishment, but 
Fung-hwa people were not to be trifled with ; no resentment 
was shown, and a fresh Mandarin was given them. About 
the same time, another official having also offended the 
people, a mob surrounded his residence. He, thinking to 
frighten them away, sent out threatening messages, and gave 
no sign of yielding ; but the people, infuriated, pulled down 
the house about him, and put an end to his life.'' 

Mr. and Mrs. Crombie of the Inland Mission settled 
in this place early in 1866. At that time, it will be 
remembered, the C. I. M. was little more than a 
purpose. The Lainmermtiir party had not yet sailed, 
and the Mission was scarcely founded. But these 
early workers found as great need and blessing as 
those who later on had an organisation behind them. 
Need there was, certainly. 

"When we arrived," wrote Mr. Crombie, "the people 
had been compelled to submit to a measure of authority ; 
but, like all other dark places of the earth, Fung-hwa was 
the habitation of horrible cruelties. Suicide was a thing 
of almost daily occurrence, and infanticide was practised 
by rich and poor alike, to a fearful extent. The temples 
that had been destroyed during the rebellion were being 
rebuilt ; and the people were as mad after their idols as 

It was with great difficulty that a suitable place 
was obtained for a chapel in this city. "At one 


time," wrote Mr. Taylor, "we had a room in a 
private house, but the character of some of the 
occupants was such that it was impossible to remain. 
Meetings in our second hall were always liable to 
interruption from other persons occupying the same 
compound, who had a right to use the place on 
certain occasions. A third room was opened, the 
entrance to which was from a court common to 
three houses. One Sunday morning, while service 
was going on, those present were greatly distressed 
by the piteous cries of an infant whose brains were 
literally being beaten out by its own parents in the 
adjoining yard. It was a little girl, and would not 
pay for keeping ! How thankful we were to escape 
from such surroundings when our present chapel was 
secured may be imagined. The tumble-down build- 
ings, however, were in such a state, that after some 
parts had fallen of themselves the rest had to be 
removed as unsafe. Then meetings had to be held 
in an outhouse, until the liberal donation of a friend 
enabled us to build a chapel and rooms above it for 
the missionary." 

Situated in a populous district about thirty miles 
to the south-west of Ningpo, Fung-hwa offered an 
admirable centre for missionary effort, and great 
crowds attended the chapel for some months after it 
was first opened. But it was long before the workers* 
hearts were gladdened by visible results. The soil 
seemed especially hard and unfruitful. But towards 
the close of the eighth year, 1873, a promising 


commencement had been made in no less than six 
out-stations, with a total membership of fifty-three 
converts, besides several candidates for baptism, and 

Looking back upon the story of those days, certain 
workers stand out among the native Christians as 
specially noteworthy, because specially owned of GOD. 
One of these, Fong Neng-kuei, was intimately con- 
nected with our Mission's early days in Cheii-KIANG. 
He was one of the first converts that gladdened the 
hearts of Mr. Jones and Mr. Hudson Taylor in the 
commencement of their Ningpo work ; and up to the 
time of his death he proved an invaluable helper. 
His was distinctly the gift of an evangelist. Little 
native churches were raised up almost wherever he 
went. Pastors and teachers were needed to supple- 
ment his efforts, but when they came Neng-kuei was 
always ready to go on to districts yet unreached. 
His story is well worth recording. 

Neng-kuei and his Friends. 

Born in a village near Fung-hwa, Neng-kuei was brought 
up without any educational advantages. He was early 
apprenticed to a basket-maker in the rough country district 
of Ong-zih, amongst whose populous towns he was destined 
to preach Christ in later years. 

His apprenticeship over, the young journeyman married, 
but only one year later a heavy shadow fell across his 
pathway in the death of his young wife. 

" Poor Neng-kuei,*' wrote Mr. Crombie ; " he could speak 
no word of comfort to her as she was passing out into the 
darkness of the unknown future, for he had not then heard 


of Him who is the Resurrection and the Life. She died 
without hope ; as millions, alas ! are dying in China year 
by year." 

His home broken up, Neng-kuei removed to Ningpo, 
where he found regular work, and, still better, discovered 
the "Jesus-hall." 

" Every evening you can go," his new companions told 
him. "The foreign teachers welcome everybody. They 
show coloured pictures, and tell you all about them. It is 
really amusing." 

Neng-kuei went, and sure enough there were the coloured 
pictures. The room was full, and the subject of both 
picture and address was the old story of the Prodigal Son. 
The thought of God as a Father, and with a father's heart, 
was entirely new to most of those present, and many 
remained behind for conversation. 

" Let us stay to ask more about this teaching," suggested 
Neng-kuei to his basket-maker friends. 

Two of them assented ; stayed and talked, and came 
regularly, night by night, listening with growing appreciation 
to the Truth. By -and- by an evening school was com- 
menced, to teach the Romanised colloquial to any who 
wished to read the Scriptures. The basket-makers gladly 
joined, and were very diligent. 

" They are turning Christians," said the neighbours. And 
bitter opposition began. 

Could they stand the test ? Not all. First one and then 
another was missed from class and meeting, but Neng- 
kuei still held on. He was out-and-out in earnest, and 
soon boldly professed himself a follower of Jesus, was bap- 
tised, and received into the Church. 

" You will not work on Sunday ? " exclaimed his employer : 
" well, you will lose your pay." 

This meant the sacrifice of at least a third of Neng-kuei's 
little income. His master did not particularly object, know- 


ing that the clever workman could do all that there was to 
be done in six days* labour, where another man would have 
taken seven. The wages had been low enough before — 
only twopence a day and his food ; but now he had, out of 
his reduced receipts, the extra expense of purchasing pro* 
virions for Sunday, which could not cost less than two or 
three pence. 

The busy season came round, and Neng-kuei foUnd 
himself one morning at the house of some grandees* The 
simple Christian workman stood in the audience halh 
There was a sound of approaching footsteps, a rustle of 
silken garments, and through the curtained archway entered 
a dainty group — the T'a-t-a, or great ladies of the house. 

" You are the basket-maker ? " 

Their directions were soon given. Incense holders were 
required, which Neng-kuei was to make. 

*^ Feh neng keo, I cannot!" replied the journeyman. 
" I am a Christian. I belong to the Yiasu Kiao^ and no 
longer worship idols. I cannot make or sell anything for 
idolatrous purposes." 

Amusement followed surprise. " Hyi-gyi!^^ Can it be that 
a poor basket-maker, a common working man, has a con- 
science opposed to his own interests ? The fair aristocrats 
were quite curious. They asked him many questions, and 
Neng-kuei made the best of his opportunity to tell the story 
of the Cross to the dainty perfumed ladies, who he felt, after 
all, were but needy, sinful women in God's sight. Their 
position made it unlikely that such a message would reach 
them in any other way ; but they did not seem much in- 
terested, soon grew tired of listening, and tripped away on 
their tiny feet. 

" What was that you were saying ? " 

Neng-kuei looked round and met a searching glance, half 
incredulous, half expectant, wholly earnest. A man in 
working clothes was standing by him. 

VOL. II. 5 


" You did not see me ? I am painting here," he said, 
indicating some decorations he was doing in the room the 
ladies had just left. " What was it you were saying ? I 
heard ; but tell it me once more." The good seed of the 
Kingdom had found here its " good ground." 

To the nobles it had seemed an idle tale : to this poor 
painter Neng-kuei's words had been a revelation. 

More than thirty years have gone since that day, and the 
basket-maker has long since ceased from his earthly toil, 
but Wang Lae-djiin, the painter, who through him first Jieard 
of Christ, is to this present hour devotedly serving the 
Lord he loves, and as senior pastor of the Hang-chau 
church maintains an undimmed testimony to the saving and 
the keeping grace of God. 

The story reads so simply — ^just a few minutes' 
telling of one's faith, and a soul led to GOD. But 
very far from easy was the life that lay behind. 
Matters looked dark enough at times for the faithful 

Not long after this trade was good, and his master 
became very busy. Toward the end of the week he called 
in Neng-kuei. 

" I cannot now spare you one day in seven," he said 
decidedly. " You must come to work next Sunday, or lose 
your place with me." 

" But we agreed " 

** I do not mind what we agreed." 

" But the soul needs care as well as the body." 

" Who knows about the soul ? If you do not choose to 
come, you may consider yourself dismissed." 

" I must do my duty towards God," simply replied 

Monday morning came. It was no use going to the 


workshop, and Neng-kuei had to seek employment else* 
where. But to his dismay he found that his former master, 
determined to compel him to accept his terms, had been 
round to all the basket-makers in the city, and persuaded 
them not to take on the man he had dismissed. Every 
door was closed against the Christian, and all his efforts at 
obtaining work proved vain. 

'' Satan is setting hard at me,'' said Neng-kuei to himself. 
" But if he prevents my getting work I shall only have the 
more time to snatch others from his kingdom.'' 

So he went straight to a tea-shop to preach the Gospel. 
The place was crowded. Neng-kuei sat down and began to 
deliver his message. As he spoke his faith was strength- 
ened ; his own burden became lighter while he sought to 
lighten the burdens of others ; and dwelling upon the love 
of God, and His power and willingness to bless, all personal 
troubles, by degrees, vanished away. 

Some of the people listened with attention, amongst 
them a farmer from the country — old Wang of Ho-si. 

" I want to learn more of this new, strange religion," he 
said when Neng-kuei had done. 

** You can learn," answered Neng-kuei, " but only from 
the Word of God. You must read for yourself its 

** Alas ! " said the old man, " I do not know how to read, 
and am now too stupid to learn." 

" Not so," replied his new friend ; " for with the Gospel 
God has given us an easy method of reading also.* I, at 
first, did not know a single character, not even the figure 
one ! but now I am able to read the Scriptures and the 
hymn-book as well. If you like, I will gladly teach you." 

The old farmer was delighted ; and soon removed from 
his lodgings to the home of his new-found friend, l^hat 

• Referring to the Romanised colloquial, introduced by the 


very day he commenced with the Romanised alphabet, and 
mastered some six letters, learning also " the way of truth 
more perfectly." 

Next morning Neng-kuei again sought for work, and this 
time successfully; for though the basket-makers of the 
town had promised his master to refuse him employment 
on Monday, on Tuesday they were glad enough to avail 
themselves of his deft services with a clear conscience ! 

" The Lord has been so good to me," he said to Mr. 
Taylor. " I have got work again, and have snatched a soul 
from the devil in between. Here he is, Wang of Ho-si." 

The introduction done, he left the old farmer with the 
missionaries, to relate his own affairs. 

" It was a strange story he told us," wrote Mr. Taylor ; 
" one to which at the time we scarcely gave credence, 

" Some six or seven months before he had been very ill ; 
every one thought him at the point of death. One day he 
was left alone in the house, all his family being out at work, 
when he distinctly heard himself called by name. Wide 
awake, and perfectly conscious, he looked round for the 
speaker, but saw no one. Feeling very uncomfortable, he 
got out of bed, and unable from weakness to cross the 
room, crept to the door by the help of furniture and walls. 
But on looking out he was even more perplexed, for still 
there was no one to be seen. Back into bed again he crept, 
wondering if he could have been mistaken, when he heard 
the voice a second time ! Again he crawled out to the 
door. Again — no one. Alarmed, he feebly made his way 
back, and buried his face beneath the coverlet, now 
thinking that the voice he heard must be the summons of 
death, and dreading to see some hideous apparition come 
to drag away his spirit, he knew not whither.^' 

Just inside the entrance of many Buddhist temples 
stand two abnormally hideous and colossal figures 


robed in white and with sea-green hands and faces, 
representing the evil genii into whose hand the 
spirit passed at death. From childhood the Chinese 
regard them with terror, and it was no doubt some 
such apparition that the old man feared. 

" Instead of this, however, he heard the voice a third 
time , and it went on quietly to direct him to make an in- 
fusion of some simple herb that would cure his complaint ; 
and to go, upon recovery, to the city of Ningpo, where he 
would learn of a new religion which he was to follow. 

" When the family came home he got some one to make 
him the herb tea, by the use of which he speedily re- 
covered ; and when strengthened he did come to Ningpo. 
Having no other method of obtaining a livelihood he 
supported himself as a grass-cutter.* 

" He had been thus employed for some months in the 
city, but had never heard the Gospel. As soon as he met 
with Neng-kuei, however, in the tea-shop, he concluded 
that this must be the new religion he had been directed to 

" Upon first hearing this story we thought that probably 
the old man had some interested motive in coming to us ; 
being engaged perhaps in a lawsuit, or wanting employment. 
But however this might be, he was willing to learn to read 
the Scriptures ; and the Word of God has saved many a 
one who first commenced its study from unworthy motives. 
So we encouraged him to persevere, and he did ; but long 
before he had mastered the difficulties of reading our fears 

• There is no meadow-land nor pasturage in China, and grass- 
cutting has become a trade. The cutters seek grass that grows 
about the banks of canals, under and upon the city walls, around 
grave mounds, etc., and sell it to those who keep horses, or use 
cattle in their fields or mills. 


were gone, and we all felt that we were dealing with a true, 
though possibly a peculiar man. He soon professed faith 
in the (lospel, and after due probation was received into 
our tittle native church with great joy. Thus was led to 
Christ, Wang Kiao-yiao, the indefatigable evangelist, now 
labouring in the neighbourhood of Ho-si." 

When in 1859 Mr. Hudson Taylor assumed the 
temporary charge of the Ningpo hospital, desiring to 


give the patients the benefit of Christian example as 
well as precept, he was led to substitute converted 
native helpers for the heathen employ^ of the place 
Among those engaged were Neng-kuei the basket- 
maker, and his friends, Lae-djiin, the painter, and the 
old farmer Wang. They all served the LORD most 
faithfully, talking in their spare time with those who 
wished to hear the Gospel, and teaching any who 
desired it to read. During eight or nine months 
nearly fifty persons were brought to the Lord through 
their efforts, many of whom still continue in His 

Old Wang returned to his native village, Ho-si, to 
carry to his family and friends the Glad Tidings he 
had received. But no one would believe his story. 

" The old man has gone out of his mind ! " they 
said. And the more earnest he became the more 
they laughed. 

After several years, however, truth prevailed, and 
when in 1867 Mr. Crombie took charge of Ho-si as a 
Fung-hwa out-station, he found there a little church 
of nine members, including old Wang's wife, son, 
and daughter, five others waiting for baptism, and 
several hopeful inquirers. Within a radius of ten 
miles from the house of the old farmer there was 
scarcely an adult who had not heard the Gospel from 
his lips. 

He and his wife had set apart one of the rooms in 
their own house for Divine worship. Nicely cleaned, 
whitewashed, and fitted up as a little chapel, this 


room was a regular meeting-place for the neighbour- 
hood, and a centre of real blessing. Before long this 
worthy couple had the joy of seeing their son a 
preacher of the Gospel in the neighbouring city of 
Ning-hai. The mother now sleeps in jESUS, but the 
old farmer himself, though over seventy years of age, 
is still hale and vigorous, and labouring on faithfully 
at Ho-si. 

The history of the basket-maker, Neng-kuei, had 
one sad episode. When in i86i the T'ai-p*ing rebels 
took Ningpo, he was induced to enter their employ. 
" Evil communications " had their usual result, and 
the young convert was led into sin, which resulted 
in his suspension from Church fellowship. How far 
he wandered no one ever really knew, nor how he 
ultimately effected his escape from the rebel band. 
Through hardships, danger, and through real repent- 
ance, he found his way back by the waste and stony 
desert that every prodigal must tread with weary 
feet who turns from the far country to seek his 
Father's house. After a time he was restored to com- 
munion ; and ever since has manifested the same zeal 
for the conversion of souls that characteri.sed his first 
love. He subsequently laboured under Mr. Crombic 
in his native district of Ong-zih, one of the earliest 
of the Fung-hwa out-stations, where much blessing 
attended his work. 

Beautifully situated among the mountains, about 
forty miles to the south of Fung-hwa, lies the busy 
city of Ning-hai, almost within sight of the broken 


coast line and the sea. Here, in the summer of 1868, 
Mr. Crombie was enabled to open another preaching 
station, in connection with which a good work was 
subsequently developed. 

" I shall not soon forget," writes Mr. Hudson Taylor, 
" my first visit to this city. We had no station there then, 
nor were there any Christians in the place. As we ap- 
proached the wall, a funeral came out by one of the gates. 
We stood aside to let it pass. 

" * Alas ! remarked the native brother with me sadly, 
' if the Gospel were to reach Ning-hai to-day it would come 
too late for that poor soul ! ' 

" Yes, and to how many more it will come too late ! 
Tens, hundreds, thousands are passing away from towns 
and villages in this particular district, not to speak of 
many another in which the need is even greater, without 
ever having heard the name of Jesus. 

The Ning-hai * native Christians were carefully 
trained in the Scriptures by Mr. and Mrs. Crombie, 
and took an intelligent interest in the progress of 
the Lord's work abroad — or, as we should say, at 

"I still can see them gathered," continues Mr. Taylor, 
" as they were many an evening. 

"The service is ended, but the members of the little 
congregation do not seem inclined to disperse. 

* From Ning-hai the good work spread still farther southwards, 
and in the summer of 1873 a room was rented in the city of 
Tien-t'ai, and a preacher stationed there. Interest was aroused, 
and blessing given ; and the little church thus formed still con- 
tinues to grow in numbers and usefulness. 


" * Is the work good in the Northern stations ? ' they ask. 
'Are you meeting with encouragement up there? And 
are not more missionaries coming out to labour amongst 
our own populous valleys?' 

" It is quite evident that they mean to have a missionary 
meeting in addition to the ordinary service to-night. 

" ' How are Mr. Moo and Mr. Sang getting on ? ' is the 
next question. * Have you any recent news of them ? ' 

** Mr. Moo and Mr. Sang ? Whoever can they be ? We 
have no missionaries of the name. But just now one of 
the old men in prayer asked God to bless these persons, 
and to use them to the conversion of some who might 
come out to China and preach the Gospel. The work of 
Messrs. Moody and Sankey — for to these evangelists our 
Chinese friends refer — has been followed with great interest 
by some of these dear Christians. 

" * Ah ! ' said one of them, * the Opium Traffic will soon 
be stopped if so many people are being converted in 

" Would that there were more probability of that hope 
being realised ! *' 


" T) EGARDING this foreigner, Stott, Cheh-kiang and 






deceive boys, and secretly poison them. such amazing ' 
wickedness and deceitful talk is, in comparison with 
the white water-lily religion, still more despicable. 
Therefore, fellow-citizens, with united effort drive 
HIM out; don't suffer him to dwell. Fellow brethren, 
with one heart and mind, drive him out; pull down 
his house, even one piece of timber don't allow to stand 
up. so that the place may have good luck and the 


So ran the placard on the city walls. One antici- 
pates as much in China missions. But *' regarding 
this foreigner, Stott," one would scarcely have 
expected so forcible and detailed a denunciation. 
He was alone. He was completely undefended. 
He was lame. What should Wun-chau, with its 
wealth and dignity, its hundred thousand inhabit- 
ants and exalted position as capital of a prefecture 
containing over a million, fear from this single help- 



less foreigner on crutches ? Rather might he tremble 
before its fulminations. 

" Are you really prepared to face China ? " Mr. 
Taylor had asked him long ago in England, when 
Stott had volunteered. " It might go hardly with 
you in a city riot : you could not run away ! " 

" Oh/* the young man replied quietly, " running 
away was not in my thoughts. I had quite expected 
that the lame should take the prey." * 

Many difficulties had gathered around him since 
that day. Wun-chau, which had become his centre 
in 1867, was anti-foreign in its prejudices ; and though 
the people generally were well disposed, a certain 
section did what they could to misrepresent his 
purposes and hinder the work. More than once 
trouble arose, and the crippled man's life and property 
were threatened by an angry mob. Yet, confident in 
the power of the Gospel, George Stott held calmly 
on, still always " quite expecting that the lame should 
take the prey." 

How could he leave his duty? In all Wun-chau 
city and prefecture, he was the only messenger of 
Jesus. His lame feet alone were " beautiful upon 
the mountains "... bringing glad tidings of peace. 

At one time roughs broke into the little mission- 
house. " You shall leave our city without delay ! " 
they cried. Facing the angry mob, he said quite 
calmly, " You see I am lame. I cannot run away. If 
you kill me you will probably be called to account ; 

• See vol. i., pp. 244, 347, etc. 


whereas if you let me alone you will find me harmless. 
I have come here only for your good." 

Astonished and perplexed by his courage, the 
crowd retired. 

So the lame man with the charmed life worked on. 
God's strength was made perfect in his weakness ; 
and when he went home to heaven on Easter Sunday, 
April 1889, after twenty- three years of devoted and 
successful service, Wun-chau lost one of its best 
known and most respected citizens ; and hundreds of 
Christian believers, gathered into churches he had 
been enabled to establish, mourned his death as that 
of a father indeed. 

He is gone now, and here we can but put together 
a few scattered memories of a life that was fragrant, 
a life whose single purpose he himself clearly 
uttered : — 

" This is what we live for^ and what we pray and 
hope for — to lead souls to Christ, If we fail in thisy 
our lives are a failure ; if successful here^ tfun our 
lives are a success. We want to lay up riclus for 
eternity^ and to put jewels in the Saviour^ s crown'' 

They were uphill days to begin with. 

" Once," wrote Mr. Stott, " I fell very short of funds, 
so much so that I had not a single dollar in my possession. 
I was absolutely without money for fully three weeks, and 
had nearly twenty people in the house. How were they to 
be fed ? ... It is one of our well-known principles never 
to incur debt, no matter what may happen. My money 
was all gone, and our supplies also were nearly exhausted. 


Well, just at this time, a man of whom I had bought rice 
on several occasions came to me and said : — 

" ' Mr. Stott, how is it you have not been in to order rice 
of late ? Yours must be nearly done.' 

"*The rice is. almost finished,' I answered, * but I cannot 
order any more just now.* 

" * Why ? ' queried my friend. 

"'Well, if you must know, simply because I have no 
money to pay for it.' 

" Soon after that the man sent us, as a gift, two loads 
of rice, and three thousand cash, equal in value to ten or 
twelve shillings. 

"Before very long, however, this also was at an end, and 
the money spent ; and still no help had reached me. But 
when these supplies were exhausted the same kind friend 
again met our need. Words would fail to tell the joy I 
had in God during those days. I shall remember, I think, 
as long as life remains, how I have sat sometimes for 
hours together alone in my room, and lifted up my heart 
to Him, and felt almost like stretching out my hands to 
embrace the dear Lord Jesus Christ. I certainly had 
some of the nearest approaches to God during those twenty- 
one days that I have ever experienced. My heart was kept 
in perfect peace. I think I never once doubted that help 
would come. But while waiting thus, before I had received 
it, a letter reached me from Mr. Berger, with the informa- 
tion that the lady who was to become my wife had already 
started from England, and by the time the news arrived 
would probably be more than half-way on her journey to 
China. Some perhaps might think that this was not a 
very bright prospect upon which to marry. But God was 
faithful still ; and before the vessel could reach Shanghai, 
all my needs were abundantly supplied." 


was early in 1870 that Miss Ciggie arrived, and 


from that time Mn Stott was no longer single-handed. 
Full of hope and courage, and with many bright 
anticipations for the future, the young couple returned 
from Ningpo, after their marriage, to the sphere 
which they believed appointed them of GOD. Nothing 
but this deep sense of their Divine call to the work 
of evangelising Wun-chau could have sustained them 
through the years that followed, or kept them from 
fleeing, again and again, when their lives were in 
imminent danger, and all hope of peaceful settlement 
in the city seemed gone. 

At the time of the Tien-tsin massacre every effort 
was made to eject them. 

** Crowds of excited people came daily," he wrote, " and 
wandered all over the place, examining closely every corner 
to find traces of children's bodies said to be packed away 
in boxes. 

" * How many of your companions have been compounded 
into medicine?' our schoolboys were asked many times a day. 

" * Such talk is rubbish,' they answered. But no one 
believed them. 

"Sometimes a compassionate man would sigh deeply, 
and remark, * Poor boys ! How much to be pitied ! You 
see he has drugged them, too. What terrible medicine it 
must be that so blinds them to their danger ! ' 

" When the excitement became general, I had to call on 
the Mandarin and request a proclamation, which he gave. 
It had a quieting effect on the crowds, and by-and-by we 
were able to move about more freely." 

Towards the end of 1870 Mr. Jackson came to 
help in Wun-chau, and a new chapel was opened. 
From that time the work began to look more hopeful. 


The people seemed less prejudiced, and not a few 
heard the Word gladly. 

Brightest among the early converts was one man 
who had been a fortune-teller. Religiously inclined, 
he had tried almost every system of belief within his 
knowledge, but without finding peace of heart. He 
seemed to receive the Gospel the first time he heard 
it, and it gave him rest. His earnestness in telling 
the good news to others was a great encouragement. 
Sometimes in the chapel, unable to restrain the fulness 
of his heart, he would come up to the platform and 
ask to be allowed to speak ; and often in the silence 
of night he was known to spend hours in prayer. 
His geomancy was abandoned ; his sibylline books 
burned; and for a time he had great difficulty in 
supporting his wife and children. After his baptism 
he became Mr. Jackson's most useful assistant. 

Another interesting conversion, proving the power 
of Christ to break even the strongest fetters, was 
that of a Buddhist priest who became a bright, true 

Passing along the streets of Wun-chau, this man's atten- 
tion was first attracted by the ever-open bookshop. He 
ventured in to look at the foreign literature, made some 
purchases, and asked many questions about the religion of 
Jesus. The native assistant did not attach much import- 
ance to his apparent interest, thinking it all but impossible 
for a man in his position to receive the Truth. But later 
on the priest came again. 

" I want to buy some more books,* he said gravely. " I, 
too, believe in Christ." 


It was true. Relinquishing his livelihood in the idol 
temple, he supported himself as a farmer in his native 
village — a humble follower of the Nazarene. 

He came frequently to Wun-chau, asking to be received 
into the church ; and after due probation was accepted and 
baptised, his life giving cause for unmixed thankfulness. 
One stormy day, he was on his way by passenger boat to 
attend the Communion service of the coming Sabbath in 
the city, bringing with him two idols to present to the 
missionaries. A gale arose, and within sight of Wun-chau 
the boat was suddenly capsized. Twenty-six of the pas- 
sengers, including this dear brother, were lost. 

Probably none of Mr. Stott's undertakings proved 
more fruitful than his boys' school. This training 
ground for Christian lads had been one of his first 
efforts, and grew into quite a spiritual nursery. 
Almost all the best helpers connected with the later 
developments of that now extensive work trace the 
dawn of their spiritual life to the time when they 
came under the kindly influences of the school. 

One of the first boys who gave much sign of 
promise was a poor, delicate, orphan lad, brought 
to Mr. Stott by his elder brother, a confirmed opium 
smoker. He was about fifteen, and partially para- 
lysed, " a ragged, blank -faced boy with straw 
sandals." We have before given, in Mr. Stott's own 
words, the story of his remarkable mental and 
spiritual development, and the bright Christian 
testimony he bore as years passed on,* when the 

* Vol. i., p. 351. 



poor, crippled, destitute boy became, by the grace of 
God, a man of rare gifts, and still rarer grace. He 
has now for many years ably filled the office of 
pastor in the Wun-chau church, respected and 
beloved alike by all who know him. 

Of another of the boys in this school Mr. Stott 
records a pleasant little story that shows how much, 
even in China, a child's testimony may be used for 


" This little fellow was one day watching the crowds of 
people engaged in their devotions in a large idol temple. 
His attention was particularly attracted by one old man who 
was busy worshipping and chanting prayers before all the 
idols in turn. The boy went up and stood beside him, and 
when an opportunity occurred, he said, — 

" * Venerable grandfather,' a term of great respect, * these 
idols cannot see you, or hear the prayers you offer. Why 
not worship the living God in heaven, who has given you 
food and raiment all these years, and by whose power and 
goodness we live ? ' 

" The old man seemed startled, and gazing earnestly at 
the lad, he said, — 

" * Where can I go to find such a Being ? ' 

" The boy then quoted a Chinese proverb, which runs, 
* Three feet above your head is God ! ' and went on to tell 
about the love that sent Jesus to be our Substitute. The 
old man caught at the word * Substitute ' as if he felt that 
that was what he needed. He came with the lad to our 
Mission-house, and the native preacher talked to him, at 
length. Day after day he returned to hear more, and finally 
took away his belongings from the temple in which he was 
staying, and brought them to the chapel, where he remained 
for a time. 


" * This doctrine is really precious/ he said to the lad 
one day. * I must let my old wife hear it. You come 
with me, and tell the old mother all you have said to me/ 

" They went, and the boy found the f old mother ' quite 
as easy to instruct as her husband had been ; and with this 
advantage, that she had a better memory, and so recollected 
more clearly the truths she heard. He told them that they 
ought to thank God for their food before every meal,. and 
taught them what to say. Sometimes the * old father ' would 
forget, but the *old mother' always reminded him> even, 
after he had begun to eat, upon which he would promptly 
lay down his basin of rice, and chopsticks, and ask God to 
forgive him for forgetting before proceeding with his usual 

" He and the * old mother ' have taken a great liking for 
the boy. They are not poor people, and have treated him 
very kindly. He has been to their house twice, and the 
old man has been here several times. I like him much, and 
think he is sincere. We earnestly pray that the truth may 
find a lasting lodgment in his heart, and in that of his aged 
wife also." 

A prayer, that was fully answered, for both these dear 
old people became earnest Christians, joined the Church, 
and after a consistent walk and testimony entered peace- 
fully into rest. The 'lad who was the means of leading 
them to Jesus is now with them in the presence of the 
King. He grew up to be a useful helper. But a cold, 
caught while preaching in the open air, led to consumption, 
and in 1887 he died, leaving a bright testimony to the keep- 
ing grace of God. 

Self-diffusive, like light or heat, the Gospel once 
fairly planted in any given spot has a tendency to 
spread far beyond its original bounds. It would 
be sad indeed if its quickening efficacy were confined 


to cities where the missionary is found. By the 
young converts it is usually carried abroad, and often 
may be working in distant places long before the 
foreign teacher is at all aware of it. 

Little more than five years after Mr. Stott first 
settled in Wun-chau, and when the believers there 
were still comparatively few, tidings reached him 
that some had received the Gospel in the neighbour- 
ing city of Bing-yae — an important place, distant 
about fifty miles, and situated in the midst of a 
populous plain. From a high hill beyond the city 
the mountainous boundary of the neighbouring pro- 


vince of FUH-KIEN can be descried, and not far away, 
eastward, lie the coast and the island-studded sea, 
broken into narrow inlets and charming bays, and 
open to the distant reaches of the broad ocean's ebb 
and flow. In Bing-yae Mr. Stott found two dis- 
ciples of Christ — a scholar and a shopkeeper — 
desiring baptism. From this little beginning de- 
veloped a promising work. Towards the close of 
1874 an out-station was opened there, and after some 
years a foreign missionary was assigned to the dis- 
trict. Very many souls have since been gathered 
in, and the church now numbers over a hundred 

At Dong-ling, another out-station opened subse- 
quently, there are now about two hundred converts ; 
and every Sunday, in districts from two to more than 
twenty miles distant from Wun-chau, the Gospel is 
being preached by native evangelists, of whom the 
majority are unpaid. 

One very cheering development during recent years 
has been the large and encouraging work amongst 
women and girls that has grown up around Mrs. 
Stott and her helpers. To reach the women of Wun- 
chau seemed at first a hopeless task. Timid, preju- 
diced by atrocious rumours, and far too afraid of the 
missionary's wife to venture near the station, nothing 
would persuade them to come to her ; and it was 
long ere she could gain an entrance into their houses 
for even the briefest visit. Patiently and prayerfully 
Mrs. Stott worked on, until by degrees she was able 


to make her way with comparative freedom in all 
parts of the city; but at the end of seven, years it 
was sad indeed to realise that only one woman had 
been led to believe in jESUS. 

At that time Mrs. Stott accompanied her husband 
upon a much-needed furlough. While in England 
she constantly sought prayer for the women of Wun- 
chau, and upon returning in 1878, great was her joy 
to find "two who seemed interested." These, and 
the one Christian, formed her little congregation, and 
sbe began to teach them regularly, going week by 
week to their homes. This meant no less than three 
cottage meetings, with a united audience of only five ! 
But Mrs. Stott was not discouraged. Hopefully and 
steadily she persevered, until at last her prayers were 
more than answered, and she could say of three of 
this little company, — 

** They, were the finest Christian women I have 
known anywhere ; a perfect joy to me.'* . 

Subsequently these bright young converts became, 
in their turn, earnest soul-winners, and the nucleus of 
a large and increasing band of women, that now 
gladden the hearts of those who so long and patiently, 
laboured for their salvation. 

Of his own more, recent efforts in Wun-chau, Mr. 
Stott used to say that he had specially sought to 
fulfil the duties of a pastor, endeavouring, as far 
as possible, to make the natives evangelists. As 
little churches were formed iri outlying districts, he 
visited them month by month ; but one of his guiding 


principles always was : — " Never open a station if you 
can help it ; rather leave new places to open them- 

Inadequately, at best; can this brief survey picture 
the life of the lame preacher of Wun-chau, a man 
God-sent and God -honoured. His post was a hard 
one. After eight years of suffering and service in 
that great heathen city he still bore at times the 
rtame of "the hated foreigner." 

"I learn/' he wrote in 1875, **that my name has been 
given in to the officials in conjunction with those of certain 
coiners of false money, who, when they were caught, 
declared that I had a large share in the matter, and all 
the city is consequently in a ferment. 

" Such reports greatly retard the progress of thd work. 
I hardly think that any could go beyond these poor Chinese 
in evil speaking. Not long ago, for instance, a money shop 
was robbed — at the instigation of the foreigner ! Then a 
rumour got abroad that the foreigner had predicted that 
a great calamity was to overtake the south gate quarter. 
Many families moved away, and when the dreaded night 
arrived most of the people sat up worshipping their idols. 
Then a succession of fires occurred, with which, as rumour 
had it, the hated foreigner was concerned, having predicted 
that the quarter between the east and west gates of the city 
would be burned down. If a murder or a robbery has 
taken place, the perpetrAtors are certainly hid in the 
foreigner's house, and the Mandarins must not go in to 
look for them. All the year round such rumours as these, 
and many a hundred times worse, are abroad. I sometimes 
wonder if they will ever weary, or fail of material to talk 


"One Sunday afternoon, when preaching in the chapel 
to a large audience, I looked once or twice at my watch. 
Some one asked his neighbour what it was that I took out 
of my pocket, and what I was looking at it for ? Another 
replied that it was a * hocus-pocus instrument/ by which I 
could tell how many people, and to what extent, would be 
* hocussed ' by my preaching ; and that when the desired 
number had been * hocussed ' to the desired extent I 
should stop ! I did not know of this until some time 
afterwards, when I went to the country and found the 
district full of it. No one unacquainted with the Chinese 
could understand the force of such nonsense upon the 
people. The wilder the reports the more eagerly they are 

" For some weeks past I have spent several hours every 
day in the chapel, and have met men from almost every 
part of the district. They have just gathered in a bountiful 
harvest, and have come to the city to buy clothing, etc., 
for their families. As they pass along the street they 
cannot but see me sitting in the chapel, and many come 
in to look at the barbarian. Thus I obtain frequent 
opportunities of speaking for Jesus, and numbers of these 
men carry away with them our Christian books and tracts. 
Amongst those who thus come and listen to the Truth, 
many would gladly know more, but do not get another 
opportunity. I hope to take the names and addresses of 
the most promising, and get some one to find them out 
who will try to lead them to the Saviour. 

" This is what we live for, and what we pray and hope 
for — to lead souls to Christ. If we fail in this our lives 
are a failure ; if successful here, then our lives are a success. 
We want to lay up riches for Eternity, and to put jewels in 
the Saviour's crown. 

" It is one of my greatest enjoyments, a luxury unknown 
in England, when the moon is nearly full, to sit for an 


hour or so in the courtyard with the dear natives, and have 
quiet talk with our faces heavenward. 

"What this great, good land would be, \( inhabited by 
a Christian people, who can tell ? But as it is, the curse 
rests heavily upon it. Many of the customs of the people 
are of a very degrading nature. But the Chinese, if only 
Christianised, are capable of doing and of being much. 
What a blessed thing to see the two hundred and fifty 
millions of this great people all worshipping and serving 
Christ Jesus as Lord and Saviour! Oh, when shall that 
day dawn?" 

Crt AFTER Vir. 


A BO VE is Iieaven ; below Hang-chau and Su-chau: 
Thus concisely the Chinese proverb summarises' 
things celestial and terrestrial in seven words, which 
in the Empire of the East leave nothing to be desired. 
To Western minds, unfortunately, while heaven is 
clearly evident, Hang-chau is not quite so apparent 
or self-assertive. Readers of our first volume will 
recollect the city with its mediaeval fame and modern 
population of over half a million — with, too, its little 
household on the Sin-k'ai Lung, where the pilgrim 
tent of the Inland Mission was pitched for the first 
time.* The little church that sprung up there was 
long and ably guided by Mr. J. McCarthy, and when 
in 1872 he was called farther afield it passed into 
the care of the devoted Wang Lae-djiin — first of the 
C. I. M. churches under a purely native pastorate. 

On the accompanying sketch-map Hang-chau will 
be seen near the famous city of Ningpo, in the 
comparatively well-evangelised province of Cheh- 
KIANG, where the Inland Mission found its pied-d-terre. 
Directly beyond it, inland, lie the great provinces of 
GaN-HWUY and KlANG-Sl. Our last three chapters 

* Vol. i., pp. 288-3C», etc. 


have touched upon early developments in some of the 
first mission' centres in Cheh-KIANG. In this we take 
a brief glance, at pioneering efforts in these great 
spheres immediately beyond.  

Pioneers in GAN-HWUY and KlANG-Sl. How 

much the words recall ! Again ^stands out before us 

that lonely, rugged figure, Duncan, the tall young' 

Scotchman, whose race so soon was run." ' His. wa^ 

• Vol. i„pp. 339-3+6. ' 


the privilege of opening Nan-king, the second largest 
city in China, to the Gospel, the honour of first 
bringing to this mighty southern capital news of the 
redemption of " all men every where." His was the 
onerous duty, later on, of also maintaining work in 
the capital of Gan-HWUY, a fortnight's journey 
westward ; the solemn responsibility of being at 
Nan-king the only missionary in a city numbering 
half a million people, and in Gan-HWUY the only 
labourer in a vast province peopled with ten million 
souls* Scarcely six years of labour, and he was 
called away. Failing health compelled him to take 
the journey home. Unfit to stay, but most unwilling 
to leave his little flock without a shepherd, he sailed 
one autumn day in 1872. 

" I shall come back to China," was his hope and 
his conviction. But GOD willed otherwise. 

Surrounded on all hands by heathen crime and 

• Gan-king, the capital of Gan-hwuy, was entered with the 
Gospel by Messrs. Meadows and Williamson in 1868 (see vol. i., 
p. 389). In 1871 failing health and other claims necessitated 
the departure of these first workers to the coast. 

"Poor Gan-HWUY, nearly as large as England, and very 
populous, without one single church, chapel, or meeting-house, 
excepting our solitary station at the capital ; without one 
Christian day school or Sunday School ; without one book-shop 
where copies of God's Word could be purchased ; poor, needy 
Gan-HWUY, had to lose, for the time being, its only missionary. 
Mr. Duncan, of Nan-king, undertook to give half or more of his 
time to superintend the work of a native helper at Gan-king, and 
to itinerate in the province as far as circumstances would permit. 
More than this we were unable to do from want of men." — From 
Occasional Paper^ No. 30. 


darkness, his little band of Christians held fast to their 
new faith. But their first friend and teacher, the man 
who, in God's strength, had done and suffered so 
much that they might know of CHRIST, never returned 
dtjgaAn to work amongst them. 

Almost to the last his great desire and expectation 
was that he might go back once more to China ; and 
towards the closing hours, when his mind wandered 
slightly, he would fancy himself there, and spoke of 
some of the natives by name. 

But as God reckons service, George Duncan's 
work was done, though he was only twenty-nine 
when he died.* 

Mr. McCarthy, of Hang-chau, was called to take 
his place, and settled at Gan-king, now among the 
best known of all our Mission centres, and the seat of 
the young men's Training Home. It was a small 
church in those days, but one that soon developedf 
through his labours and those of his native helpers, 
one of whom was the devoted Tsiu Sien-seng of 
Ningpo. Ta-t'ung, two days' boat journey down the 
Yang-tsi, was occupied early in 1873; and a few 
months later the busy city of Wu-hu, still farther along 
the great river. In the autumn of 1874 the work was 
again extended, and T'ai-'ping and Ch'i-chau, two 

• At Torquay, on February 12th, 1872, of rapid consumption. 

f Four of the Hang-chau out-stations, bordering upon, or 
actually within the province of Gan-hwuy, were transferred to 
the supervision of Gan-king ; the two most important of which, 
Hwuy-chau and Kwang-teh-chau, are now worked as separate 
stations, with resident missionaries of their own. 



important prcfectural cities that had both suffered 
severely during the troubles of the rebellion, were 
reached. Baptisms at Wu-hu cheered the mission- 
aries ; and as Mr. McCarthy travelled from place to 
place in his large parish 
he found good openings . 
for the Gospel, and not 
a little to encourage in 
the near future of the 
work. It was a parish 
worth spending time 
and strength upon— a 
sphere that we com- 
mend to the considera- 
tion of volunteers for 
the home ministry. He 
was the only pastor 
among ten million 
souls. His chaise was 
the whole province o( 
Gan-HWUV, where for 
sixteen years the 
China Inland Mission 
laboured alone for 

Such were the pioneers of Gan-HWUV. 

Populous KlANG-sl, its neighbour to the south, 

was also the scene of wide-spread itinerations at this 

time. Finely sitiiatcd upon the Yang-tsi river, about 

five hundred miles above Shanghai, the important 


city of Kiu-kiang gives access to the interior of this 
far-reaching and beautiful province, upon whose 
northern boundary' it stands. The Rev. V. C. Hart, 
an American missionary, had been first to commence 
permanent efforts in this place, and for some time 
after Mr. Cardwell followed him in 1869, they were 
the only Protestant workers in the whole province-^ 
a region far larger than England and Wales, contain- 
ing a population of not less thaa fifteen millions. 
Two missionaries, and at the eleven native 
Christians — altogether not one man to a million of 
the heathen around them ! Well might they meet 
weekly for prayer, realising how great was the task 
before them, and their need of Divine wisdom and 

KlANG-Sl'S pioneers did their best to compass the 
wide charge that fell to their lot. During 1871 and 
1872 Mr. Cardwell made three long evangelistic 
journeys to the far south, east, and west, visiting more 
than a hundred cities, towns, and villages, in none of 
which — as far as he could tell — had the Gospel ever 
been proclaimed. He sold upon these journeys more 
than fifteen thousand Scripture portions and tracts, 
many being purchased by literary men and officials. 
He stayed twice at Nan-ch'ang Fu, the capital, 
travelling down the Kan river as far as to Wan-gan 
Hien ; turned westward eight days' journey towards 
the Hu-NAN border, up a rocky river full of rapids, to 
the little town of Yung-sin beautifully situated at the 
foot of a treble range of hills running up six thousand 


feet in height ; visited the important cities of Kih-gan, 
Lin-kiang, and Fu-chau ; and explored also the 
Po-yang lake, and the Kwang-sin river giving access 
to the eastern portions of the province. 

In the spring of 1872, several candidates for 
baptism cheered Mr. Cardwell's heart. Two of them 
came from the city of Gan-ren, near the mouth of the 
Kwang-sin river. This important place, with the 
neighbouring city of Kwei-k'i and the busy market of 
Ho-k'eo, farther up the same fine stream, were in- 
fluenced for Christ by his efforts ; and in all three 
there are prosperous and growing churches to-day. 
Later on, the care of the young converts and of a 
school for boys in Kiu-kiang, prevented Mr. Cardwell 
from devoting so much time to itineration, important 
though he felt it to be. 

And here, for the present, we must leave the 
unfolding story of KlANG-SI, thankful for this " day 
of small things," from which so much, in the not- 
distant future, was to grow. 



THUS, then, we reach the close of the year 1874, 
and near the termination of a period charac- 
terised by extension and change, both in the Home 
and China departments of the Mission. But before 
referring to the steps of its final and most important 
advance, we cannot but notice to the glory of GOD 
some very marked providences in connection with 
the way in which, its needs were daily met by Him 
upon whose faithfulness alone His servants were 
satisfied to rely. Writing from Shanghai during the 
summer of this year, Mr. Hudson Taylor enters into 
a measure of detail upon this subject, mentioning to 
one much interested in the work some of the trials of 
faith, by which the Lord had strengthened the hearts 
of His servants and proved His presence with them. 
We subjoin the letter in full : — 

"In TIte Christian sheet almanac for this year, 
the text, * Casting all your care upon Him, for He 
careth for you,' is printed in large type. Upon re- 
ceiving it I felt that it was a message from GOD to 
my soul, and I have carried the almanac about with 

VOL. II. 97 7 


me in all my journeys, putting it up here and there 
as I have sojourned for a longer or shorter time, to 
keep the text before my eyes. Often has it proved 
a word in season. May it be such to you ; for there 
are few of us, I expect, who have not some cares, 
and we are too prone to fail in casting them a// on 
Him who cares for us. 

"You would be much interested could I tell you 
how, during the past six months, the LORD has shown 
His care in the matter of Mission funds. But this 
would take too long. I have, however, just made up 
and sent home a copy of the accounts for last quarter ; 
and with them before me, while the incidents are still 
fresh in my memory, I will give you some details of 
the pecuniary history of this briefer period. You will 
see that it would have been one of constant and 
wearing anxiety, but for the privilege, the precious 
resource of casting the daily and hourly burdens upon 
the Lord. As it is. His love has made it a time of 
much peace. 

" You may scarcely realise that our work is now 
so extensive that it cannot be carried on, without 
much difficulty and trial, at a cost of less than one 
hundred pounds a week. This may seem a large 
sum, but ours is a large work. We have more than 
fifty buildings — houses, chapels, and schools — to keep 
in repair, and for the majority of these we have also 
to pay rent. More than a hundred labourers are sup- 
ported, including native helpers. If to these be added 
the children of the missionaries, the native boys and 


girls in the boarding schools, and students, there are 
seventy more mouths to fill daily, seventy more 
persons to clothe. I need scarcely say that the 
travelling expenses involved in the work in China, 
now extended to five provinces, are not small ; in 
addition to those incurred by the return of invalided 
missionaries to England. To meet these demands 
with one hundred pounds a week requires the utmost 
care and frugality. My own expenses for all pur- 
poses at home and here are independent of Mission 

" During the months January to March I received 
from the Hon. Secretaries of the Mission only 
£^2 IS. They were distressed at being able to 
send so little, and committed the matter in earnest, 
prayer to GOD, as we did here. Besides this, re- 
mittances were sent, through me, to various members 
of the Mission in China direct, to the value of £260. 
These sums, not being in any sense donations to the 
Mission, cannot be entered in our general account, 
though they so largely help in the work. Still, 
including eVen these, the total receipts were far less 
than the outlay, so that the balances of the previous 
quarter being exhausted, there were no funds at most 
of our stations by the end of March. 

" On making up my Mission accounts on April 1st, 
I found that I had 25 dollars, 29 cents (about 
£S los.) in hand ; and I knew that most, if not 
all, the members of the Mission, must be urgently 
needing funds for their own daily requirements, 


as well as for the expenses of the work. 1 con- 
stantly cast these cares on GoD, and hoped that 
when I reached Shanghai I should find His answer 

in the shape of remittances; for as I was travelling 
my letters had to await me there. On the 7th we 
arrived, and received the letters of .several mails. 
You may imagine the Interest with which, after 
seeking the Lord's blessing upon them, they were 
read. I found a remittance from the Secretaries of 
little over £21, consisting wholly of special donations — 
£y for two of the missionaries, and the remainder 
made up of .small sums for the support of particular 
native helpers. I further learned that there were no 
funds at home for the general purposes of the Mission. 
Now I knew that ;£soo would have been instantly 


absorbed ; that one hundred and seventy mouths had 
daily to be fed ; that the life of Mrs. Stevenson 
appeared to hang on an immediate return to England ; 
and that there were no more mails due for nearly 
a fortnight. Realising all this, need I say that I re- 
quired the precious resource of again casting a// the 
care on Him who cares for each one of us ? In so 
doing, the assurance that His grace was sufficent for 
me and for each of the needy ones, filled my heart 
with love and joy. 

" Next morning I awoke about five o'clock, and 
found the burden coming back again ; but, in accord- 
ance with Phil. iv. 6, I made my requests known 
to God, and found the promise of the verse follow- 
ing fulfilled. Some of the passages, too, which 
occurred in the course of my morning's reading 
seemed to have been written on purpose for me. 
When my dear wife awoke I told her of the 
assurance I felt that help was at hand, though I had 
not the least idea of how the LORD would .send it. 
And so it proved. Before noon a letter reached me, 
which, having been addressed to Ningpo instead of 
Shanghai, arrived some days later than the letters 
of the same mail which had come direct. It con- 
tained cheques for me to forward inland to many 
of the members of the Mission, to the value of ^^260, 
besides .several other sums. These kind gifts greatly 
cheered me, and relieved me of anxiety concerning 
the personal wants of those to whom they were 
sent, though they still left an urgent need, about 


which we continued to wait upon GOD. I asked 
the prayers of some of the members of the Mission 
with special reference to Mr. Stevenson and his 
family ; and in the full conviction that the LORD 
A^^ould supply the need, their outfits for the voyage 
were proceeded with. 

"On the 13th of April one of our missionaries 
put into my hand one hundred dollars as a first 
contribution towards the Stevensons' expenses home, 
with the words : — 

*' ' At sometime or other the Lord will provide. 
It hi ay not be my time, 
'' It may -not be thy time, 

But yet in His own time 
The Lord will provide.' 

" On April 22nd I received from the Honorary 
Secretaries a remittance of over ;^loo, but, like the 
previous one, it was all special donations, and left 
more than nine-tenths of the needy objects un- 
touched. At first I felt rather disappointed, till I 
reflected that GOD had ordered the fonn in which 
it came, as well as the fact of its coming ; and that 
consequently it must be both right and best. And 
so indeed it proved in more ways than one, ere many 
days had passed, reminding me of the words : — 

" * Judge not the Lord by feeble sense, 
But trust Him for His grace,' 

and shaming my temporary disappointment. Part 
of this money was used to refund to one of the 


members of the Mission 190 dollars which he hdd 
advanced before. Adding 10 dollars to it, he now 
gave me the 200 towards the Stevensons' home- 
going, together with ;^is more. Later, another 
member gave 50 dollars ; three gave 10 dollars each ; 
another 220 dollars ; completing, within half a tael, 
the sum required for the passages to Marseilles, and 
this deficiency was soon made up by one of the 
previous donors. For travelling expenses in China, 
and through France, our brother was supplied by 
other kind friends ; so that all was ready one mail 
before he was able 'to complete his preparations 
and reach Shanghai. Thus once more our confident 
expectations were not put to shame. 

" At the risk of some repetition, I may quote from 
a letter written to one of the members of the Council 
about this time : — 

" * After proving GOD's faithfulness for many years, 
I can testify that times of want have ever been times 
of special blessing, or have led to them. Never has 
the work entailed more real trial, or so much exercise 
of faith, as recently. The sickness of our beloved 
sister, Miss Blatchley, the needs of my dear children, 
the state of our Mission funds, the changes required 
to allow of some going home, of others coming out, 
and of the further extension of the work, and many 
other things not easily expressed in writing, would 
be crushing anxieties if we were to bear them. But 
the Lord bears us, and them too ; and makes our 
hearts so very glad in Himself alone — not in Himself 


plus a bank balance — that I have never known 
greater freedom from anxiety and care. 

"*The other week, when I reached Shanghai, we 
were in great and immediate need. The English and 
French mails were both in, and had brought no remit- 
tance of general funds, and there were none at home 
to remit. I cast the burden on the LORD. Next 
morning, when awaking, I felt a little inclined to 
trouble ; but He gave me the word — " I know their 
sorrows ; and I am come down to deliver them " ; and, 
" Certainly I will be with thee " ; and before 6 A.M. I 
was as sure that help was at hand as when, at noon, 
I received a letter containing more than i!^300. 
Now our need is again great and urgent ; but God 
is greater and more near ; and because He is, and is 
w/iai He is, all will be, must be well. Oh ! the joy 
of knowing the living GOD, of seeing the living GOD, 
of resting on the living GOD ! I am but His agent : 
He will look after His own honour, provide for His 
own .servants, and supply all our need according to 
His own riches ; you helping by your prayers, and 
by your * work of faith and labour of love.' 

" But to return. We were kept waiting on GOD till 
May 5th. When a remittance of £\o^ odd was 
received from the Secretaries, of which £\00 was for 
the general purposes of the Mission, none but those 
who know what it is to bear the burdens of others 
can tell the joy with which we distributed this small 
sum, small as compared with the wants of more than 
forty stations. A kind friend augmented lit by a 


gift of 6 dollars on the same day, and 26 dollars 
were also forwarded to me, which had been given to 
support a girl in the boarding-school. On the 1 5th, 
222 dollars reverted to the funds, which had 
been temporarily appropriated in February to an 
object for which it was no longer required ; and 
Mr. Judd, on leaving Nan-king for Wu-ch*ang, was 
able to hand in over 240 dollars, a surplus of funds 
given him in December, and which had not been 
needed. In these ways, and by the sale of some 
stationery and profits on exchange, the most urgent 
necessities of May were met, leaving us. all the pro- 
mises of God to meet the expenses of June, and 
nothing else besides. 

" I asked urgent prayer of some of the brethren for 
;^500 to cover the manifest and unavoidable outlay 
of that month. Perhaps never in the history of the 
Mission have we a// been so low together. As it 
proved, the outlay of the month required above ;^ioo 
more than the sum I had named ; and therefore the 
Lord, who knows all our necessities better even than 
wc do, supplied this too. 

" From the Hon. Secretaries at home I received 
during the month a sum of over ;{!^500 ; and in China, 
in ways which I cannot now detail, 290 dollars, 75 
cents, besides. On making up the accounts to this 
date, I found that we had gained by exchange during 
the half year, including interest for a small fund given 
for building purposes, 200 dollars, 32 cents. The 
aggregate of these amounts came to about ;£^ioo. 


which was all additional to the money remitted from 
home ; so that not only were the current expenses of 
the month met, but Mrs. Cardwell and her children 
were able to return to England, a change which 
increasing prostration showed to be necessary, leaving 
me with a balance of i6s, on July 1st. 

"You will wonder how my dear fellow-labourers 
bore the trial connected with their respective stations 
and their own personal needs during this time ; and 
to show you how lovingly I am encouraged, and how 
these burdens are borne up before the LORD, I will 
give you some extracts from the letters of a few. 

" One writing on June 22nd says : — 

"* Yours of the 13th inst. came to hand two or three 
days ago, but the money did not arrive till this morning. 
Many, many thanks for it ; for, like the rest of the brethren, 
we have been hard put to it of late. Had it not been for 

the ;^i5 that gave us, I do not know what we should 

have done ; and even with that we found it difficult to 
make both ends meet. But, praise God, He has not 
allowed us to want. The money came most opportunely, 
both for our own use and for the work of the Church. We 
do pray for you — not talk to God about you, but pray ; and 
He knows it When you said, " Pray for ;^5oo for this 
month's expenses," the sum seemed so insignificant when 
we referred it to God, that I felt ashamed that we should 
think of it as a difficulty at all. God's inexhaustible riches 
rose up before my mind so vividly, that ;^5oo seemed no 
more to me than fi\e hundred stones in the street. I 
have not the slightest doubt that He will give you this, and 
much more, as soon as His time comes. What I have to 
watch against is impatience at waiting His time. 


" * Some little while ago I had a doctor's bill of 50 
dollars sent me. At the time I had only 8 dollars of 
my own in the world. However, I told the Lord all about 
it, and felt assured that He would provide, but I did not 
anticipate the way in which it would be done. Some 
unknown friend paid the bill ! Who it can be I have not 
the slightest idea. The Lord knows ; and I pray that He 
may reward and bless the one who has been so kind to us. 
Is not God faithful ? ' 

" From another station I received the following, 
dated June i6th : — 

" * Many thanks for your kind letter and the money, which 
I received safely this afternoon. My last cash (the twentieth 
part of a penny) was spent yesterday morning, and I was 
waiting on our Heavenly Father to-day for money to pay 
my teacher. Praise His holy Name, He still answers our 
prayers I How blessed it is to trust Him, and how restful 
the certainty that ** all things work together for good to them 
that love God/' ' 

•* Another, writing a week later, says : — 


" * The money order for arrived here to-day, and I 

believe it can be cashed to-morrow at the native banker's. 
. . . For the first time I was unable to send for the usual 
quantity of rice for my school children ; but neither they 
nor we have lacked one single meal. Our wants have all 
been supplied. I cannot help feeling glad that God has 
sent us this little trial ; our common need has drawn us 
nearer to each other, and at the same time nearer to Christ. 
Very earnest have been the prayers offered up for you, that 
the Lord would fulfil all your petitions, and grant you 
according to your own heart. We are a happy household, 
sympathising in one another's joys and 'sorrows ; conscious, 


too, with a glad consciousness, that Christ is King in 
home and heart.' 

" A fifth correspondent tells me that when the 
money I sent him on June I2th arrived, they had not 
a dollar left, and were praying for relief. * How 
gracious of the LORD,' he adds, * to hear our united 

" I might give you more quotations, but thesei 
suffice. ... * Because Thou hast been my help, 
therefore in the shadow of Thy wings will I rejoice.' " 

Such, then, were some of the difficulties that were 
permitted at this time to test with the pressure of 
an ever-growing need the distinctive principles upon 
which the Inland Mission had been founded — prin- 
ciples whose failure had been so confidently predicted 
by many from the beginning. These trials, however, 
with their corresponding vindication of the Lord's 
unfailing care, served only to strengthen the faith that 
He had given, and more than ever to confirm the con- 
fidence of His servants in the one great underlying 
truth upon which those principles are based — the truth 
that, at all times, and under all circumstances, " GOD, 
alone, is sufficient for GOD's own work." 




TIDE, 1874-1875. 

PECUNIARY difficulties, however, were by no 
means the most severe part of the discipline 
through which at this time the LORD was preparing 
the Inland Mission for coming extension and blessing. 
1874 to 1875 was a time of profound trial both in 
China and at home. The health of several of the 
Mission staff broke down ; the Hu-chau riot seriously 
endangered the lives of two of the workers ; and, 
saddest of all for the Mission as a whole — Emily 
Blatchley died. 

It is almost impossible in these days of careful 
organisation and division of labour in every depart- 
ment to realise how much the last loss meant. 
Twenty years ago the China Inland Mission had no 
English head-quarters' staff, no office, no clerks, no 
editorial or travelling secretaries, no workers set apart 
to represent China's needs at home. The Council 
assembled regularly and did everything in its power 
to meet the growing claims upon it, but its members 

— men of business, for the most part — were largely 



and necessarily absorbed in other affairs, and unable 
to devote themselves exclusively to the service of the 
C. I. M. During the first six years of the Mission 
Mr. and Mrs. Berger had been solely responsible 
for its direction at home.* Upon the formation of 
the Council, in 1871, Mr. and Mrs. Taylor being 
then in England, their little North London resi- 
dence — No. 6, Pyrland Road, Mildmay — naturally 
became the centre of the work. And when, in 
October 1872, they returned to China, leaving the 
house and children under the care of Miss Blatchley, 
no change was made in this arrangement. The 
anchor of the Mission once cast had found a long 

Emily Blatchley's experience in China as a member 
of the Lainmermuir party, and one of the little 
group that had passed through the Yang-chau riot, 
rendered her specially fit for the onerous charge that 
devolved upon her when she thus unofficially assumed 
the duties of Home Secretary. Though far from 
strong, she was a noble worker. Exceptionally gifted, 
and spiritual, she had passed through deep experi- 
mental training in the school of faith.f And such 
an one was needed to fill the post. For more than 
a year, single-handed in this department of the 
Mission, that young, devoted woman " held the 

Most heartily and gratefully must all friends of the 

• See vol. i., pp. 264, 450-456. 

t See vol. i., pp. 275-281, 304, 314, 320, 337, etc. 

THE TURN OF THE TIDE, 1874-1875. in 

Mission recognise and appreciate the helpfulness of 
the Council at this time and ever since. Never did 
any Mission possess more painstaking, competent 
advisers than the C. I. M. But, as all know well who 
are connected with the carrying on of similar efforts, 
not upon the outer group of warmly sympathetic but 
comparatively irresponsible helpers, does the heaviest 
charge devolve, but upon the few who stand at the 
centre and really do the work. The Mission's life is 
their life. They have no other. Were they not here 
they would be in the field. The burden of heathendom 
is on their hearts — all the more deeply often that they 
cannot themselves go forth into its darkness. Their 
souls are moved with longing for those who know 
nothing of a Saviour's love, but they cannot share 
the privilege of telling them of jESUS. Less direct, 
though no less needed, theirs is a hidden service 
dear to the Master, who knows it all. Steady, burden- 
bearing strength must be found at the heart of things, 
to meet with its regular non-intermittent pulse-beat 
the demands of the system and extremities. Lives 
must be buried here, consecrated lives, hard-working, 
noble, silent ; generously spent on details ; often 
unrecognised ; a human soul's libation poured out on 
petty cash and correspondence, great in the sight of 


Such a life was Emily Blatchley's at this time, as 
she bore the charge of house and children, corre- 
spondence, office duties, and was, in a word, factotum, 
sitting at her Secretary's desk. Day by day she 


worked on bravely and prayerfully, following with 
deep heart-sympathy each smallest shifting of the 
kaleidoscopic changes among the China mission* 
staff, receiving and acknowledging donations, counsel- 
ling as to candidates, writing cheery letters out of 
her own isolation to even lonelier workers far away, 
wading through closely written pages of the welcome 
China mail, extracting and preparing their contents 
for the press, addressing wrappers for the issue of the 
Occasional Paper of those days, welcoming returned 
missionaries, entertaining strangers, taking a helpful 
part in her earnest, spiritual fashion at the weekly 
prayer-meeting at Pyrland Road, carrying on the 
household, mothering the bairns, and all with failing 

In the early summer of 1874 her increasing phy- 
sical weakness necessitated the return of Mr. and 
Mrs. Taylor to England, and with a longing heart 
she looked forward to reunion with the loved friends 
whose home-coming would mean so much of personal 
joy and practical relief. For the work's sake alone 
it was more than well that they should come just 
now ; and her deep attachment to the leaders of the 
Mission made their arrival seem to the tired toiler 
doubly a " desired haven." 

As the long summer days brought warmth and 
brightness to the great city, their ship was on its w^ay 
to England's shores. 

"They will be here in a few weeks!" she said, 
with a sense of rest. 

THE TURN OF THE TIDE, 1874-1875. 113 

But before the travellers could reach London she 
had reached the City of GoD." 

The frail barque of her young life had anchored 
beyond all stormy seas, brought by Him to its 
"desired haven." 

Sad indeed was the trial that awaited the returning 
travellers when, at their journey's end, they learned 
that the friend and fellow-worker they had so much 
desired to meet once more had passed beyond the 
reach of earthly love or human help. And sorrow 

* Emily Blatchley died of consumplion, July 25Ih, 1874. 
VOL. II. 8 


was added to sorrow when a few days later Mrs. 
Rudland, of T'ai-chau, who, with her husband and 
children, had come by the same ship, was called 
away — the fifth member of the Lammermuir party 
to enter into rest 

Writing of the loss sustained through the death of 
Miss Blatchley, and of the position of the Mission at 
this crisis, Dr. Grattan Guinness well said : — 

" The most glorious triumphs of Christ are spiritual, and 
His noblest work is that wrought in the secret of the soul. 
Not the conquest of kingdoms, but self-conquest ; not the 
renunciation of anything merely external, but self-renuncia- 
tion ; not the consecration of substance, bu! self-consecration 
in the service of God and man — these are the hardest 
deeds to accomplish ; and the most Divine attainments in 
the world. They shine with the peculiar light of Calvary. 

" Emily Blatchley, though unknown to the world, was a 
true heroine, and an instance of this noble, CHRisx-like 
self-sacrifice for the good of others. Her memory is 
fragrant, for her life was consecrated to Christ and the 
salvation of the heathen. For His sake she took care of a 
litde flock, the children of the Rev. J. Hudson Taylor, of 
the China Inland Mission. She tended them in health 
and in sickness, at home and abroad, for years; and as 
long as health permitted was their only teacher. This she 
did to help forward the evangelisation of China, by setting 
Mr. and Mrs. Taylor as free as possible for directly 
missionary work. Not content with caring for Mr. 
Taylor's children, she became a Secretary of the Mission. 
She wrote in its interest thousands of letters ; she kept its 
accounts ; she edited its Occasional Papers ; she helped to 
bear its burdens ; she worked long hours, and often far on 
intoi'the night. • She not only toiled with head and hand, 

THE TURN OF THE TIDE, 1874.1875. 115 

but with heart, too, for she prayed for the Mission. She 
daily remembered its missionaries by name at the Throne 
of Grace, and pleaded continually its cause with God. She 
suffered, too. She 'endured hardness' when in China, 
and on her journeys, putting up with much discomfort. 
She ministered to her fellow-missionaries, and nursed them 
when they were sick. She bore the trial of her faith, and 
that of love as well ; for in the cause of Missions she 
sacrificed her heart's affections. And all this she did in a 
quiet, unpretending way, and with a calm perseverance 
w^hich continued to the end of her life. None could have 
given more to the work of God among the heathen than 
she did, for she gave all she had — herself. Blessed be God 
for the grace bestowed upon her, and for the everlasting 
rest into which she has entered ; for the grace which 
caused her to toil for Jesus, and then to sleep in Him. 

" Faithful friend of a feeble but heroic -^Mission, would 
that all its helpers were like-minded with thee ! Would 
that all those who have ministered to it pf their substance 
had as constant a memory of its wants as thine ! The 
China Inland Mission has no eloquent advocate of its 
claims. It has no denomination for its support It has 
no great names on which to rely. It is, therefore, -cast the 
more on God, and on the faithful love and help of the 
comparatively few who can appreciate the simplicity, faith, 
and devotedness which characterise its work m the interest 
of China's millions. But let those few remember that it is 
no small honour to be enabled to recognise and minister 
to the Master when He appears in the garments of weakness 
and poverty. 

" Friends of the China Inland Mission, a precious helper 
has just been removed from our midst; let us close our 
ranks, and seek to fill the gap. That Mission now needs 
our help more than ever ; let us prove ourselves worthy of 
the occasion. Let us help the work afresh, and let us 


persevere in helping it. Here, around this newly opened 
grave, let our interest in this work revive. 

** And help Thou, O Lord ; is not Thy Name inscribed 
upon its banner? Is not its song Ebenezer and its hope 
Jehavah'Jireh ? Bless, then, this Mission, and let the little 
one become a thousand, for Thy glory's sake." 

A prayer and prophecy in one. For GOD had 
greater things in store for His servants than any yet 
revealed. His purposes of blessing included develop- 
ments undreamed of even in the brightest anticipa- 
tions of the past. But, first, there must be lessons of 
humility, patience, and faith, and a deepened appre- 
hension of the utter weakness of the instrument, that 


the glory should be His alone, to whom only it is due. 

Emily Blatchley gone, the reins of the home 
department had to be gathered up by other hands. 
Mr. Hudson Taylor's presence made things look 
comparatively easy. He who knew every detail was 
here on the spot to take charge and manage matters. 

Manage matters ? 

Within a few weeks he himself, prostrate and suffer- 
ing, knew not if he should ever work again. For six 
months entirely laid aside through a serious injury to 
the spine, the result of a fall in the spring of the year, 
he was confined to his room and bed, a helpless, 
possibly a hopeless, invalid. 

Surely, then, the lowest ebb was reached. Bereaved 
and weakened by recent losses, with but few friends, 
and a restricted circle of influence, and with no voice 
to plead its cause, except with GOD, it almost seemed 

THE TURN OF TMt: Tlt)E, 1874-1S75. iii 

as though the Inland Mission must be forgotten 
amongst the many other and more prominent claims 
constantly pressing on the Church. No denomination 
was pledged to its support ; there were no means in 
hand to meet the needs of the forty-three stations and 
out-stations, with over sixty native helpers and thirty- 
five missionaries, in China, and no reserve funds to 
fall back upon should supplies fail. Its one trained 
helper, skilled in the daily executive, was in her 
quiet grave — never to work again. Its leader, utterly 
broken down, was, as he said, " unable to do anything 
but rejoice in GOD.'* 

Conception almost fails as we try to realise what 
that crisis must have meant in such a Mission. Daily 
work came as usual, requiring business ability for its 
immediate discharge, and the letters could only be 
brought to the bedside of the sick man who could not 
write a word. There was no office or clerk to dispatch 
correspondence or to issue the little magazine. In a 
word, there was nothing for the maintenance of the 
Mission in distant, man-forgotten China, nothing to 
ensure to-morrow's bread to the workers there, far less 
next week's supplies, except, as Paul puts it, some of 
the " things which are not," and — GOD. 

But God was there. 

" What a life of praise, and joy, and rest, we should all 
lead," wrote Mr. Taylor, " did we but fully believe in the 
wisdom and love of God, and gladly acquiesce in His will 
and way, casting every care on Him in trustful prayer. 

"It has been a great delight to me during this long 
illness to see how the Lord has met the daily need of His 

ii8 TH^ china inland MISSION. 

work, especially in regard to helpers. When lying ill in 
one room, with my dear wife also laid aside, for a time, in 
the next, often would ten, fifteen, twenty letters come in, re- 
quiring prompt attention. How were they to be answered ? 
Well, the Lord knew our need, and scarcely were the letters 
read, oftentimes, when some friend would call, volunteering 

*^ * Can I help you by writing an hour or two this morning ? ' 
would be the kind inquiry. 

" * Yes, indeed ! ' we gratefully respond ; * see what a 
number of letters have come in.* 

" If one who called thus in the morning could not stay 
long enough to finish all that needed to be done, another 
was sure to come in the afternoon, and perhaps one or two 
at night. Occasionally a young friend employed in a city 
office during the day would come round in the evening to 
do any needful book-keeping, or answer up letters not yet 
dealt with. So it continued day by day. Generally we had 
many letters ; but if, on the contrary, only a few came in, 
we said to ourselves, * Probably no one is able to help in 
the correspondence to-day,* which generally proved to be 
the case. 

** One of the happiest times in my life was that period of 
enforced inactivity, when one could do nothing but rejoice 
in the Lord, and wait patiently for Him, and see Him every 
day meeting all our need. And never, either before or 
since that time, was my correspondence so well kept in 
hand and answered up to date.'* * 

So day by day the help was given. But could it 
last on so? Could such a Mission live? There is no 

• After this came a time when more regular help was afforded, 
first by Mr. Stevenson, and subsequently by various candidates 
and students preparing for the field. 

THE TURN OF THE TIDE, 1874-1875. 119 

hint of giving up in any word from leader or from 
workers, but — how could they go on ? What was there 
to maintain them? Who was there to take charge, 
think, plan, exert himself, influence the torpid thou- 
sands of professing Christians who think so very 
lightly, if ever they think at all, of China and her 
needs ? How, in the survival of the fittest, the struggle 
for existence, so palpable, so pressing, even in Christian 
work, could this poor unknown Mission expect not to 
go with the weakest, to the wall ? 

But, on the other hand, how could it die with such a 
plea for existence as lay summed up in that one great 
word China? Two provinces, as large as England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, unreached before, had been 
opened up already by China Inland Mission pioneers.* 
Hundreds of converts gathered would be left unshep- 
herded, millions as yet ungathered would be hopelessly 
abandoned, were its little group of workers to retire. 
Leave China? Why, that meant to leave millions 
without Jesus Christ. In the districts longest 
evangelised, and nearest the coast, the missionaries 
were still only as one man to a million ; but inland 
one hundred and fifty millions^ in nine great provinces^ 
were dying without God ! 

"Close the unequal struggle ; abandon surely so 
forlorn a hope ! " Such would have been the verdict 
of prudent worldly-wisdom. But prudent worldly- 
wisdom would certainly never have started, and 
assuredly never have carried on the China Inland 

• Sec Ch^p^er VII. 



Mission. The well-considered dictates of. sober com- 
mon sense weigh with peculiar lightness in one side 
of the scale whose other side is balanced with the 
promises of GOD. Those feeble men and women held 
in their hands a lever able to move the world — its 
shaft their simple faith and prayer, its fulcrum the 

Thus the year drew to a close. Prayer-meetings 
and consultations still had to be held upstairs in the 
quiet room where Mr. Taylor continued to be the 
Lord's prisoner ; and during the last weeks of 1 874 
many were the seasons of communion with GOD 
about the needs of the still unreached millions of 
Inland China and the future of the Mission whose 
aim was their evangelisation. 

Certainly it seemed anything but a favourable 
opportunity for advance ! And yet the unutterable 
darkness of Inland China, and especially of the nine 
great and populous provinces in which no Protestant 
missionary had ever resided, pressed as a constant 
burden on the heart. And before long, definite plans 
began to form themselves in the quiet of that sick- 
room, where, amidst pain and weakness, the Lord's 
servant was being enabled to put into practice the 
precious lesson learned so long ago, and really ** to 
move man, through GOD, by prayer alone." • 

What was to be done that these nine, vast 
provinces, fully half as large as Europe, might have 
the Gospel ? What part would the Lord have the 

• See vol. i., p. 66. 

THE TURN OF THE TIDE, 1874-1875. 121 

little Inland Mission take, in spite of all apparent 
weakness and insufficiency, in this great work ? 

" Whatsoever He saith unto you, do it." 

And so, about Christmas time 1874, we find a 
remarkable little paper making its way into several 
of the leading Christian journals, containing a request 
for prayer — prayer that GOD would raise up during the 
coming year a band of eighteen men to go, two and 
two, into all the nine unevangeliscd provinces of Inland 

Eighteen men within one year? And to enter 
those distant, untravelled regions, hitherto destitute of 
the Gospel ? It seemed a bold request indeed ; and 
especially in view of the source from whence it came. 
Besides, Inland China could scarcely be considered 
open to even the itineration of foreign travellers, much 
less to their residence. For although passports had 
been nominally obtainable ever since the Treaty of 
T*ien-tsin in 1858, they had practically been rarely 
granted, and the great mass of the people were in total 
ignorance of the fact that foreigners were entitled to 
travel beyond the open ports. 

Yes, there are many difficulties and objections ; and 
those who make the request for prayer realise, better 
perhaps than any others, their own exceeding weak- 
ness and lack of visible resources for such an under- 
taking. And yet, GOD's time, they feel, has surely 
come ; and He says " Go " ! Can He not take up a 
worm, if needs be, to thresh mountains ? Prayer then, 
and faith in GOD for the Eighteen. 


" I have the fullest hope,*' wrote Mr. Hudson 
Taylor from his sick-room^" that GOD will enable us, 
during this New Year, 1875, to commence work in at 
least two or, three of these unoccupied provinces ; and 
I trust that shortly we may be able to announce the 
departure of missionaries for Burmah also, to under- 
take operations amongst the inhabitants of YuN-NAN 
to be extended, as GOD may open the way, to the 
adjoining districts of south-western China. 

" But, it may be asked, is it really possible, in the 
present state of the country, for our brethren to benefit 
the inhabitants of these remote regions ? Our risen 
Saviour has clearly commanded us to go forth into 
* all the world/ The difficulties, it is true, can scarcely 
be exaggerated ; but, * the people that do know their 
God shall be strong, and do exploits.* Will not our 
friends join us in asking for such men — and such 
only — as do know their GOD, to go to these teeming 
millions ? " 




** ^'^ '' w . 







WITH the prayer for the Eighteen, and in the 
confidence that they would be given, the 
friends of the Inland Mission bade farewell to 1874, 
parting at the same time from the familiar guide that 
had conducted them thus far through the Mission's 
early history-^the old Occasional Papers o{ the C. I. M. 
Four small octavo volumes, covering the story of our 
first ten years, lie by me as I write. Bound in sober 
brown, printed in plain type, and without pictures or 
ornamentation — ^just the simplest possible statement 
of the progress of affairs — these little old-time papers 
seem in themselves an epitome of the principles and 
practice of the work they represent. Their only 
illustration, an antiquity not without interest, was the 
highly ornamental cover-block, reproduced opposite. 
Cash accounts, several faintly tinted maps, and 
inserted slip-lists of the stations and missionaries, 
offer the only other variety to what might nowadays 
be called small, dull type, and uninteresting looking 



pages. Yet these pages were welcomed, prayed over 
and pondered, and did a deep, lasting work. Could 
any better proof be given of the earnestness and 
spirituality of the friends of the humble-minded 
pioneering Mission ? 

Dulncss, however, is not essential to devotion, and 
the growing Mission passed, at this juncture, out of 
the limited twenty- or thirty-page leaflet style of 
Occasional Papers into a missionary monthly of the 
popular quarto form. 

With the bright days of July 1875, the first number 
of this new periodical, bearing the title of China's 
Millions, made its appearance. It was destined to 
chronicle the wider pathway of coming years, to tell 
how the Lord fulfilled the expectations of His people, 
and in the midst of their weakness perfected His 
strength, multiplying their numbers, increasing their 
faith, and setting before them widely open doors. 

The last of the Occasional Papers (March 1875) 
contained a little slip printed in red, and headed 
" China vid Burmahl^ announcing that Mr. Stevenson 
and Mr. Henry Soltau* were about to start for 
Bhamd, to commence work there as a basis from 
which to reach YUN-NAN and western China. 

One element in the guidance which had led to the 
appeal of Christmas 1 874 for eighteen workers for the 
nine unevangelised provinces, had been the apparent 

* Recent Hon. Sec. of the China Inland Mission. See vol. i„ 



feasibility of carrying out a plan conceived ten years 
earlier, of entering western China by the Burmese 
route. Long abandoned as unworkable, this project 
was revived by means of an unexpected visit from a 
gentleman, interested in the subject. Some years 
before he had crossed the frontier between Burmah 
and YUN-NAN in company with a British expedition 
under Major Sladen, sent in 1868 to discover the 



possibilities of trade with western China. Scarcely 
had they entered YuN-NAN when the hostility of the 
hill tribes, combined with the disturbed state of the 
province, still in the throes of the prolonged Moham- 
medan rebellion, compelled them to retire, abandoning 
their intention of reaching Ta-li Fu, the capital of the 
insurrectionists. Since that time no attempt had 
been made to visit western China. The fires of the 
rebellion had been quenched in blood, and the 
victorious Chinese, under the leadership of Brigadier 
Li, had regained possession of YUN-NAN. The 
restoration of peace in that long-troubled region made 
an entrance for the Gospel, vid the Burmese route, 
again seem possible. 

" From what I have seen of Burmah," remarked the 
visitor, " I have no doubt that missionaries could settle 
with freedom and safety at Bhamd, within a hundred 
miles of the Chinese frontier." 

Such testimony had weight. It forcibly recalled to 
Mr. Hudson Taylor the plans he had hopefully enter- 
tained long before. In 1865, the year of the founding 
of the China Inland Mission, Mr. Stevenson, then a 
young volunteer about to sail for China, had got from 
Mr. Taylor his first conception of this possible western 
gate to the great Empire. The subject had been 
mooted at a Bristol gathering, where Mr. Hudson 
Taylor had indicated on a pocket map of China 
the dotted line of the accompanying sketch, show- 
ing how direct an entrance to YuN-NAN the 
Burmese • route would give. Young Stevenson had 


noted the remark, which often recurred to him. And 
now at home on furlough, ripened by ten years' 
missionary experience, the subject came up a second 
time, in the form of a practical question — 

" Will you undertake settled work at Bhamd, with 
a view to reaching western China ? " 

To which he gladly answered, " If GOD will, 

Thus, early in the new year, Mr. Stevenson and 
Mr. Soltau, who had subsequently joined him, were 
busy with their preparations ; while special prayer 
was being made for the other sixteen men asked of 
God for the remaining eight unoccupied provinces. 

In the meantime, all unknown to those who, on 
their knees, were seeking blessing upon these regions, 
God Himself was so over-ruling the affairs of nations 
as to open before His people a wide door of access to 
China's remotest children. At first it looked, how^ever 
as if the way were closed more firmly than it previously 
had been. For just at this juncture complications 
occurred which threatened to involve war between 
England and China. 

Upon the restoration of peace in YUN-NAN, in 1873, 
the inhabitants of that province, which had suffered 
so long and so fearfully from the horrors of civil war 
began to regain a measure of hope and courage. 
Trade with Burmah, at one time in a flourishing 
condition, commenced to revive. To gauge its extent 
and character* the British appointed an agent to reside 
at Bhamo, and organised an expedition, in whose 

VOL. II. 9 


equipment no expense was spared, to cross from 
Burmah to Hankow — "thoroughly to examine the 
capabilities of the country beyond the frontier." The 
object of these measures is not far lo seek. " When 
the impoverished condition of south-western China 
is remembered," writes the author of T/ie Middle 
Kingdom, " the question arises, Why should the Indian 
Government strive to open a trade where industry and 
population have been so destroyed ? But the expecta- 
tion that thereby a greater market would be found for 
its opium throughout western China is a sufficient 
reason, perhaps, for undertaking so costly an experi- 
ment." In any case the effort was made, and one of 
the consular staff, Augustus R. Margary, a young 
man of ability and promise, was sent from Hankow 
to Bham6 to act as interpreter and guide to the 

The long and difficult journey across China was 
accomplished in safety, and Mr. Margary arrived at 
Bhamd in January 1875, having been courteously 
treated by Chinese officials all along the route. In 
spite of these friendly relations, however, Mr. Margary 
intimated that he thought there were intrigues going 
on contrary to the interests of the expedition ; and 
it was not without a measure of apprehension that 
the large party set forward on the return journey, 
early in February. Difficulties beset their progress. 
Scarcely had they reached the frontier when very 
determined opposition began to manifest itself Mr. 
Margary pressed on to Man-wync, to make arrange- 


ments with Brigadier Li for the reception of the 
travellers ; and there, as is well known, he was 
treacherously murdered by order of the Chinese 
officials. Unable to proceed in the face of such 
disaster, the expedition returned to Bham6, and the 
attempt to open trade with western China was 
abandoned. Through this tragic failure, however, a 
higher end was ultimately to be attained. 

The murder of Mr. Margary aroused very wide- 
spread indignation, and Sir Thomas Wade, at Pekin, 
was directed to demand a thorough investigation of 
the whole affair. Eighteen months of tedious de- 
liberation followed, during which many matters 
affecting the intercourse of England and China came 
under consideration. Meanwhile, at home, the 
relatives of the murdered traveller were praying, 
amid their grief, that his death might be the means 
of opening up those regions to the Gospel, a prayer 
most marvellously answered in the providence of GOD.* 

At first, as we have said, it seemed as if inland 
China were more inaccessible than ever. At the very 
time when at home in England, Messrs. Stevenson 
and Soltau were preparing to start for Bhamo, during 
the very month in which their purpose was announced 
to the friends of the Mission, Margary was murdered 
on the borderland, and the western gate of China 
swung to. 

Yet prayer for the Eighteen was daily going up 

* See Chapter XII., The Chefoo Convention. 


to God, and with the answer needs must come 
access to the walled Empire. Silently the Supreme 
Worker was so ordering political events far away, as 
to bring about in His own time the opening of China 
to the Gospel. Silently, near at hand. He was fitting 
and calling forth His chosen labourers ; removing 
hindrances one by one; inspiring prayer, strengthening 
faith, and providing necessary means, so that in due 
season the men He had prepared might go in and 
possess the given land. 

China was laid on many hearts in England. The 
men asked of GOD began to come. A class for the 
study of the language gathered round the couch where 
Mr. Hudson Taylor still lay, helpless and suffering. 
No. 6, Pyrland Road, was full and busy, for a change 
had come with the New Year, and the prayer for the 
Eighteen seemed to bring fresh life into the Mission. 
The cases of over thirty candidates were under 
consideration, several of whom were accepted for 
the next out-going parties. 

" Not long ago," wrote Mr. Taylor, " it became necessary 
to resign one of our helpers to go to China without delay. 
I remarked to some friends, — 

'Perhaps the Lord will lessen the amount of corre- 
spondence for a time, unless He should provide unexpected 
assistance as before.' 

"We found that the correspondence lessened. Our 
brother King sailed on the 15 th of May. The corres- 
pondence continued small for several weeks after he had 
to commence his preparations, and we were able to 
compass it. On the morning of the 24th, however, when 


we met for our usual hour of prayer on behalf of China, 
I remarked, — 

" ' The Lord has lessened our correspondence, it is true ; 
but this has also involved lessened contributions. We 
must ask Him to remind some of His more wealthy stewards 
of the present needs of the work.' 

" Upon adding up the amount received during the three 
weeks between the 4th and 24th of May, I found that it 
came to little over £fiZ ; and could not but add, * this is 
nearly £,21^ less than our average expenditure in China for 
the same period. Let us remind the Lord of it.* And we 
did so. That very evening the postman brought a letter 
which, upon opening, we found to contain a cheque for 
jEi'^Z^ 7^- Q'^j to be entered as *from the sale of plate.' 
Thus the Lord made up the sum required, and even more ; 
for next morning the first half of a five-pound note was also 
received from another donor. . . . 

" Trust in the Lord at all times. You will never have 
cause to regret it." 

In the smallest details, as well as in larger matters, 
the workers felt that they had help unseen. A party 
was preparing to start for China, and Mr. Taylor 
could not, on account of weakness, go as usual, to 
make the needful arrangements for their passage, at 
moderate rates. One afternoon, however, a Christian 
mate of a vessel bound for China, called and remarked 
before leaving — 

" By-the-by, I wish there were some missionaries 
you could send out with us just now ! I should be 
delighted to make all the arrangements, if you would 
trust me." 

So the passage of that party was settled. 



Thus need after need was met. And when, in the 
autumn of 1875, Mr. McCarthy returned to China 
taking with him two new brethren, no fewer than 
sixteen of the eighteen prayed for had already been 
given. The rest very quickly followed. 

" Had I been well, and able to move about,'* wrote 
Mr. Taylor, "some might have thought that my 
urgent appeals for help, rather than GOD's answer 
to our united prayer, had sent the eighteen men to 
China. But, utterly laid aside, and only able to 
dictate a brief request for prayer, the answer, direct 
from God, was the more marked. 

The names of the brethren who joined the Mission 
at this period were — 











Mr. Henry Soltau 
George King 
James Cameron 
George Nicoll 
G. W. Clarke 
J. F. Broumton 
G. F. Easton 
J. J. Turner 
Charles Budd 
S. Adams (joined the Mis- 
sion, in Burmah) 
F. James sailed Jan. 

Edward Pearse „ „ 

George Parker „ April 

H. Handle „ „ 

R. J. Landale „ May 












Aug. 4th, 














Oct. 2 1 St, 











To which must be added six others, from amongst 


those previously connected with the Mission — Messrs. 
StevenjTop, McCarthy, Judd, Bailer, Henry Taylor, 
and Dr. Harvey, all of whom gave themselves to the 
special work of seeking to enter with the Gospel 
the great Interior. 




1875— 1876. 

THE missionary enterprise undertaken by Messrs. 
Stevenson and Soltau when they left England 
for Bham6, early in 1875, was one of no little difficulty 
and hazard. Upper Burmah was still an independent 
kingdom under despotic rule. Her relations to the 
Indian Government were far from friendly ; and when 
the missionaries landed at Rangoon, on May 14th, 
they found that the British resident had been with- 
drawn from Bhamd, and that it was no longer 
considered safe for Europeans to enter that region. 
The chief Commissioner refused to sanction their 
proceeding to Upper Burmah, and for several months 
they were detained at the coast, unable to leave 
British territory. 

Plenty of work awaited them, however, in the 
English settlements at Rangoon and Maulmain ; and 
Mr. Stevenson found a number of Chinese refugees 
from the province of YUN-NAN, with whom he could 

freely communicate in the Mandarin dialect These 



men had been implicated in the Mohammedan 
rebellion, and when the Chinese Imperialists recon- 
quered YUN-NAN, in 1873, they sought refuge under 
the British flag. With the help of one of them as a 
teacher, Mr. Stevenson commenced the study of the 
dialect spoken in YUN-NAN, in addition to his labour 
in acquiring the Burmese language. Mr. Soltau 
meanwhile was equally busy with evangelistic efforts 
for the English-speaking residents, and in full corre- 
spondence with home. It was a time of waiting. 
But when was waiting upon GOD ever known to be 
in vain ? 

Before September closed, the way had opened 
sufficiently to permit of their going on to Mandalay, 
where they hoped to obtain an interview with the 
King of Upper Burmah, and get permission to settle 
in Bham6. The Rev. Mr. Rose, of the A. B. M. U., 
an able and experienced missionary, joined them, and 
twelve days' steady steaming up the magnificent 
Irrawaddy brought the party to Mandalay, the then 
capital of Upper Burmah. Close to the city, in the 
early morning sunlight, they passed the ruins of a 
scene for ever memorable in the annals of missionary 

"On a plain, bordering the river,'* wrote Mr. Soltau, 
" scattered among rich palms and other beautiful foliage, lie 
the remains of the ancient capital of Upper Burmah, the 
famous city of Ava. Here the devoted Judson endured 
so long the cruelties inflicted by the King and his minister ; 
and here his noble wife shone as an example of womanly 
energy, patience, devotion, and deep Christian tenderness.*' 


A petition, duly setting forth in Burmese the 
missionaries' object and desires, was soon in the hands 
of the native Minister of Foreign Affairs, for presenta- 
tion to the King. Audience was granted without 
delay ; and with much prayer they repaired to the 
royal residence, committing the success of their enter- 
prise to Him whose gracious care had prospered them 
thus far. 

"A messenger was sent up to the King," wrote Mr. 
Soltau, " informing him of our arrival, and after a long time 
returned, saying that His Majesty desired our presence. 
We rose . . . and were conducted to the Council Chamber, 
a lofty wooden room, whose roof, supported on teak pillars, 
was painted red and gold. No carpets nor mats were spread 
on the wooden floor; indeed, the room presented the 
barest appearance. The Secretary led the way, followed by 
Mr. Rose, Mr. Stevenson, M. D^Av^ra, and myself ; behind 
us walked clerks and subordinates. 

"A raised platform, covered by a handsome Brussels 
carpet, extended nearly the whole length of one side of the 
room. In the centre was a crimson velvet rug, highly 
worked with gold and silver thread, a crimson cushion, and 
a pair of silver-mounted binoculars. We had of course left 
our shoes at the foot of the palace stairs. We crouched 
upon the floor some distance from the platform. Near us 
were a dozen or more men, their DaAs laid in gilded 
sheaths on the floor. 

" At one side of the platform was an open door, through 
which I presently descried on the staircase the top of the 
white umbrella which the King alone is allowed to have 
carried over him. He entered the room by a massively 
carved and gilded door, opening on to the centre of the 
platform, and lay down on the velvet rug, resting his arms 


on the crimson cushion. His attendants, among whom I 
noticed a soldier with a rifle and fixed bayonet, came in by 
the side door, and prostrated themselves. All the ministers 
and attendants in like manner bowed to the ground, 
remaining in this position the whole time they were in the 
royal presence. 

" Two good-looking boys, probably his sons, immediately 
followed the King. They carried a golden betel box and 
spittoon, which they placed by the King's side, themselves 
crouching behind him. One of them was dressed in a 
handsome green velvet tunic, with a diamond necklace and 
brilliant vest. The King, himself, wore a grandly worked 
under-garment, a white jacket, and a white band of muslin 
round his head. He has a refined face, with an intelligent 
expression, and often smiles ; while talking he trifled with a 
little rosary he held in his hands. He wore a moustache, 
and his hair, which is considerably sprinkled with grey, was 
fastened in a knot at the top of his head. 

" We could not have been more than eighteen or twenty 
feet from him, but he took up his binoculars and leisurely 
surveyed us for some time. 

" * Where is the American ? ' he asked, breaking the 

" Mr. Rose was introduced, and bowed, as indeed we all 
had done when he first entered. After asking Mr. Rose a 
few questions he turned to us. 

" * How long,' he inquired, * are you going to stay in 
Mandalay ? 

« I 'pjjj Thursday, your Majesty.' 

** * Your stay being so short, I shall be unable to say 
many things I desired,' remarked the King. * I regret that 
you are not to remain in Mandalay under my immediate 

" He made us each promise that we would write to our 
different countries, and ask that a teacher might be sent to 


live in Mandalay, undertaking himself to support him, and 
give him house and schools. 

" * There are many people in the golden city/ he urged. 
* I will see you properly cared for, and your benefit will be 
great. Up there in Bhamo, among those wild people, it is 
unsafe. They are not to be trusted. I will not prevent 
your going ; but if things are unfavourable, come back, and 
I will receive you.' 

" * Will you graciously grant us some land at Bhamo ? ' 

" * Yes, the minister shall arrange all that for you.' 

*' To our great surprise three handsome little silver betel 
boxes, and three Burmese bags, containing one hundred 
rupees each, were brought on wooden trays, and laid 
before us. 

**We thanked the King for these presents, saying how 
unlooked for was this kindness. 

" He appeared pleased at our surprise and gratification. 

" * When you go among those wild people act with 
caution and prudence,' he said, rising to leave. . . . 

" Followed by his little boys and attendants, and walking 
under the shadow of the white umbrella, His Majesty left 
the Council Chamber. The prostrate courtiers rose and 
prepared to leave. Even the official who interpreted for 
us did not look up at the King, nor move from his prone 
posture while royalty remained." 

Next day an official letter was duly handed to the 
missionaries, containing instructions addressed to the 
Governor of Bham6, to the effect that they had 
the King's permission to select any site they might 
desire in that city. Armed with this document, 
Messrs. Stevenson, Soltau, and Rose started on the 
300 miles' up-river journey that lay between them 
and the Chinese frontier, their hearts full of praise 


and gratitude to GOD for His answer to so many 

Not until some time after they reached Bham6 
(October 3rd, 1875) did they realise how much their 
successful visit to the King had meant. Orders 
arrived at Rangoon from the Indian Government, 
immediately after they had left that city, to the effect 
that missionaries were not on any account to be 
allowed to enter Upper Burmah. Had they started 
a few days later this dispatch would have effectually 
barred their way ; but being already beyond British 
territory it could not hinder them. These orders were 
at once sent on to Mandalay ; but there again they 
arrived too late, our workers having already seen the 
King, obtained his cordial permission to reside in 
Bhamo, and left the capital for that city. A few days 
after they reached their destination the dispatch 
followed them there also ; but they being already 
peaceably settled, it only served to deepen their 
grateful sense of the guiding care of GOD. 

All was not smooth sailing, however, even when 
they were settled in Bhamd, for the native Governor, 
although professedly in sympathy with the King's 
commands, practically did all he could to hinder the 
work. He gave the missionaries liberty to select a 
building site, and they soon found a suitable piece 
of land ; but when formal application for the same 
was made, he raised all kinds of objections, evidently 
intending, as far as possible, to thwart their plans. 
After months of weary waiting they had to be 


content with an inferior allotment, sadly out of the 
way of the people ; but much prayer was made, both 
in Burmah and at home, that the Governor's heart 
might be changed, or that the Lord would prevent 
him from hindering the work. Shortly after, strange 
to say, he was suddenly removed. His successor was 
most friendly, granting the missionaries the piece of 
ground they had at first desired. 

Medical Mission work and daily Gospel services 
were soon in progress. How much they were needed, 
the long summer days that followed sadly evinced. 
Fever raged, smallpox, measles, and other diseases 
carrying ofif hundreds of the people. Many painful 
and tragic scenes were witnessed near the roadside 
zayat or shed, v/hich was all the accommodation our 
brethren were able at first to obtain. Large crowds 
came constantly to see them, including Chinese 
traders from the province of YuN-NAN, and Shans, 
and Kahchens from the mountains. Of one day's 
experiences in the Chinese quarter of the city Mr. 
Soltau wrote : — 

** In one house at the head of a narrow lane, we come 
upon four men all sick, and a fifth, who had been caring 
for them, also very ill himself. In the next house the wife 
is almost blind from virulent ophthalmia; while beyond 
again is a poor woman, with a little baby a few months 
old, rapidly sinking from exhaustion. Farther down, on 
the other side of the way, there is a long bamboo shed 
divided into six compartments, like a very poor fowl-house 
at home. We enter, and find a man moaning with pain, 
but unable to speak. A fortnight ago he was well and 


strong ; he came here on account of his uncle, who is also 
dying. Close by in another hut . . . within ten feet of 
him, lies the corpse of a man who died last night in the 
temple. In a shed across the way lies the uncle, above 
mentioned, his eyes fast glazing in death. 

" * I cannot live,' he says ; * I have no desire to live, the 
pain is so great.' 

'* Mr. Stevenson tells him in simple language about the 
Saviour Jesus, and the great love of God. ... I under- 
stand part of what is said, and lift my heart for him in 
silent prayer. 

" Leaving this wretched scene, we hasten back to the 
zayat. A dozen people are already waiting for medicines, 
and more come in. Having attended to their needs we go 
on to the river, to care for some sick Burmese there. 

" The place is like a battlefield ; dead and dying are all 
around us. Poor creatures ! In their lives they have 
never heard of Jesus, and in death they pass away with 
none to comfort them, or tell them of His love. Oh, the 
delusion and lies of the devil that lead men at home to 
suppose that if the heathen live up to the best they know, 
they will at last, in some way, enter * through the gates into 
the city ' ! The heathen themselves, alas ! know differently. 
There is no hope in the death of these people ; no smile 
upon their faces ; no earnest of heaven. One only needs 
to see them die in order to realise what it is to be as * the 
heathen that know not God.' Swiftly and surely their little 
barque of life glides forth into the blackness and im- 
penetrable gloom of an unknown eternity. It is awful ! 
They say nothing ; there is no bravado and cursing, such 
as one has known at home ; silently the poor fellows pass 
away, into darkness." 

The fanie of the foreign strangers* skill and 
kindness in relieving sickness, and of their wonderful 


medicines, quickly spread abroad. Patients from far 
and wide sought the dispensary ; so that the arrival 
of Dr. and Mrs. Harvey, and Mr. Adams, early in 
1876, and the commencement of regular medical 
work, was very welcome. A good impression was 
created all around by this branch of the Mission ; and 
far away in YUN-NAN, beyond the Chinese frontier, 
travellers used to hear the Gospel spoken of in appre- 
ciative connection with the doctor's wonderful deeds. 

By degrees the friendly feeling grew, and even the 
wild hill-men began to forget their fears. From the 
first Messrs. Stevenson and Soltau felt a special 
interest in these semi-civilised sons of the mountains ; 
and knowing that their homes, among the remote and 
lofty valleys that stretch between Bham6 and China's 
distant plains, would have to be passed in peace ere 
access could be gained to the regions beyond, they 
were glad of every opportunity of cultivating happy 
relations with the formidable strangers. But it was 
some time ere the shyness of the mountain-men could 
be removed. 

" They used to walk past the zayaf very timidly," wrote 
Mr. Stevenson, " just looking in. They could not muster 
sufficient confidence to enter ; but we made special efforts 
to show them kindness, and by-and-by they came, bringing 
their friends to introduce to us. Personally, perhaps, they 
are scarcely an attractive people, with their long knives, and 
spears, and habitually unclean ways ; but they were without 
the Gospel of Christ, and our hearts yearned after them." 

More than a year elapsed before an opportunity 


came to visit these Kah-chens in their mountain 
villages ; but in November 1876, one of the chiefs sent 
down a letter pressing the missionaries to come and 
do what they could for a sick relative, about whom 
he was much distressed. He sent a pony and some 
servants as escort, mentioning gratefully his remem- 
brance of their kindness when he was in Bham6. 
It seemed a providential opening ; the missionaries* 
hearts were full of hope. Could it be that now, at 
last, they were to scale the lofty heights between them 
and the populous provinces of western China ; to 
look over the valleys and plains of unreached YUN- 
NAN ; to see the caravan route across the boundary ; 
perhaps even to descend into the country from which 
their Chinese visitors came, reaching the uncvangclised 
millions long prayed for with such earnest desire ? 
All seemed promising ; but just as they were pre- 
paring to start, the political agent, at Bham6, of the 
Viceroy of India, sent a despatch to say that he had 
strict orders from the Government not to let the 
missionaries leave the city. 

" The circumstances are peculiar, however," he 
wrote ; " you are specially invited, and are going to 
take medicines and visit a sick person. If, therefore, 
you will give me a written document, signed, 
guaranteeing that you will not cross over into China, 
I will allow you to go." 

"Thus the Indian Government have bound us," wrote 
Mr. Stevenson ; "for we could have gone in without any 
difficulty. But though wc have been thus hindered, the 

VOL. II. 10 


Word of the Lord is not bound ; and, thank God, an entrance 
to YuN-NAN has been gained for the Truth by means of 
the printed page. Chinamen from the West come over 
to Bhamo in crowds, and they have freely taken back the 
Scriptures with them. . . . Were it not for the restriction 
put upon us by our own Government, my firm conviction 
is that it would be as easy for us to go from Bhamo into 
China, as it is to pass from one county to another in 

The western gates of China seemed fast shut. 
But the mountain men's homes were open, and these 
the missionaries gladly sought. It was a wonderful 
journey up among the scattered villages, in the lofty 
heights of that strange borderland. Great kindness 
was shown the visitors as they went from place to 
place, caring for the sick and preaching the Gospel ; 
and very interesting were the glimpses they got of 
the simple hardy life of the people. 

" We carried no weapons," wrote Mr. Stevenson, " though 
they were all armed with knives and 3pears. . . . We slept 
on the floor, in native fashion, and they shared their simple 
fare with us day by day. After six weeks spent thus 
amongst them, they begged us to remain for good, and to 
establish schools, and be their teachers ; saying that they 
would build us houses, and do all that was necessary to 

But though they would greatly have liked to stay 
and labour among these hospitable and hardy 
mountaineers, they had to bid them farewell, and 
descend again to the plains. Other workers, of 


missions restricted to Burmah, were on their way to 
occupy this sphere. And China, not the Kah-ciien 
hill country, claimed their lives. 

How well known to the missionary is this ex- 
perience ! So many open doors unentered ; so many 
pressing needs unmet! And then the sense of 
constant limitation — one little human life, so brief, so 
weak, unable to accomplish even a thousandth part 
of all It has desired ! What soul-distresrs were here 
were it not for the rest of following in the steps of 
One who at the close of His life-service could say — 
" I have glorified Thee on the earth : I have finished 
the work which Thou gavcst me to do." 

One memorable day, towards the end of their 
visit, Messrs. Stevenson and Soltau climbed a lofty 
eminence overlooking the extensive and beautiful 
plain of Long-ch'uan, in their own vast parish CHINA. 

" Had the day been fine,'' wrote the latter, " we should 
have had clear views of the Irrawaddy river, and the 
country surrounding Bhamd ; but all the hills beneath us 
were veiled in mist A glorious scene presented itself on 
the other side of the summit. Beneath us was a range of 
lower hills, parallel with the chain on which we stood, the 
Kah-chen villages nestling here and there amongst them. 
Beyond this ft-qntier line the noble plain of Long-ch'uan 
lay outspread, studded with trees, and well watered by a 
river whose winding course made numerous islands appear 
in the broad valley. Beyond rose the rugged peaks of the 
lofty mountains of Yun-nan. 

" Here we were, close upon China. A descent of two or 
three hours would have brought us into Chinese ten-itory. 
The Kahchens could easily have acted as guides; and the 


Cliincse, to begin with, at any rate, would not have opposed 
us. . . . 

" We seemed to hear two voices from that spot — the 
Chinese in the distance, as it were, calling us to give them 
the Gospel for which they have waited so long ; while at 
our side the very presence of the mountain-men was eloquent 
with their plea, * We are your friends ; we ask not for your 
money. Come only, stay with us, and teach us the good 
news that you possess ! ' " 

Sadly the missionaries had to turn away, bound 
by the veto of the Indian Government not to enter 
the land of their longings. Years afterwards the 
attempt thus hindered was successfully carried into 
effect. But for to-day, at any rate, the gates of the 
West were shut, and the travellers* only cheer was to 
find, on returning to Bhamo, that during their absence 
Mr. and Mrs. Gushing, of the A.B.M.U., had arrived 
to start among the Kah-chcns, Shans, and Burmans 
the American Mission, which has since been so 
signally blessed of GOD. 




HALF a continent away from the Burman 
frontier and the lonely outpost among the 
mountains where Margary had fallen a victim to 
Chinese treachery, negotiations consequent upon his 
death dragged their weary length through official 
circles at Pekin for fully eighteen months, with no 
satisfactory conclusion. The members of the Tsung-li 
Ya-mun seemed unable to come to. terms with Sir 
Thomas Wade, and in 1 876 prospects of war became 
increasingly serious. 

Meanwhile the eighteen workers for inland China 
were already on the field and busy studying the lan- 
guage. But, far from a wider opening being secured 
into the unreached provinces, it seemed for a time, as 
though missionaries might have to retire from the 
Interior altogether. Much prayer was made, however, 
on both sides of the sea, that the prolonged negotiations 
might result in greater freedom of access being peace- 
fully obtained for the Gospel ; and in the autumn of 

1876, feeling sure that these prayers were heard and 



would be answered, Mr. Hudson Taylor, now much 
better in health, prepared to sail with, a considerable 
band of new missionaries. The crisis was serious, 
and many were the warnings received. Surely it was 
useless to attempt to extend the work, when at the 
briefest notice all foreigners might have to leave the 
country ! Still the party sailed, confident of the 
Lord's guidance, and fully expecting to find a more 
hopeful state of affairs upon reaching China. 

News at the various ports on the way was scarcely 
encouraging. Negotiations had failed at Pekin. 
Sir Thomas Wade had hauled down his flag, and 
left for the coast to put matters into the admiral's 
hands ! 

" But," wrote Mr. Taylor, ''prayer liad notfailedr 

A change came over the .spirit of the Chinese 
Government. The great statesman Li Hung-ch'ang 
followed the English ambassador to the coast, and 
there was Concluded the Chefoo Convention, which 
opened the door of access more widely than ever 
before to the heart of the Empire of the East. 

On September 13th, 1876, this memorable docu- 
ment was signed ; and the welcome news met the 
travellers as they stepped on Chinese soil. 

It seemed incredible — too good to be true ! China, 
the walled kingdom, the haughty empire, whose proud 
disdain for forty centuries has scorned all peoples 
but her own ; China, whose government, surviving 
thirty changes of dynasty, still maintains laws and 
edicts codified two thousand years ago ; whose vast 


and varied literature owns no model but Confucius,* and 
recognises no greatness but that contained within " the 
four seas" and the borders of the Flowery Land; China, 
the mighty hermit nation, her face turned towards the 
past, her aims conservative, her life self-centred, at 
last unbars her frowning gates to strangers from the 
outer world. " How are the mighty fallen ! " or rather, 
should we not say, "How has the Mightiest prevailed ! " 

 Who lived and wrote about 6t» years B.C., and of whom 
the Cliinese stil) say, " What Confucius teaches is true ; -what he 
Iricves untaught is useless; tvhat does not harmonise with his 
teaching is false '' ! 


It is noteworthy that this auspicious settlement of 
affairs occurred just as our brethren were ready to 
take immediate advantage of it ; not one day too 
soon, nor yet an hour too late. Nearly two years 
previously they had been asked of GOD, in faith, for 
widespread itinerant work throughout the nine un- 
occupied provinces ; in due season they were given, 
came to China, set to work at the study of the 
language, and began to feel at home amongst the 
people; and then, unexpectedly, when all seemed 
furthest from such an issue, freedom of access to 
the remotest parts of the Empire was secured ; and 
they started right away, under the auspices of the 
new agreement, the very first to avail themselves of 
its favourable conditions. 

One of the stipulations of the Chefoo Convention 
was that an Imperial proclamation should be openly 
posted in every city throughout the eighteen pro- 
vinces, to the effect that foreigners were at perfect 
liberty to travel in any part of the Emperor's 
dominions ; that they did so under his direct protec- 
tion, and were to be received with respect, and in no 
wise hindered upon their journeys. As the members 
of the Inland Mission were, in several districts, first 
to take advantage of this new state of affairs, it 
happened more than once that, upon their arrival in 
some distant inland city, the local officials took them 
to be envoys sent by foreign powers to see whether 
the proclamation had been duly posted or no ; and in 
some cases in which this had been neglected, their 


coming was the signal for an immediate issue of the 
important document, and the display of every polite 
attention on the part of the Mandarins. 

Thus was prayer answered, and the political 
affairs of nations once again over-ruled, in the provi- 
dence of God, to the accomplishment of His own 

Far and wide, during the next few years, our 
brethren travelled, scattering the good seed of the 
Kingdom in many regions never before traversed by 
the Christian missionary, making journeys of long 
duration and no little peril, in remarkable safety and 

Details of these itinerations are given in the follow- 
ing chapters. But before passing on to this new 
period, we must notice one more event of the year 
thus ending, which marks, as a milestone, the close of 
the first decade of our Mission's history. 

The end of May 1876 witnessed the first anniver- 
sary meetings ever held in connection with the China 
Inland Mission, when, at the Mildmay Conference 
Hall, the abundant mercies of the years that had 
elapsed since the sailing of the Lamnier^niiir* were 
commemorated with gratitude to GoD. 

Only ten years since that spring day of many 
memories — but how much progress they had wit- 
nessed ! At the commencement of this brief period 
eleven out of the eighteen provinces of China proper 

• See vol. i., p. 267. 


had been entirely without any Protestant missionary. 
No Christian churches were found within their 
borders. Amongst thousands of their populous 
towns and cities no evangelist had ever preached the 
gift of God and the love of Chrest. 

In the remaining seven more favoured provinces, 
containing the open ports, missionary work, although 
long established, had not embraced many centres. In 
KlANG-SU, Shanghai was the only station ; and in 
Cheh-KIANG resident missionaries were found in 
Ningpo and Hang-chau alone, two out of no less 
than ninety important, walled cities contained within 
its borders. At the lowest computation these seven 
provinces represented a population of fully one 
hundred millions, but they had not one hundred 
missionaries all told, not one man to a million ! 
And beyond them stretched away the utter darkness 
of unbroken heathenism — north, south, and west, to 
the remote regions of unreached Mongolia, the snow- 
clad heights of distant Thibet, and the troubled 
borderland of the frontiers of Burmah and Y UN-NAN. 

At the end of these ten years, — or ten years and a 
half, if we include the signing of the Chefoo Con- 
vention and the close of 1876 — how different the 
aspect of affairs ! 

In connection with our own Mission, which at the 
commencement of this period had only just come 
into existence, sixty missionaries and missionaries' 
wives were on the fielc^, working in fifty-two stations 
and out-stations, and assisted by a band of over 


seventy native helpers. They were labouring in five 
provinces, two of which had been amongst the un- 
occupied eleven ; and in twenty-eight of the stations 
little bands of Christians had been gathered, by the 
blessing of GOD. 

During these ten and a half years more than 
£S2fyoo had been contributed for the expenses of the 
work, unasked, save of GOD ; and of this sum about 
£1,700 was on deposit, to be used as needed for the 
evangelisation of the remaining nine still unoccupied 
inland provinces. 

But more than all this, an open way had been 
made, in answer to prayer, by which the men who 
had been asked of GOD, and given for this purpose, 
might gain access to these hitherto unentered regions. 
At Bhamo and amongst the mountains bordering on 
YuN-NAN, a work had been commenced which was 
already permeating the neighbouring populations, 
with, at least, some knowledge of the written Word 
of God. As we shall see in our next chapter, Ho- 
NAN and Hu-NAN, in the great heart of China, had 
heard the name of Christ ; Siian-si had been 
visited, for the first time by C. I. M. missionaries ; 
and up the broad stream of the Han three little 
bands had gone to herald the glad tidings of the 
Cross amongst the millions that cover the wide 
plains of Shen-SI and Kan-SUH, and carry the tide 
of life away to the far-reaching northern boundary — 
the great Imperial Wall. 

Thus the first ten and a half years of our work. 


though uphill, and beset with many difficulties, were 
not fruitless. A foundation had been laid for wider 
efforts to come, and experience had been gathered 
for the future, through many mistakes and failures, 
as well as through a considerable measure of GOD- 
givcn success. Above all, faith had been tried and 
strengthened ; and His servants more than ever 
encouraged to look to the LORD alone for the supply 
of all the needs connected with the Mi.ssion ; needs 
both spiritual and temporal, whether of helpers, funds, 
openings in difficult spheres, or access to hardened 
hearts ; at all times, and in all ways, " GOD, alone," 
having proved " sufficient for GOD's own work." 



"Jesus went through all the cities and villages, teaching in their 
synagogues, and preaching the Gospel of the Kingdom, and healing 
every sickness and every disease among the people." — Matt. ix. 35. 

'' Let us go into the next towns, that I may preach there also : for 
therefore came I forth." — Mark i. 38. 

** Go ye into all the world, ajid preach the Gospel to every creature.*' 
Mark xvi. 15. 

" To whom He was not spoken of, they shall see ; and they that 
have not heard shall understand." — Rom. xv. 21. 



'^ SOUTH OF THE, river;- 

" /^^H Rock, Rock ! when wilt thou open ? " Three 
V^ hundred years ago the cry rung out across 
blue dancing water, from the lips of a lonely pilgrim 
on a narrow sunlit shore. Eternal summer round him, 
infinite depths of cloudless azure, mysterious forest- 
shadows behind a wealth of green, perfect in every 
detail, and exuberant with life ; but he could see 
nothing, feel nothing, save emptiness and longing for 
a spiritual beauty to transcend this earthly show. 

Macao's island beach was worn by his solitary 
foot-track. His eyes were dim with gazing across 
its summer sea. His heart became faint with asking, 
as he so long had asked, ^^ Rock^ Rock! when wilt 
tliou open ? " Thirty years of exile and almost fruit- 
less effort lay behind him. But what was thirty 
years ? Quenchless zeal burned in this monk, Valig- 
nani. When he knelt to his crucifix did he not 
see the symbol of victory? Did not that crucified 
Conqueror, by His very death in weakness, claim the 
adamantine Empire of the East ? What mission so 



high as to subdue that Empire — to realise that 
claim ! 

" Rock ! Rock ! " How unreachable the millions 
of this China ! How stony its cold pride, its haughty, 
self-sufficient calm, its supreme contempt for all other 
lands and races ! How overwhelming its extent, 
hugely bulking on the outskirts of the mediaeval 
world ; a congeries of nations, a swarming, populous 
cloudland, unknown, .unmapped, unmeasured ! How 
impregnable the fortress of its ancient prejudices, 
philosophies, faiths, ethics, civilisation ! Yet " Thou 
shalt open ! " is the cry of this enthusiast. And year 
by year he labours in that faith. 

How far his keen eyes, fixed on the rocky coast- 
line, pierce ; how burning is their fire ! He may not 
follow the track they take across the sunlit sea, but 
he will live and die in the attempt. He has left 
fatherland and friends for this. Halfway across the 
world, an all but impossible journey in his» day, lies 
all he loves on earth — hidden, estranged, never again 
to greet him. Whatever life can give he has relin- 
quished for this long exile. Was there not glory in 
it — heroism ? 

But, after all, to fail ! To fight for thirty years ; to 
crucify the flesh and mind, and gather up existence 
in a single spiritual effort towards a great ideal — 
in vain ! At the end to see the goal apparently 
no nearer than when he first began — the same un- 
conquerable rock-walls rising there, absolute, frowning, 
unsealed, impregnable. Might not even that strong 


heart falter, those clear eyes grow " dim with gazing 
on the pilot stars " ? 

In the broad noonday many a time his appeal rang 
up to the infinite blue, but no answer breathed to him 
on the changeless summer air. Often at midnight, 
beneath the deep vault of heaven, must he have 
questioned his life-work, his supreme eflfort, interro- 
gating God. But no message pierced the darkness. 

He died there as he lived there, still questioning 
"How long?" 

Macao's little island, not far from the lonely grave 
of his great leader Xavier, also in China seas, is the 
Jesuit's resting-place. Through the centuries that 
have vanished since that devoted heart ceased to 
beat, we look back at his figure standing with arms 
outstretched toward the land of his desire, and hear 
again his sentence echo along the lonely shore where 
the changing tides still beat : — 
" Oh Rock, Rock ! when wilt thou open ? " 

In 1876, three hundred years later, the adamantine 
walls went down. The Rock was opened. 

When, upon September 13th in that memorable 
year, China's greatest modern statesman finally 
affixed the seal of Imperial assent to the Chefoo 
Convention, freedom of access was at last secured 
to every province in the vast Empire. Valignani 
was never allowed to set foot on the forbidden shore. 
Dr. Morrison died in 1834, never having been per- 
mitted to penetrate beyond the suburbs of Canton. 
In 1842 and i860 the Treaties of Nan-king and Pckin 



marked the withdrawal of China's long resistance to 
the presence of foreigners. And now, in 1876, their 
right to travel everywhere was fully recognised ; the 
purposes of GoD thus prevailing in the counsels of 
men, and answering the prayers of thousands of His 
people from the days of VaMgnani to our own, 
making the modern echo of the missionary monk's 
appeal : — 

" Oh Rock, Rock, Aast thou opened I " 

The door into inland China, unbarred at last to the 
Gospel, was never to be closjed again. The vast 
interior, hitherto unreached by the combined efforts 
of all Protestant Missions, was thus thrown open to 
the coming of GOD's messengers of peace. Few and 
far between at first, in much weakness, and with no 
confidence, save in GOD, did the pioneers go forth ; to 
be followed by an unbroken and ever-increasing suc- 
cession of those who, in the same spirit, should enter 
into their labours, and widen the circle of blessing. 

First among the nine unevangelised provinces to 
be visited were Ho-NAN and Hu-NAN, two of the 
largest and neediest of all. Century after century 
the millions of their teeming population had gone 
down into Christless graves ; only to be followed 
by as many more, whose dark and Christless lives 
seemed scarcely less sad, less pitiful. 

Ho-NAN, north of the Yang-tsi, and in the very 
heart of China, is larger than England and Wales 
put together, and contains no less than a hundred 
and eighteen important walled cities, and a population 


more than three times that of Scotland. For the 
evangelisation of such a region how insufficient the 
resources of the whole Mission would have seemed, 
much more the weakness of one solitary man ! Yet, 
with hopefulness and courage, Henry Taylor, in the 
early spring of 1875,* prepared to go forth in the 
strength of GOD, single handed, to the task. 

" I turn my eyes towards the many millions of 
Ho-NAN, my future sphere, with much desire," he 
wrote. " A whole province is a vast field to occupy ! 
But if the God of all grace fill us, power and blessing 
must attend our efforts." 

Early in April 1875, in company with a good 
native brother named Chang, he set his face north- 
ward. Ten days after leaving Wu*-ch'ang, the boundary 
was crossed, and they entered the populous plain that 
forms the south-eastern portion of Ho-NAN. For 
nearly eight weeks they travelled and preached freely, 
visiting -many important places, and meeting with 
not a few whose interest in the Gospel seemed deep 
and real. « 

At Ru-ning Fu, the first prefectural city, they met 
with unusual cordiality. The large, well- furnished 
hall of the Hu-PEH literati was placed at their dis- 
posal, and they were invited, as travellers and teachers 
from that province, to use it free of charge. They 

* This journey and the two following, in Hu-nan and Shen-si, 
were taken while the Chefoo Convention was pending. We, 
however, insert them here to connect them with all the other 
journeys made alf this period. 


thought it more prudent, however, to put up at an inn 
outside the gates. 

Among those who seemed most interested in the 
Gospel were four men of whom the missionaries had 
good hope. The first of these, an old vegetarian 
named Hu, came on the evening of their arrival, 
and listened with marked attention to all they had 
to say. For years he had been seeking a GOD, a 
living God, who should satisfy the longings of his 
heart ; and in idolatry he had found no rest. But the 
Gospel seemed to meet his need, and he grasped its 
teachings with remarkable clearness. Chang found 
his house filled with idols, which had evidently been 
treated with religious care. The old man, pointing 
to them, said — 

" These I have held to and worshipped, because I 
had nothing better ; now I have found JESUS^ and 
I let them go ! This doctrine I know to be a true 
one ; my conscience tells me it is so." 

With real reluctance this earnest inquirer parted 
from the visitors who had brought him so much 
blessing ; and great was his joy on learning of their 
anticipated return in a few months. 

" Come and open a house in our city," he urged ; 
" there are many here who, like me, are seeking the 
true Light." 

The missionaries came back in the autumn. 

" We shall see the old vegetarian Hu,*' they said. 

Eagerly they sought him out, but only to learn 
that, on earth, they should meet no 'more. During 


their brief absence he had passed away, trusting 
in the Lord Jesus. The first witnesses for Christ 
in vast Ho-NAN, they had been just in time to bring 
the knowledge of salvation to this seeking soul. 
Had they come but a few months later, what a 
difference to him ! 

Sixteen years have passed by since then, and still 
it is sadly, awfully true, that " a million a month in 
China are dying without GOD."* Nearly two hundred 
millions have gone since that day ; and for the vast 
majority of them no knowledge of the Truth, until 
too late. Had we but been a little earlier, a little 
more self-sacrificing, faithful, earnest, Christlike — how 
different it might have been ! Shall we not listen 
to the old man's plea, his last request, to the only 
Christians he had ever met in all his long, dark 
heathen life of seeking and unrest — " Do come and 
open a house in our city ! There are many fure whoy 
like mcy are seeking the true Light " ? 

Of the three other men in whom they had been 
specially interested, the evangelists found on their 
return to Ru-ning, that Wan, an intelligent young 
schoolmaster, had left the city and could not be 
traced. Two, however, remained. One of these was 
a scholarly man, a young doctor of the name of Mu. 
Both he and T*ang appeared very sincere in their 
faith in CHRIST ; and fearing they might never meet 
their missionary friend again, they desired at once 

• This quotation is from Dr. Guinness' well-known poem, 
based on the estimate of 350,000,000 as the population of China. 


to be baptised. Upon hearing, however, of his 
expected return, they were content to wait, mean- 
while seeking to make the Saviour known amongst 
their families and friends. It was with much thank- 
fulness that Mr. Taylor subsequently found them both 
still holding on their way, Mu Sien-Seng especially 
bearing a bright testimony to the saving power of 
the Gospel. 

As the examinations were going on in the city 
the evangelists did not stay long, but turned their 
steps northward ; and in the closing days of Novem- 
ber found themselves nearing Chau-kia-k'eo, an 
important trading centre at the junction of two rivers. 
This place, although lacking the political status of a 
city, is recognised to be the most populous town 
between Pekin and Hankow — a busy, crowded, com- 
mercial settlement, influential in the affairs of the 
province. Here, for eight days, they preached the 
Gospel in the streets, to large attentive audiences, 
" very good-natured, straightforward, and pleasant 
in manner." -Leaving this busy mart, they pushed 
northward to the capital, and proclaimed the Word 
of Life within the venerable walls of K*ai-fung Fu, 
one of the most ancient cities in the world. Their 
movements were closely watched by the Mandarin's 
runners, who never left them for a moment while 
they were in the city, and the people at first seemed 
afraid to buy their books ; but as soon as the spell 
was broken by some bold spirit, sales were as free 
as usual. Scholars daily visited their inn, and seemed 


pleased to find that the foreigner was not a Roman 
Catholic priest. 

One of the military Mandarins of the city came 
every evening to see them. He could read and write 
Arabic freely, and was a leading member of a large 
and wealthy Mohammedan community settled in the 
place. Well versed in the doctrines of his own 
religion, he had also given much attention to the 
study of Christianity, which he freely acknowledged 
to be superior to Mohammedanism ; but his mind 
was still undecided as to the faith he ought to hold. 

" We did what we could," wrote Mr. Henry Taylor 
" to lead him to a clearer understanding of the 
Gospel, and have prayed much for him." 

" Nothing would give me more pleasure," he said, 
when we were leaving, " than to see you permanently 
settled in our city." 

But anti- foreign feeling in K'ai-fung Fu was then, 
and still is, exceptionally bitter, and the missionaries 
could not remain. Three Europeans from Pekin, 
who had visited the place only two years before, to 
inquire into the condition of the Jewish colony within 
its walls, had been obliged to retire very speedily, 
even the inn they occupied having been razed to the 

The journey from the capital westward to Ho-nan 
Fu, a distance of about one hundred and fifty miles, 
was not without its trials and dangers. The country 
was barren, and the people poor ; beginning even then 
to suffer from the scarcity that developed into the 


awful famine of 1878. As the travellers passed along 
they found the hills infested with robbers and banditti ; 
and there seemed to be thousands of poor destitute 
creatures living in miserable hovels like little caves, 
dug out of the mountain sides. 

Though without an escort, and carrying no weapons 
for self-defence, Mr. Henry Taylor and his companion 
were protected, and kept in the perfect peace of the 
Lord's presence. They reached their destination 
and preached the Gospel in the streets of Ho-nan Fu, 
for several days ; but their efforts in that city were 
not followed by any apparent success. The people 
seemed utterly uninterested, and the message, like 
seed sown upon hard ground, had to be proclaimed 
in faith, and left. 

About five miles south of Ho-nan Fu there is a 
famous pass called the " Dragon's Gate." The lime- 
stone cliffs on either side rise to a height of several 
hundred feet, and contain magnificent caverns, each 
occupied by five colossal figures thirty feet high, cut 
in the solid rock, upon which the varying seasons of 
two hundred years have had but little effect. • 

" We entered each of the caverns," Henry Taylor wrote ; 
"and as our eyes became accustomed to the darkness, 
which must inspire idolaters with awe, we saw those 
hideous idols frowning down upon us. We. lifted our 
voices in prayer, and besought God- Jehovah to speed 
the day in which these delusions will be judged, and 
thrown to the moles and bats. 

" Numberless miniature idols are carved in the mountain 
side almost to its summit. From beneath the caverns 



beautiful streams of clear, cool water gush forth, mingling 
with the river which runs at the bottom of the pass. We 
told the Gospel story to an old priest in charge, but he did 
not at all appear to relish our discourse, and showed his 
disapproval by walking away. 

"On our homeward way we preached and sold books 
at several cities, in some of which the people gave much 
attention to our message. Any one of these cities would 
afford work for a lifetime ; how little can be done for the 
poor people in a passing visit ! There are nine prefectural 
cities, or Fu, in this province, besides one hundred and 
nine occupying positions of varying importance. If the 
Lord should but give us a Christian worker for each of 
these one hundred and eighteen our joy would be full, 
although our desires are larger even than this." 

Early next year (1876) Mr. Henry Taylor made a 
third long journey in Ho-NAN, in company with Mr. 
George Clarke, one of the eighteen brethren recently 
given to the work. At Ru-ning Fu they had the joy 
of finding the two inquirers, Mu and T'ang, still leading 
Christian lives, and earnestly desiring baptism. Of 
the former Mr. Clarke wrote : — 

" The Lord has enabled him to stand firm and witness 
a good confession. Soon after he believed two of his 
children died. The people said it was because of his new 
religion, but he remained steadfast. Since Mr. Henry Taylor 
was last here he has suffered much persecution. His 
brothers and kinsfolk have separated from him, and have 
only given him enough land to grow six bushels of wheat a 
year. He has spoken faithfully to his neighbours, and says 
there are about thirty who are interested in the Gospel." 

Outside the walls of Ru-ning,- in a little stream, 


among some quiet graves, these brethren Mu and T*ang 
were baptised, early in April — the first in Ho-NAN, 
as far as we can tell, thus to confess Christ. 

In the same month Mr. Henry Taylor was able to 
rent a house in the neighbouring city of Choh-shan 
Hien ; and later on in the summer he and Mr. Clarke 
spent six happy weeks there amongst the people. 
All seemed quiet and favourable, until the scholars 
of the place began to oppose the foreigners, and a 
serious riot ensued. For several days and nights the 
city was in an uproar, and the lives of the missionaries 
were in danger. At last they were obliged to return 
to Wu-ch*ang till the trouble had passed away. For 
several years all efforts at obtaining a settlement in 
Ho-NAN proved fruitless. But during the terrible 
famine of 1878 Mr. Henry Taylor and Mr. Clarke 
returned to the province, carrying funds for the relief 
of the sufferers. They made their way to the capital, 
witnessing scenes of horror indescribable. 

" Never in the annals of China," wrote the Chinese 
Viceroy, ** has there been such suffering as there is 
now in Ho-NAN. For some time back the people 
have been eating human flesh, but now they are 
opening skulls and devouring their contents, and 
grinding down bones to powder, which they mix with 
water to drink." 

And yet, incredible as it may seem, the anti-foreign 
feeling was so strong, that the officials at the capital 
declined the aid which our brethren had gone to 


Poor Ho-NAN, and poor China! Desolated by 
famine and flood, by opium and idolatry, how deep 
her darkness, how long her waiting for the light ! 
But gilding her distant horizon do we not catch the 
dawn of day ? From the borders of Mongolia to the 
frontiers of Thibet, and from east to west of the long 
courses of her mighty rivers, pass heralds of the 
promised morn. Oh that their number were multi- 
plied a thousandfold as the last great cry is heard 
— " Behold the Bridegroom comcth ! go ye out to 
meet Him." 

Larger and more populous than Ho-Nan, Hu-NAN 
was also visited with the Gospel in 1875, and proved 
an even darker region, still more opposed to the 
entrance of the Light. 

This province " South of the Lake^' as its name 
implies, is more than twice the size of Ireland, with 
fully three times its population. Generation after 
generation, sixteen millions of precious souls within 
its limits, pass across the narrow stage of life, all 
treading the downward road, all wandering afar from 
God, and with no hand, no voice to guide them home 
to His open heart of love. 

In the early summer of 1875 Mr. Judd was set free 
from work at Wu-ch*ang for a brief itinerant journey, 
and taking with him two native assistants, started for 
the northern border of this province. One hundred 
and sixty miles up the great river brought them to 
the city of Yoh-chau, beautifully situated at the 


junction of the Tong-t'ing lake with the waters of 
the Yang-tsi. Retarded by a head wind during their 
nine days on the river, they visited several villages 
and towns, in some of which the people readily 
bought books, and listened with marked attention. 

In the bright sunlight of a June morning they 
entered Yoh-chau, and walked through its busy 
streets. At first the people seemed uncertain as to 
whether Mr. Judd were really a foreigner or not ; and 
even when the fact became known, he was not 
specially molested. Tree-clad mountainous heights 
rose toward the east beyond the city, and westward 
by the broad, sca-likc expanse of the great lake ; and 


then the million-peopled province — three hundred 
miles of heathen darkness. A quiet Sunday followed 
the arrival of the strangers ; who were able without 
difficulty to rent a little house. Soon, however, 
unfriendly feeling began to be apparent, and before 
many days were over serious trouble arose. The 
local Mandarin refused to protect the visitors, and 
this becoming known their lives were endangered. 
All efforts to live down the trouble proved vain. A 
small gunboat was sent to escort them out of the 
neighbourhood, and, having np choice in the matter, 
they were obliged to go. 

Later on the native brethren returned alone to 
Yoh-chau, and had many opportunities of scatter- 
ing the good seed without molestation ; and in 
January 1877 Mr. Judd again visited it, on his long 
and interesting journey across the province into KWEI- 
CHAU and Sl-CH*UEN. Up to the present time, how- 
ever, no Protestant missionary has been able to obtain 
a permanent footing in Hu-NAN. We have stations 
on its northern border ; and much devoted, self- 
sacrificing work has been done in wide-spread itinera- 
tions during many years. But, as yet, no settled 
efforts have been possible. Its sixteen millions are 
without one single missionary to-day. 


September — October, 1876. 

EARLY in August 1876, SllEN-sl, another vast 
unevangelised province, was visited, Messrs. 
Bailer and King being in this instance the pioneers. 
At Hankow, opposite Wu-ch*ang, on the broad 
Yang-tsi — a station which our readers must always 
conceive of as the central-China starting-point for 
the Interior — they were kindly received by Dr. John, 
of the London Missionary Society, in whose large 
church they found a native of the distant northern 
province of Shen-SI, whither they hoped to travel. 

" There is good waterway," he told them, " up the 
Han, as far as to Fan-ch*eng ; * and from thence two 
or three much-travelled roads lead on to Si-gan, the 
capital of Shen-SI." 

So a Fan-ch*eng boat was hired, and the brethren 
commended to GOD for their new work. 

On a warm August evening they made their way 
down the busy, thronging streets of Wu-ch*ang, 

* An important city four hundred miles from Hankow. 



crossed the broad Yang-tsi, and entered the mouth 
of its great tributary, the swiftly-flowing Han, — there 
to seek out amongst crowded masses of shipping the 
little house-boat that was now their home. 

A fortnight later, on the last day of the month, 
they saw the sun set behind the western hills of 
Fan-ch'eng. The far-reaching, turreted walls of the 
city looked across the wide, peaceful river to Siang- 
yang. Both places, accessible as well as populous, 
were yet fully four hundred miles away from the 
nearest mission station ! 

In their busy streets, on the banks of the river, the 
evangelists preached Christ. But what could a three 
days' visit effect ? They must not linger ; for they 
were still only in the province of Hu-PEH, in parts of 
which, at any rate, the Gospel had been long and 
successfully preached ; while beyond them, for many 
a weary week's journey to north and west, stretched 
other regions, equally populous, equally needy, and 
all without one single witness for the Truth. 

Travelling was difficult and costly, for the Govern- 
ment examinations, drawing thousands of scholars 
from their provincial homes to the important centres, 
necessitated in some places a military guard to main- 
tain order. After a little delay, however, Messrs. 
Bailer and King secured a boat to Hing-gan Fu, the 
nearest prefectural city in Shen-SI, about 400 miles 
farther north-west. 

The first important mart they reached was thronged 
with a busy crowd, chiefly men from the northern 


provinces ; and news of their arrival quickly spread. 
The military commander of the place sent word that 
he desired to see the foreigners at his house. 

" At ten o'clock on the morning appointed," writes 
Mr. Bailer, " we breakfasted with him, and found that he 
had some acquaintance with the leading facts of the Gospel. 
He was the possessor of a number of foreign articles, 
amongst them a copy of Williams' Chinese-English Dic- 
tionary. He asked us to explain its plan and arrangement, 
and appeared gratified that a foreigner should have expended 
so much time in the production of such a work. 

"The meal set before us was prepared as nearly in 
foreign fashion as the cook's ability allowed. Four or five 
wine-glasses were placed by the side of our plates, and our 
host told us of certain other foreigners who had drunk and 
made merry at his table, begging us to do likewise. Subse- 
quently he informed us that there are eight Romish priests, 
foreigners, stationed in the city, and that they have a large 
chapel and many followers. He gave them a good character 
as convivial guests, but complained of the way in which they 
and their converts continually appeal to him for interference 
on their behalf in matters of dispute." 

Eight Roman Catholic priests, in one far inland 
station, conducting a long-established and numerically 
successful work ; and as far as Protestant Missions 
are concerned, only the briefest passing visit of an 
itinerant pioneer evangelist ! How is it that we so 
often meet this state of things ? 

The remainder of their journey led through a 
beautiful mountainous region, where the swift Han 
sweeps down in numerous rapids, and day by day 
they passed slowly up amongst the wooded heights 


bordering the nishing river, impressed by the grandeur 
of the ever-changing scene. 

Yun-yang, the last Fu city of Hu-PEll, was reached 
in mid-September ; a good many books were sold 
there, and an attentive hearing found for the Gospel 
message. Large congregations gathered about the 
evangelists, and the local mandarin noticed their 
presence by sending four soldiers to protect them in 
case of need, and to explain to the people that the 
object of these foreign visitors was not to cut off 
men's tails, but merely to sell books, and to preach 
the doctrine ! 

vou n. la 


Three days later the border was crossed, and 
Shen-SI entered at last. A quiet Sunday was spent 
at one of the first Hien cities, outside and inside 
whose walls considerable numbers of people came 
together to listen. 

"One group interested us much," wrote Mr. Bailer. 
" They gathered around us as we stood preaching close to 
the mandarin's office. One of the men amongst them 
asked many intelligent questions about the Lord Jesus, 
and acquired a good understanding of the leading truths 
of the Gospel." 

The following Sunday found the travellers busy 
at Hing-gan, the prcfectural city of that part of the 
province, preaching to large congregations the glad 
tidings of salvation, rarely if ever before proclaimed 
within those walls. 

" The people seemed to understand a good deal of what 
we said, and appeared more intelligent than many farther 
south. Some one brought us a seat and gave us tea. 
Both in the new and old cities we were favourably received ; 
and at night returned to our boat truly grateful for such 
open doors. On the following day we preached in five or 
six different parts of the city, and were, as before, well 
received. We met with many Mohammedans, who listened 
with great attention* One of the things that seemed to 
impress them most was the fact of the Resurrection of the 
Lord Jesus. As I pointed out the superiority of a living 
Christ over all the sages long since passed away, the 
thought seemed to strike them as new and strange. May 
they be led to seek Him who sitteth at the right hand of 
the Majesty on high ! We had a long talk with an interest- 


ing young Mohammedan, alone, about the Gospel. He 
seemed to understand, and showed a very encouraging 
spirit of enquiry." 

Although the openings seemed so favourable, 
Messrs. Bailer and King were not able to make any 
prolonged stay on this first visit. Their funds had 
run short, owing to the unusual expenses of the way, 
and they were compelled to return to Hankow for 
further supplies. But though brief, their journey was 
not without visible results in blessing ; one man was 
converted to GOD, and subsequently baptised, as a 
direct fruit of this early Shen-SI itineration. 

The long run down-river was quickly made, the 
travellers reaching their starting-point in October 
1876, rather more than two months after they had first 
set out. They were warmly welcomed back as the 
bearers of cheering tidings, and had much to tell 
of the goodness of GOD in giving them so free an 
entrance into districts hitherto unreached by Pro- 
testant missionaries — much to tell, and much to learn, 
for the Chefoo Convention had been signed during 
their absence, and all the vast Interior was now open 
to such work as they had done, and to more per- 
manent efforts. 


October 1876 — January 1877. 

SHAN-SI, the long and narrow north country 
which has since become famous, both on account 
of the sufferings endured by its inhabitants during 
the awful years of famine, and through the remarkable 
triumphs achieved by the Gospel in its southern 
regions, was in these days a terra incogtnta to the 
outside world. Six or seven hundred miles long 
by about three hundred broad, hilly, well watered, 
and beautiful, very rich in mineral resources, coal 
and iron both being found in large quantities, this 
province possesses a healthy, bracing climate, far 
more suited to Europeans than that of Southern 
China. Wheat is extensively cultivated, while Indian 
corn, rice, millet, and other grains are also to be 
found, besides fruit in abundance. 

Such is the Shan-SI of to-day, with a population, 
at the lowest estimate, of nine millions ; but at the 
time of our brethren's first visit matters were not in 
so flourishing a condition. No rain had fallen for 

nearly two years, and widespread destitution prevailed. 



In the cool of an autumn evening towards the 
middle of October 1876, after a day of happy com- 
munion and special waiting upon GOD with the 
friends at Chin-kiang, Messrs. James and Turner 
went on board the little native boat that was to take 
them up the Yang-tsi to Nan-king — the first sixty 
miles of their long and difficult journey. There, 
crossing the great river to its northern side, they 
soon left behind them the familiar province of 
KlANG-SU, and started overland for south Shan-SI, 
passing through Gan-hwuy, still desolated by traces 
of the great rebellion, which twenty years before had 
carried off so many millions of its inhabitants. They 
could not but be sadly reminded, as they journeyed 
day after day for a fortnight through this great and 
needy province — half as large again as Scotland, and 
containing between sixty and seventy walled cities — 
that the only Protestant missionaries labouring for 
its enlightenment were our two solitary brethren at 
the capital. 

" Our hearts are heavy," wrote Mr. Turner, " as we enter 
these ruined cities, and think of the scenes of bloodshed 
witnessed here, and of the present condition of those who 
once inhabited the now desolate scene. They have passed 
away, and it is too late to reach them. They have gone to 
their reward — the reward of idolatry and sin. And the 
few who remain, alas ! are hurrying on to the same sad 
doom. There is no one — no one — to tell them of Jesus 
before they swiftly drift beyond our reach." 

A wild and barren pass across the Tsing-lih-kuan 


brought them within sight of the great, and now 
populous plain that forms the northern part of the 
province, and stretches right across the border into 
Ho-KAN. Near the summit they found a few tea- 
shops, and a- number of people, pilgrims like them- 
selves, amongst whom they scattered the good seed 
of the Kingdom. At the highest point of the pass, 
a tunnel-like arch about forty feet long pierced 
through to the northern side of the hills, where the 
travellers obtained a beautiful view of the wide- 
spreading country beyond. The crimsoning autumn 


leaves formed a striking contrast to the silvery tints 
of the grasses and the willows' bright green, while 
over all the fair autumnal scene the slowly setting 
sun cast a rich glow. With hearts full of gratitude 
to God for the many enjoyments He loves to mingle 
with the service of His people, even in heathen lands, 
the brethren passed down the plain, and found a 
resting place in a pretty wayside village, whose one 
long, winding street was embellished in the centre 
by a fine bridge. Here a large crowd soon gathered 
about the preachers, the people listening with great 
attention until dark, when many followed them to 
the inn ; and the missionaries continued, far into the 
night, telling the glad tidings of salvation in Christ 
to those who never before had heard His Name. 

In northern Gan-HWUY the distressed condition 
of the inhabitants, in consequence of the prolonged 
seasons of drought, became more and more sadly 
apparent. They met " hundreds of people all miserably 
clad, and - looking starved and wretched, proceeding 
south, because of the scarcity of food." But the 
worst had yet to be. Not until two years later was 
the crisis of the famine reached. 

A busy Sunday \vas spent in Poh-chau, on the 
borders of Ho-NAN, where a number of Shan-SI 
men heard the Gospel for the first time. But they 
were still far from their destination. Two hundred 
miles of country, had yet to be crossed by cart — no 
easy undertaking in China! Little can the reader 
guess, as he quickly scans the story, the physical 


miseries involved by this " celestial " mode of travel. 
Little can he conceive the Chinese carts — those in- 
describable vehicles — that jolt, springless, over roads 
compared to some of which a ploughed field is 
smooth I 

The broad, swift Yellow River was crossed near 
K'ai-fung Fu —a mighty stream, exceeding the Yang- 
tsi in volume. The native ferry boats were of good 
size, the one in which they found themselves having 
on board " two carts, forty horses and mules, besides 
cattle, and no fewer than sixty men, some of whom 
carried burdens." 

A full month had elapsed since the commencement 
of their journey ere the travellers began to approach 
Shan-si; but on Wednesday, November 15th, the 
border was reached, and the province entered for the 
first time by C.I.M. missionaries. 

Like the Shen-SI pioneers, Messrs. Turner and 
James were unable to make any lengthened stay, 
their funds having run out ; but they spent three 
weeks in the southern prefectures of the province, 
and visited seven cities, besides many smaller places. 
They had good opportunities for preaching and selling 
books, and gathered much valuable information for 
future use. 

The last Sunday in November found them at 
P'ing-yang Fu, a large and busy place ; and then 
turning southward, through a well-cultivated and 
populous plain, they made towards the great river 
Han. In the depth of winter they cros.sed the 


mountainous heart of Ho-NAN, and Christmas Day 
found them entering Hu-PEH, on their way to Fan- 
ch'eng. Here the road was gladly exchanged for 
the river, and a fortnight's steady descent with the 
stream brought them to Hankow early in January 
1877 — a journey of seventeen hundred miles, through 
four inland provinces, occupying nearly three months, 
lying behind them. 


October 1876 — April 1877. 

loiO — The year that witnessed the signing of the 
Chefoo Convention, had passed away ; but its closing 
months had been eventful, as regards the evangeli- 
sation of Inland China, to others beside the two 
whose footsteps we have just traced. With what 
surprise and interest did the returning travellers learn 
that no fewer than eight brethren, in four parties, had 
gone afield during their brief absence, including 
Messrs. Judd and Broumton, who had just started on 
a long and important journey to Kwei-yang in the 
far south-west. 

New Yearns day 1877, found these evangelists widely 
scattered ; the two last-mentioned brethren travelling 
through Hu-NAN, in the heart of China ; Messrs. 
Cameron and NicoU established in their new station 
at I-chang, en route for the great province of Sl- 
CH'UEN ; Messrs. King and Budd itinerating on the 
Si-gan plain of central Shen-SI ; and beyond them, 

in the previously un visited province of Kan-SUH, 



Messrs. Easton and Parker seeking an entrance for 
the Gospel. 

The four last set out together upon their north- 

ward way up the Han as far as Lao-ho-k'eo, which 
they reached at the end of November. Thence a 
fortnight's difficult tramp over rough mountainous 
roads, through a poor country, where people seemed 


few and provisions short, brought them to their first 
destination, Si-gan, the large and busy metropolis of 
Sh EN-SI. Tired enough physically, but bright and 
hopeful in spirit, they entered at once upon their 
work ; Messrs. Easton and Parker preparing to travel 
eight days westward, to Kan-SUH ; Messrs. King and 
Budd to preach in the far-reaching populous plain 
surrounding the capit«il. 

" We have resolved, in God's strength," wrote Mr. King, 
** to make our journey a season of special waiting upon the 
Lord for spiritual refreshment and blessing, for more 
likeness to Himself, more practical holiness and brotherly 
love. , . • We have lately been much united in prayer 
together, these times have been precious indeed . . . 
and comforting to our souls. We cannot but feel that this 
blessing is probably due to the petitions that are being 
offered by others on our behalf. Go on praying ; we are 
feeling very insufficient for the solemn and yet glorious 
work to which we are called ; our cry is, * Lord, make Thy 
strength perfect in our weakness ! ' 

Of the last Sunday that they were all together 
Mr. Easton writes : — 

"Spent some time to-day on a quiet mountain side, 
reading Mr. Spurgeon's sermon on * Predestined to be 
conformed to the image of His Son.' What a blessed 
hope ! I pray that we may indeed be conformed to Him 
in holiness and zeal while here below. May we, too, be 
about our Father\s business, and eventually see much 
blessing amongst these cities. 1 feel that we are like the 
messengers sent out into the highways and hedges. Pray 
that we may bring in many to the feast ! " 


More than fourteen years have passed since those 
lines were penned, and the writer is still faithfully 
labouring in the same regions for which his heart was 
then drawn out in prayer and longing. As he travels 
now from one to another of the fifteen different 
stations in which our missionaries are established, and 
visits the little native churches, numbering altogether 
nearly two hundred souls, how gratefully must he 
remember those early days, when, as strangers, home- 
less, and friendless, the first little band of workers 
went up to commence the evangelisation of these two 
great provinces ! 

December was near its close, and the snow lay 
thickly over all the scene, when the party at Si-gan 
divided forces, and Messrs. Easton and Parker set out 
for Kan-SUH, a large, important province, more than 
twice the size of Ireland, with a population of at least 
three million people, but never up to this time even 
visited by Protestant missionaries. 

At Kin-chau, their first stopping place, a large 
orderly crowd gathered while Mr. Easton preached 
the Gospel. At first the good folk rather held back 
from buying books, but when one more daring than 
the rest had done the deed, others soon followed suit. 
One man, a Mohammedan, bought a small illustrated 
tract containing the story of the Prodigal Son. The 
brochure was returned presently. " I am a follower of 
the Prophet," remarked the buyer. " I do not want a 
picture with pigs in it ! '* 

P'ing-liang, a large but somewhat desolate-looking 


place, the first prefectural city reached by the travel- 
lers, contains about thirty thousand people. Its 
irregular buildings of mud and wood, border wide 
dusty roads, on several of which the brethren met 
with good audiences, and sold large quantities of 
books. They left after a brief stay, feeling that many 
had heard and understood the message of Life in that 

A fortnight's difficult tramp over the Lung moun- 
tains, and across the plain that stretches west to the 
Yellow River, just within the boundary of the Great 
Wall, brought the evangelists to the capital, Lan- 
chau, and to good inns, crowded streets, large book 
sales, and plenty of visitors, curious to see and hear 
as much as possible of the foreigner and his new 
doctrine. A Jewish-looking man bought a copy of 
Mark's Gospel, and read it through the same evening. 
Next day, in a crowded tea-shop, he was heard to 
repeat the whole story from memory, for the benefit 
of those present, giving a full and correct account of 
the miracles and many other details. 

A large Mohammedan mosque was found near the 
west gate of the city, which was also supplied with 
a Roman Catholic chapel. The priest, a native, 
was residing at a second chapel outside the walls. 
Thus, the first and only Protestant missionaries who 
had ever visited Lan-chau, our brethren found two 
Roman Catholic places of worship, and one, if not 
more, resident priests I 

After a brief stay at the capital, Messrs. Easton 


and Parker turned again southward by a different 
route. Many towns and villages were visited on 
the way, the last place of much importance being 
Ts'in-chau, a busy centre composed of six small cities 
grouped together. Its main street measures fully three 
miles from east to west. Staying here for several 
days they had many visitors ; amongst them a gentle- 
man who came in one evening from his quarters in 
a neighbouring inn, and talked for more than an hour. 

"He seemed quite familiar," wrote Mr. Easton, "with 
the main outlines of the geography of the world, and 
spoke about matters from a very foreign point of view. 

" * Are you aware of the decision of Margary's case ? ' he 
asked ; alluding also to Livingstone's discoveries in Africa, 
the late war between France and Germany, etc. 

" We proceeded to speak to him about the Gospel, as the 
one matter of supreme importance, when in a way un- 
common in China he openly stated his unbelief, and began 
to oppose our teachings. He argued earnestly, quoting 
Confucius with freedom and eloquence. He reproved the 
native evangelist who was with us, as having * forgotten his 
origin ' ; and said that he himself would not dare to repeat 
the things this good man was telling the people about 
Jesus. The evangelist, somewhat roused by such a reproof, 
took him on his own ground, answering his arguments 
powerfully. On the question of sin, our visitor said that 
tradesmen, and others of that class, might be wrong-doers, 
but he himself certainly was not." 

Several days' journey amongst the majestic moun- 
tains of the Pc-ling range brought the little party 
back to the borders of SliEN-si. At Han-chung they 


took to the river, and made their way down to 
the Yang-tsi, and Chin-kiang, which they reached 
after an absence of five eventful months, to find that 
Messrs. King and Budd, coming from the Si-gan 
plain, had arrived a fortnight before them. 




January 1877 — September 1877. 

FULLY four million people live in mountainous 
KWEI-CHAU, a province lying between Kwang- 
SI and Si-CH'uen, and covering an area twice as 
large as that of Scotland. Rice and opium are freely 
cultivated throughout its fertile valleys ; timber grows 
abundantly upon its hills ; and white-lead, copper, 
quicksilver, and iron are yielded in proportion to the 
industry of its inhabitants. Twenty years ago in all 
this important region, with its seventy-three walled 
cities, numberless towns, and villages, there were no 
witnesses for CHRIST. No Protestant missionary had 
ever crossed its border, much less sought to live among 
its people. 

Toward this needy region, on January 2nd, 1877, 
Messrs. Judd and Broumton set their faces. It was 
a wintry night, stormy and cold, when they left 
Wu-ch'ang for the West. To exchange the shelter 
of the little house on the hill for small, draughty 
boat-quarters was far from pleasant ; but missionaries 

VOL. II, 193 13 


in China understand enduring hardness, and life on 
a bleak river is a comparatively easy thing to face. 
A week's steady travelling up the broid Yang-tsi 
brought them to the mouth of the Tung-ting lake in 
northern Hu-NAN, crossing which some seventy miles, 
they entered the beautiful Yuen river, Sowing from 
the mountainous borderland of KwEI-CHAU. Up 
this rapid stream, day after day, for three long weeks 
they travelled through populous Hu-NAN, passing 
numerous towns and cities, in none of which the 
message of salvation had ever yet been heard. In 
spite of the turbulent character and strongly anti- 


foreign feeling of the people, they were everywhere 
preserved in safety, often finding an attentive hearing, 
and even a large measure of kindness from officials 
and populace. But the Imperial proclamation which 
was to have been posted in every city, in compliance 
with the stipulations of the Chefoo Convention, was 
nowhere to be met with in Hu-NAN. 

" Among a people so unruly and so much opposed 
to foreigners, its publication would be unsafe," said 
the officials. 

The Yuen river at this stage is quite as beautiful 
as the loveliest reaches of the Rhine. Abundant 
verdure, absence of which so often spoils an otherwise 
charming landscape in China, covers the mountain 
sides. Their first Sunday was a good one. 

**Our boatmen," wrote Mr. Judd, "all gathered to the 
morning meeting, and paid much attention, as we read and 
explained the story of the Crucifixion from John xix. Poor 
fellows ! The wonderful tidings seemed almost incredible 
to them. One of the number tells us that he fully purposes 
to become a Christian, and hopes to be baptised when he 
returns to Hankow. After our meeting we went ashore, and 
preached for some time to the villagers." 

A conversation was held with an elderly woman, to 
whom, as to all the rest, the Gospel-message was new 
and very strange. 

" It is really very kind of you to come so far," she 
exclaimed, " to tell good things ! Our people 
do not know. They go Continually to the temples, 
burn incense, and give rice and other things to the 
priests ; and in the end, what becomes of it all ? " 


What a privilege to be the first to carry the glad 
tidings of salvation to such souls ! Who would not 
covet it, constrained by love? 

The " gods ** are active in these regions. Lodged 
in the cliffs by the river, full sixty feet above the 
highest water mark, the travellers noticed something 

"It is a cupboard made of wood," explained the 
natives ; " how it got there nobody can tell. Wc 
believe it contains great treasure. Long ago they 
tried to reach it from above ; a man was let down 
forty feet over the side of the rocks, but just as he 
came to the place, a clap of thunder burst overhead. 
The gods were angry. After that, of course, no one 
dr.rcd to try again." 

Higher up in the same stratum a wooden boat is 
distinctly seen lying lengthways in a narrow cleft, 
with its side projecting slightly. Only one answer 
can be obtained to all inquiries : — 

" Nobody knows how it got there ! The gods have 
done it ! " 

Wonderful caverns lie beneath, twenty feet high at 
the entrance, and rising to a magnificent natural dome 
seventy feet above the rocky floor, while far below, 
without, the river rushes. 

" We went in a little distance," wrote Mr. Judd ; " here 
crossing a deep crevice, there entering some high vaulted 
chamber, which the light of our candles scarcely sufficed to 
reveal. The grandeur of these vast subterranean halls was 
overpowering, and we were glad to return to our l>oat out 


in the sunshine, rather than seek to penetrate their gloomy 
depth, which the natives say extends twelve miles into the 


The last part of the river journey, one hundred 
mfles of almost continuous rapids, brought the 
travellers on February 3rd, a month after leaving 
Wu-^hang, to the borderland of KwEI-CHAU. Then 
came twelve days* land journey to the capital by 
coolie-chair, over a lonely mountain road. As far as 
eye coUd reach from the summit of the first ascent, 
beautiful hills and valleys half hidden by drifting 
clouds, vveie veiled in pure white snow ; while every 
separate bUde of grass, each leaf, twig, branch, and 
stem, throughout the almost endless forests clothing 
the steep hillsdes, gleamed in the sunlight, delicately 
encased in its avn clear sheath of brilliant ice. The 
only sound to Ke heard was the mighty crash with 
which some forest giant would break down under 
his icy burden, the only signs of human life were 
the little villages, ot solitary wayside dwellings, where 
at night the travelleis. sought shelter. 

One evening, arriving at their halting-place tired 
by the hard day's tr^mp and stiff with cold, they 
found a welcome and ^ fire at one of these lonely 
cottages. Mine host, ^ simple mountaineer, was 
interested in his unwonted guests, and especially in 
the Gospel story, unfolded for the first time to his 
wondering mind. Many travellers had passed that 
way since his boyhood, and tnany a talk had they 
had while resting at the waysidt inn ; but none ever 


spoke such things as these before ! The night wore 
on. Still he listened ; and still they told him more 
of the strange Glad Tidings. 

" He became deeply interested in the Gospel/' 
wrote Mr. Judd. "I trust we may meet him in glory." 

A week of such travelling brought the evangel'sts 
to the city of Chen-yuen, famous for its strongly 
anti-foreign character. Three years before, Augustus 
Margary passing that way on his last jcurney, 
encountered considerable difficulty, his boa.' being 
dragged ashore by the people and burnoi. Sub- 
sequently some Romish priests had made a detour 
requiring ten days extra on the road, rather than 
pass through Chen-yuen. Messrs. Judd aid Broumton 
naturally anticipated opposition, and earnestly sought 
protection of GOD as they nearcd thi town. Their 
luggage, which they had sent on ?head, hoping it 
might escape observation, was stopped at the gates, 
where a little crowd awaited their arrival. But the 
official, after examining the missionaries' passports, 
allowed them to proceed, and they entered the busy 
streets, passing unhindered among the thronging 
crowd ; and although recognised as foreigners and 
stared at with surprise, no unfriendly feeling was 

Many of the towns and cities reached towards the 
end of the journey were ruined and desolate. The 
raiding Miao-tsi, a hardy and unsubdued aboriginal 
tribe of the Nan-ling mountains, are always at 
daggers drawn with their more prosperous neighbours 


of the plain, and, frequently the victims of the latter*s 
injustice and rapacity, they come down at times to 
destroy the temples and burn the cities of their hated 
foes. Mr. Broumton's interest was much stirred on 
behalf of these wild and lawless hill-men, for whom 
none seemed to care.* 

February was half through before the travellers 
sighted their destination, the capital of KWEI-CHAU. 
A fair scene spread before them when, the last steep 
climb accomplished, they looked down in the early 
morning sunshine on the plain of Kwei-yang lying 
at their feet, and the city itself, beautiful with its 
trees and greenery, backed by the distant mountains. 

A remarkable man, whose history is perhaps without 
parallel amongst foreigners in the Empire of the 
East, was living in Kwei-yang at this time. European 
by birth, he had become almost naturalised in China ; 
and having rendered valuable service to the Govern- 
ment of KWEI-CHAU during the recent Miao-tsi 
rebellion, had been raised to official rank and 
influence as a reward. Familiar with English 
and French, he had also completely mastered the 
conversational Chinese of official circles, and was 
thoroughly at home in the life and habits of the 
ruling class. Upon their arrival at Kwei-yang 

• The Miao-t2<i, "children of the soil,' form one of the 
largest of over a hundred aboriginal tribes found in the west 
of China. They are an interesting, intelligent people, unfettered 
by idolatry or ancestral worship, and offer a promising field for 
Christian effort. No missionary has yet settled among them. 
Nor have the Scriptures even been translated into their languages. 


Messrs. Judd and Broumton found a cordial welcome 
at his house. He insisted upon their becoming his 
guests, treating them with every attention. And for 
ten days they occupied the quarters thus generously 
provided ; meeting the local officials and gentry, who 
came in considerable numbers upon hearing that 
foreign visitors had arrived, and were thus brought 
into contact with the Gospel, which otherwise might 
never have reached them. 

In the busiest parts of the city they found good 
sales for their Scriptures and tracts, and attentive 
audiences. Empty houses were scarce, and Mr. 
Broumton might have had serious difficulty in obtain- 
ing a residence, but that their host placed a build- 
ing of his own at their disposal. After this Mr. 
Judd returned to his distant station and work, leaving 
his companion to hold the fort alone in far-off KWEI- 
CHAU— the only Protestant missionary in the whole 
of that great province, seven weeks' journey, at least, 
from any Christian friends. 

Mr. Judd did not retrace his steps through Hu- 
NAN, across which he and his companions had come, 
a determined effort having been made by the people 
of that province to resist the entrance of foreigners. 

"The highest official in Hunan," he writes, "is the 
foreigner's enemy, and his influence has spread to the lowest 
of the people. A large organisation has been formed, with 
a number of Hu-nan mandarins at its head, for the purpose 
of preventing any Europeans from entering the province ; 
and also, eventually, to extirpate all foreigners from China ! 


I have seen a copy of their private circular, in which, of 
course, the religion of the Lord Jesus comes in for a share 
of violent slander. The Imperial proclamation allowing all 
foreigners to travsjl in the Interior, and commanding the 
officials to protect them, his nowhere been posted in 


Sl-CiruEN, instead of Hu-NAN, became his home- 
ward route. Ch*ung-k'ing, the important commercial 
capital of the province, was reached in the middle of 
March (1877) ; and his heart was saddened to find no 
Protc tint missionary amongst its teeming popula- 
tion, although Roman Catholics were there, as at 
Kwci-yang, in full force. 

The journey down the mighty Yang-tsi to I-ch*ang 
was not without its dangers. Overtaken and captured 
by pirates not far from Ch'ung-k'ing, the missionary 
and his Christian native companion were kept for some 
hours, expecting at any moment a violent death ; and 
only the gracious providence of GOD ultimately 
delivered them. Upon arriving at l-ch'ang they went 
ashore, to visit, a ; they hoped, Messrs. Cameron and 
Nicoll in their new station ; but what was the surprise 
with which they found the brethren gone, and their 
house in ruins — fruit of the I-ch'ang riot ! Continuing 
his journey, Mr. Judd arrived at home, in Hankow, 
at the end of March. 

Three months later the lonely worker left single- 
handed in distant Kwei-yang was cheered by rein- 
forcements, when Messrs. George Clarke, Edward 
Fishe, and Landale came to share his solitary quarters 
and great work. Around them lay the whole far- 


reaching province, seventy-two walled cities, govern- 
ing thousands of smaller towns and villages, and 
all without one single witness for GOD — surely a 
plenteous harvest, and labourers but few! 

Yet there were other needs that seemed, if possible, 
more urgent. And when the brethren looked away 
beyond the southern boundary of KWEI-CHAU to vast 
K\VANG-SI in all its darkness — larger even, and more 
populous than their own province, but without one 
single missionary — what could they say except, " Here 
am I ; send me " ? Within a week of their arrival 
Messrs. Clarke and Fishe again prepared to go for- 
ward, now into KWANG-SI, leaving Messrs. Landale 
and Broumton to their lonely labours at Kwei-yang. 

Little information could the brethren obtain, either 
as to the best route, or the kind of reception they 
might expect across the border. They knew that the 
province in which they proposed to itinerate was 
almost as large as England and Scotland ; contained 
a population of five million people, proverbially 
hostile to foreigners ; and that Roman Catholic 
attempts to effect an entrance had been successfully 
resisted. They were told that to try and sell books 
in that region was useless, or to seek to influence the 
people in any way for good. " Nevertheless," wrote 
Mr. Clarke, " we started, trusting in GOD." 

Twelve days' rough travelling across the Nan-ling 
mountains brough't them to the border of Kwang-SI, 
in the middle of July. At Kin-yuen, the first city 
met with, they had to the river in sight of a 


considerable crowd. Sending the others forward, 
Mr. Clarke took a handful of books and besf^n to 
speak to the people, hoping to keep them in good 
humour. After talking awhile he offered the tracts 
and Scriptures, wondering whether they would be 
bought. To his surprise the people purchased them 
eagerly. A second supply, and a third, were soon 
disposed of; and when Mr. Fishe returned to the 
ferry-boat for more, the people crowded on board, 
and began to pull the whole stock out of the boxes 
in their eagerness to obtain them. Such was the 
demand, that the brethren found it difficult to with- 
draw with any of their books left unsold ; and this 
in a province of which it had been reported that the 
people would not buy ! 

For more than six weeks the evangelists travelled 
on unhindered, passing many important places, and 
everywhere finding the same readiness to purchase 
books. Had they made any attempt to settle, oppo- 
sition would probably have arisen ; but as it was, they 
were not interfered with. 

" The people would have books,^^ wrote Mr. George Clarke, 
" and this eagerness to buy was general. Often we passed 
through places where markets were being held ; and 
numbers of those present after listening to our preaching 
carried the books away with them to their mountain homes. 
Hundreds must have thus been scattered beyond the places 
we ourselves were able to visit." 

The pioneers were warmly welcomed on their return 
to Kwei-yang by Messrs. Broumton and Landale, 


and a change for all four was arranged, the latter 
deciding to take a short tour, leaving the only two 
bedrooms of their little house to the newly arrived 
travellers. The weather was hot, and both the brethren 
were suffering slightly from fever ; but nothing serious 
was apprehended, and Messrs. Broumton and Landale 
left them with no thought of danger. They had not 
long been absent, however, when a messenger hurriedly 
recalled them to Kwei-yang, and they arrived to find 
Mr. George Clarke in high fever on one side of the 
house, while in the opposite room his companion lay 
uncon.scious, dying of the same complaint. Through 
the long hours of one memorable night they watched 
by his side, doing what little was possible to soothe 
and help him ; but early on the morning of the follow- 
ing day (September 6th, 1877) Edward Fishe fell 
asleep in jESUS. 

Far away at Wu-ch'ang his newly-made widow and 
orphans little guessed the loss that had befallen them. 
After one more missionary journey in the province 
that had been laid upon his heart and remembered 
for years in earnest prayer, he had hoped to return for 
these loved ones, and bring them to his new sphere 
in the far interior. But GOD had' other plans for 
him. His work on earth was done. 

"Truly it is well with him," wrote Mr. Hudson 
Taylor; "but who is ready to take up the fallen 
mantle, to go forth in his footsteps, and be GOD*s 
witness among the perishing millions of K\VANG-SI ? 


Who is ready to leave all and follow jESUS, saying as 
to earth's comfort, ease, or rest — " Not now, for 'here 
have we no continuing city, but we seek one to 
come.* " 

" Surely some one is ready to raise the fallen banner, 
and go forth gladly to the front ranks of the battle, 
where the conqueror's crown may, perhaps, be soonest 

" One phrase is often used in speaking of those who 
are taken to the rest above. * Our loss,* we say, * is 
their gain.' In a sense, of course, this is true. But 
would it not be even more true to say, — *this gain, 
which is theirs, is our gain too * ? 

" We are finite both in wisdom and resources, and 
often can only give to one of two whom we desire to 
help ; or must divide our gift, making it less for each. 
Not so our Father. He does not rob one that He 
may enrich another ; but always does the best for each, 
the best for all. He does the best for the widow and the 
orphan ; the best for each sorrowing survivor, as well 
as the best for him who enters on the joys eye hath 
not seen, nor ear heard ; the best for the one whose 
tears still flow, just as truly as for the other whose 
tears are for ever wiped away." 


DURING all the months of the year 1877, 
through which we have been following the first 
missionaries of the Gospel to the provinces of KvvEI- 
CHAU and KWANG-SI, another pioneer evangelist 
has steadily pursued his way through hitherto un- 
travelled regions, completing a solitary journey of 
seven months* duration and three thousand miles in 
length, from the eastern shore-line of China to its 
most distant west. 

Mr. John McCarthy was the first non-official 
tfaveller to cross China, and the earliest evangelist to 
herald the glad tidings of the Gospel throughout a 
large part of three provinces. For many years it had 
been his earnest desire to attempt the journey he was 
thus finally enabled to accomplish, and practically to 
solve the much-debated question as to whether the 
far interior was open to the evangelist or not. While 
labouring in the provinces of Cheh-KIANG and 
KlANG-SU, bordering on the Yellow Sea, or further 
inland upon the banks of the great Yang-tsi in popu- 
lous Gan-HWUY, his thoughts had often travelled 



westward toward the regions as yet unentered by any 
witness for CHRIST. But the way had never opened 
for such a journey. The mere suggestion aroused 

" Walk across China ? What madness ! " said the 
critics. " Impossible ; it never could be done ! " 

And so the heart's desire was only spoken of to 
God ; while year after year the prayer went up that 
He would bring it to pass in due season. 

In the autumn of 1875, when, after a few weeks' 
stay in England, Mr. McCarthy returned with two 
of the eighteen brethren for the Interior, his hope 
seemed as distant as ever. It was arranged that 
when the brethren knew the language sufficiently to 
permit of their going forward, Mr. McCarthy should 
be their escort inland. But when the time came, and 
six of the young men were ready to start, Mr. Taylor's 
absence and other circumstances rendered his pre- 
sence necessary at the coast. What was to be done ? 
After prayerful consideration the brethren felt that, 
looking to the LORD for help and guidance, they 
ought to go forward alone, believing that He would 
make up for an absence which was clearly of His 

Immediately on the signing of the Chefoo Con- 
vention they started, as we have already seen, two for 
Shan-si, two for Shen-SI, and two for distant Kan- 
SUH, travelling far and wide throughout those im- 
portant regions, meeting with many difficulties, as 
well as much to encourage, and returning again, and 


yet again, to the work. GOD blessed their eflforts, for 
inexperience and weakness need be no hindrance to 
Him, and ultimately used them to open permanent 
stations in each of these provinces. 

Thus the special work for which Mr. McCarthy 
.seemed to have been brought back to China was 
accomplished without him ; and he could not but 
wonder for what his return had been per- 
mitted just then. But before many months had 
passed the matter was made plain. For resting 
in the LORD, and waiting patiently for Him, is a 
very sure way of arriving at the solution of all life's 
mysteries — the greatest as well as the least. Mr. 
Hudson Taylor's arrival in Shanghai at the end of 
the year liberated Mr. McCarthy from duties at the 
coast, and some of the brethren he had sent off upon 
their journeys had scarcely time to reach their desti- 
nations in the north before he himself was free to 
start w'estward — to .seek, as the LORD might open the 
way, the accomplishment of the undertaking that had 
so long been laid upon his heart. 

Not only were hindrances removed ; needed help 
was also provided in the person of a very suitable 
native Christian, who gladly volunteered to accom- 
pany Mr. McCarthy. Although his unexpected offer 
was the very thing to be desired, the missionary 
thought well to warn him of the difficulties and 
dangers that would necessarily be encountered should 
they penetrate as far as western YUN-NAN, in 
ing which Margary had been murdered. 


"If Mr. McCarthy, a stranger from a foreign land, 
docs not fear," replied the young man, " if he feels it 
laid upon his heart to carry the Gospel to western 
China, at the risk of his life, certainly P, Ts*uen-ling, 
a native of the country, and also a believer in the 
one true GOD, must have equal faith." 

So it was settled. And Mr. McCarthy still delights 
to recall the Chinaman's invaluable aid, without which 
that journey never could have been accomplished. 

The close of January 1877, found them en route, 
vid Hankow, for I-ch'ang — a large and busy city nine 
hundred miles from the coast, newly opened as a free 
port, at which the English consul and custom-house 
officials had quite recently arrived. Previously our 
brethren Cameron and Nicoll had been the only 
foreigners living in I-ch'ang. Now, however, in con- 
sequence of official negotiations for the purchase of 
land, etc., trouble seemed to be brewing. This culmi- 
nated in a serious riot on March 3rd, a few days after 
Mr. McCarthy's arrival. All foreigners were obliged 
to leave the city for the time being ; and it was not 
until June that Mr. Cameron, after living for some 
weeks on a little boat near at hand, was allowed to 
return. : 

Meanwhile Mr. McCarthy had continued his journey 
westward, following the great Yang-tsi as it enters 
a few miles above I-ch'ang, the first of the celebrated 
gorges whose wild and solemn beauty well-nigh 
defies description. Following its westward course, the 
travellers painfully ascended the long succession of its 

VOL. II. 14 


rapids toithc border of Sl-CH'UEH. With feelings of 
the deepest interest they approached this magnificent 
western province, rich, fertile, and beautiful, covering 
an area more than equal to three Englands, and 
containing a population of at least twenty millions. 
Roman Catholics had long been established in this 
region, but at the time of Mr. McCarthy's visit there 
was not a single Protestant missionary anywhere to 
be found in Si-Ch'UEN. 

One early April morning, Wan-hien came in sight, 
finely situated on a hillside near the river. Shipping 
lay crowded along the shore, and everything combined 


to indicate a busy commercial centre, with all the 
concomitant evils usually found in Chinese ports. 
Here the travellers left the river, and commenced 
their long overland march across three provinces, into 
Upper Burmah. 

The first stage of five-and-twenty days between 
Wan-hien and Ch'ung-k'ing was full of interest, the 
road lying through a populous and fertile district, 
whose inhabitants welcomed the strangers. 

"This part of Si-ch'uen," the journal runs, "is densely 
populated, the nu iierous towns and large villages being 
often little more than a mile apart. The people seem very 
industrious, hardly a spot of uncultivated land can be 
found. The fine hills are, as a rule, completely covered 
with vegetation up to their summits; wheat, beans, peas, 
rape, rice, and opium being the principal crops. We met 
large numbers of heavily burdened coolies going towards 
Wan-hien, carrying coal and paper, as well as rice and 
vegetables \ while tho§e travelling in the opposite direction 
were laden with cotton, salt, iron, and sulphur amongst 
other things. Trade seems to be brisk ; and although so 
much traversed, the roads are good, and kept in tolerable 

The friendliness of the people was most cheering. 
In one lovely country district, not far from Kwang- 
gan, the City of Broad Peace, the evangelists were 
entertained at the house of a young man previously 
met in Gan-k*ing, hundreds of miles away. For 
about a fortnight they were domiciled amongst his 
hospitable clan ; invited from house to house, and 
village to village, greatly enjoying the little season 


of rest and quiet thus afforded after the strain of 
continually travelling among busy, crowded cities, 
walking and talking from morning till night, and 
j)utting up with the discomfort of Chinese wayside 

It was an excellent opening. The people seemed 
leally glad to hear, asked frequent questions, and 
listened long and attentively. Curiosity was rife as 
to life in foreign lands — steamboats, trains, telegraphic 
communication, etc. 

" Does it ever rain in your honourable country ? " 
they would gravely inquire ; " and docs rain come 
down as it does in China ? " 

*' Have you any mountains and valleys, so far 
away ? " 

" Does the sun shine on you as on us ? and is it 
the same sun?" 

Kind and patient answers to these trivial questions 
removed misapprehension, and 'gained confidence, 
winning an entrance for the Master's message to 
darkened minds and hearts. 

** In that one district of Si-ch'uen," wrote Mr. McCarthy, 
** in a circle with a diameter of only about forty miles, I 
might easily have spent four to six months had time 
allowed, simply in going about from one place to another, 
as I received invitations. Many were the pressing calls 
1 was obliged to refuse ; and in none of the houses to 
which I went would the people take anything from me. 
They did not want my money. They received me freely 
as a friend, and in every case were glad to have the books 


and tracts left with tliem, and to hear the Clospel from 
my lips." 

Two or three days' journey from the pleasant 
district of Broad Peace brought the travellers to 
Shun-k'ing, where again they met with friendly 
entertainment. Thence by a rice junk they reached 
Ch'ung-k'ing, the great metroixilis of the west. Ten 
May days were spent in this important city. Im- 
pressed by its size, the density of its population, and 
its exceeding need, Mr. McCarthy took a house here, 
which was occupied later on by our brethren Cameron 
and Nicoll. 

Prevented going westward from Ch'ung-k'ing, 


Mr. McCarthy and Ts'uen-ling took the southern route 
to Kwci-yang. They travelled very simply, walking 
all the way, their little luggage carried by a coolie, 
engaged to follow them anywhere. All difficulty 
about hiring chairs or bearers, horses or mules thus 
obviated, it was comparatively easy to pass quickly 
on without bustle or excitement. 

Mr. McCarthys previous experience of Chinese 
travelling, had taught him that, very commonly, dis- 
comfort arises from the fact that the hungry, tired-out 
wayfarer, after his long day's journey, finds it difficult 
patiently to endure the presence of " the curious, 
gaping, though often appreciative crowd, that naturally 
gathers about him to see the animal feed." He 
therefore chose the wise expedient of always remain- 
ing at the first lodging house reached at their destina- 
tion, irrespective of the accommodation offered. By 
this means he and his companions were generally 
able to get a cup of tea and make some sort of meal 
before many visitors arrived. Somewhat refreshed, 
they could then welcome the crowd as they came, and 
give themselves to seeking the benefit of the people 
in intercourse which invariably proved pleasant. 

Five days south of Ch'ung-k'ing the border of 
KWEI-CHAU was crossed. The country here grew 
wild and mountainous, all the available land in many 
places seemed to be under cultivation for opium, and 
the people were exceedingly poor and miserable. 
Spending a night at the first prefectural city on the 
road, they fell in with a Sl-cll'UEN mandarin. 


" He was only fifty-eight years of age," wrote Mr. 
McCarthy, " but was withered and decrepit from the lavish 
use of opium. Several times during the day I had noticed 
his sedan-chair left empty in the street, while he was 
somewhere indoors gratifying his depraved appetite. As 
we conversed together on the evils of opium-smoking, 
amongst other things, he was most emphatic in his con- 
demnation of the practice, and in his expressions of 
astonishment that Englishmen should have any complicity 
in such a trade. I told him, of course, that if all Englishmen, 
and Chinamen too, for that matter, really believed in 
Christ Jesus, they would neither grow, nor sell, nor use 
the drug for any except medicinal purposes. He smiled 
very faintly at the possibility of a consummation so remote, 
considering, as he said, that * now every other man smokes ' ! 
Soon afterwards he withdrew to transact some * important 
matters,* which my most pressing requests could not induce 
him to defer. A few minutes later this distinguished 
personage, * the father and mother of the people,' might 
have been seen lying, like any of his coolies, enjoying the 
opium pipe, regardless of Viceroy, Emperor, and all the 
world beside." 

Everywhere the travellers were painfully impressed 
with the results of this vice. 

" In the prefecture of Tsen-i nothing but the poppy 
seemed grown. There were said to be opium smokers 
in every house of every town and village I passed through. 
This may not have been literally true, but the quantity 
consumed must be enormous, and the number of smokers 
fully five or six-tenths of the population. Even lads and 
girls seem to have acquired the habit." 

Sixteen days from Ch'ung-k'ing brought the 


travellers to Kwei-yang early in June. A soldier 
whom they had overtaken en route led them to the 
district in which Messrs. Broumton and Landale were 
living ; and passing down the street they soon caught 
sight of the welcome characters that announced the 
little mission house, reached at last. 

Rested and refreshed by a pleasant visit, they 
started again for Yun-nan Fu, the capital of the 
neighbouring province. Little more than two years 
had elapsed since the murder of Mr. Margary at 
Man-wyne ; and although the Chefoo Convention had 
been signed since then, and proclamations issued 
in favour of foreigners travelling inland throughout 
the Empire, it still seemed quite a question as to how 
an Englishman, unprotected and alone, might be 
received in the regions that had witnessed that dark 
deed. The needs of YUN-NAN, however, burdened the 
missionary's heart ; and, feeling that practical expe- 
riment as to the possibility of evangelising its people 
must be made, Mr. McCarthy prayerfully decided to 
penetrate, at any rate, to the capital. 

Through a somewhat desolate and barren country 
they made their way to Gan-shun, the next prefectural 
city, about halfway to the YUN-NAN border— a busy, 
populous, and important centre, whose far-reaching 
traffic attracts thousands to its crowded monthly 
fairs. Numbers of men from the southern sea-board 
provinces ply a flourishing trade in opium between 
this place and Canton, travelling in large companies, 
sometimes as many as two thousand together, armed 


for the road, each carrying a long spear — a decidedly 
formidable band. The authorities, at the time cf 
Mr. McCarthy's visit, were endeavouring to put a 
stop to this dangerous condition of affairs. 

The long summer days of July saw the travellers 
well across the border into the province of YUN-NAN, 
in which no Protestant missionary had ever before 
been seen. At the gate of the capital, a good-sized 
city with a very populous southern district, they 
were stopped, and the nature of their business de- 
manded. Ts'uen-ling explained, giving tracts to the 
officials, who soon allowed them to go peaceably on 
their way. Judging it wiser not to attempt street 
preaching, which might have courted opposition, the 
evangelists spent a few days working quietly amongst 
the people, and gathering information as to the 
possibilities of going further west. Still finding no 
hindrance, they were encouraged to go on, right 
across the heart of the province to Ta-li Fu. It was 
wonderful how the LORD preserved and prospered 
them from day to day. 

" It was not that we were able lo overcome difficulties," 
wrote Mr. McCarthy, "or remove obstacles caused by 
mandarins and others trying to oppose our progress ; such 
difficulties simply did not exist \Ve quietly pursued our 
way with all the other travellers along the road; having 
constant intercourse with officials journeying to their various 
appointments, with traders occupied in business affairs, and 
with large numbers of the poorer people. We associated, 
in fact, with all sorts and conditions of men ; and with but 
two exceptions, never received a cross word from any one 



the whole journey through. It was noteworthy that the 
only two who seemed the least disposed to be unfriendly 
were men who came from the coast. One was from 
Chin-kiang, a free port on the Yang-tsi, in which 1 had 
myself lived for years \ and the other was from VVu-ch'ang, 
opposite the foreign settlement at Hankow. The disrespect 
they showed us did not amount to much. When Ts'uen-ling 
offered them a book, with some pleasant remark, one of 
them answered roughly, — 

" * Why do you go about the country like this selling the 
foreign deviPs literature ? Do you think we have no books 
of our own? Have you never seen the writings of 
Confucius ? ' 

" ' Well, if you don't care for the book, there is no need to 
have it ! ' replied the young man, and the trouble blew over. 

** For the rest of that day the speaker would have 
nothing to do with us; but on the morrow, as we were 
resting by the wayside, I invited him to take a cup of tea 
with me. The Chinaman in him could not resist the tea, 
and we soon l)ecame fast friends ; which happier state of 
affairs continued to the end of the journey and our arrival 
at Ta-li Fu. 

" The Chefoo Convention had already effected great 
good in YuN-NAN. We found it quite a recognised fact 
amongst the common people as well as with the authorities, 
that foreigners have a right to travel in the country. And 
not merely is it recognised that they have a right to do so ; 
it is also expected that they will. Nobody seemed surprised 
to see me ; the only surprise being that foreign officials had 
not yet been appointed to reside either in the capital or at 
Ta-li Fu. I found it quite a popular idea that an English 
consul was soon to be sent to the latter city to open a 
foreign store. ^^ 

The country people here were still deplorably poor 


and degraded. The women largely toil at heavy 
manual labour, elsewhere considered only fit for men ; 
and the people suffer greatly from a tendency to 
goitre^ the women, especially, having them of immense 
size. In some towns through which the travellers 
passed, fully half the population seemed to be affected 
by this trying complaint. Fever and ague were also 
very common, and the sufferers were exceedingly 
grateful for the medical aid Mr. McCarthy was able 
to give. 

From Ta-li Fu the travellers made west for the 
Burman frontier, through mountainous regions, the 
roads growing rougher, and travelling more difficult. 
The upper waters of the Cambodia were crossed at 
the foot of a range of far-reaching hills, beyond 
which lay busy Yung-ch'ang in its sheltered, fertile 

Scarcely one week's journey from this place stands 
the frontier town of Man-wyne, at which Margary 
had fallen ; and the way being still quite open, Mr. 
McCarthy decided to walk on to that point, hoping 
to cross into Burmih, should the LORD permit. The 
only stopping place of importance on the road is the 
city of Momicn, in a broad and comparatively well- 
peopled valley, high up among the mountains. Here 
the travellers spent a few days preaching the Gospel, 
and making friends, interested to find that the fame 
of the Bhamd Medical Mission had spread even to 
that distance across the borderland. 

Arrived at Man-wyne, Mr. McCarthy's first care 


was to circulate a number of books and tracts to 
show that he had come on no political errand, but 
simply as a travelling "teacher." At nightfall the 
military mandarin sent round to inquire whether he 
had come on " public matters." 

" I returned the messenger with my card," wrote Mr. 
McCarthy, '* saying that I was only a private individual, a 
religious teacher who had come from the capital ; and that 
being so near the frontier it was my intention to cross over 
to Bhamo, to see som^ friends living there who were 
engaged in similar work. 

** lie replied that he supposed my friends must be Dr. 
Harvey and those associated with him ; and assured me 
that he had personally a warm regard for them, having met 
them frequently while in Burmah. Also that, being their 
fiiend, he was the more anxious to take good care of me; 
and therefore wished me to understand that as long as I 
remained in Man-wyne he would be responsible for my 
safety; adding that 1 ought not to attempt to cross the 
hills without getting one of the chieftains to go security for 
my safe conduct to Bhamo. 

" Travelling simply as you arc, you need apprehend 
no difficulty, except from the wild tribes on the 
Kah-chen hills," had been the warning frequently 
received by the missionary. For the good behaviour 
of the mountain-men no one could be responsible. 
Certainly, armed with their long knives and spears, 
they looked wild and fierce enough. Feeling sure, 
however, that the Lord, who had led them thus far 
in safety, would not fail to protect and guide them 
still, our travellers were not to be deterred from their 

MR. McCarthy's walk across china, 221 

purpose, and having engaged a mountain-chief as 
guide, they set forth. 

For two or three days their route lay among the 
Kah-chen hills, whose people everywhere received 
them with great kindness, volunteering the very best 
of their provision and house-room, and hospitably 
conducting them from point to point in perfect 
safety. Nothing could have exceeded their friendli- 
ness ; and Mr. McCarthy, whose heart was much 
drawn out towards them, anticipating only a brief 
stay in Burmah, agreed to visit them again on his 

On a warm summer evening at the end of August 
he at last reached Bhamo, and made his way up to 
the mission-station. Messrs. Soltau and Adams in 
that lonely situation, so far from intercourse with the 
outside world, could hardly believe it possible that a 
foreigner had arrived. 

" Who can it be ? '* they asked, bewildered, " and 
where has he come from ? " 

The answer to these questions -that it was none 
other than John McCarthy, and that he had come all 
the way from Shanghai, three thousand miles over- 
land right across China — scarcely made the wonder 
seem less. And it was some time before, in their joy 
and surprise, they could believe it true. Little by 
little the story was told, as the weary travellers 
rested from their long journey, and together they 
praised GOD, Whose hand had indeed been with 
them for good. 


Remarkably enough, the first formidable hindrance 
put in Mr. McCarthy's way was from the Indian 
Government, and took the form of a letter addressed 
to him by the British agent resident at Bhamo. For 
seven months he had travelled unhindered through pro- 
vince after province, visiting cities, towns, and villages 
almost innumerable ; and now in Burmah he found 
his first difficulty — not from the Chinese, not from 
the Shans, not from the wild tribes of the Kah-chen 
hills, all of whom treated him with invariable kind- 
ness and respect, but from cur own authorities ! The 
message sent him was to the effect that the Govern- 
ment could not consent to his returning to China 
vid YUN-NAN, considering that route unsafe for 

This prohibition, although unexpected, and natur- 
ally anything but welcome, was not allowed to trouble 
his heart. 

" I believed that it was GoD who had brought me 
safely through China," wrote Mr. McCarthy ; " and 
if God had wanted me to return that way, neither 
the Viceroy of India, nor any other power, could 
have prevented it. I took the message as from HiM, 
and so could not trouble about it." 

Well is it to be so utterly at rest in GoD as the 
one great Circumstance of life with which we have to 
deal, as to be satisfied with whatever He may either 
send or permit— having no will apart from His, which 
IS always wisest, always best ! 

After spending six months helping the brethren at 

Mi^, McCarthy's walk across china. 223 

Bhamd, Mr. McCarthy paid a second visit to England 
before returning to China by sea. 

Thus was accomplished the first great missionary 
journey right across China ; linking Shanghai and 
Hankow, on the Yang-tsi, with uncvangelised 
Sl-CHUEN, far-off KWEI-CHAU desolated by war and 
opium, and the cities of YuN-NAN itself, never 
previously visited with the Gospel ; and connecting 
these again with the dangerous borderland of the 
Burman frontier, with the Kah-chen hills, and the 
upper waters of the Irawaddy. Thus was proved 
the accessibility of the people of these regions, and 
their willingness to receive the Gospel message, never 
before brought within their reach. 

Some one had gone and tried it. 

Some one had been able, by the blessing of GOD, to 
pass quietly through these populous inland provinces, 
generally supposed to be too distant, too dangerous, 
or in any other ways unsuitable for the residence of 
foreign missionaries. 

Some one whose eyes had seen, and whose heart 
had felt the unspeakably great and awful need of the 
millions of western China, had gone home again to 
England. There was a voice now to plead with 
new authority the long-neglected cause of her lost 
tribes and races ; the unutterable degradation of her 
oppressed and suffering womanhood ; the opium- 
cursed, sin-bound condition of her vast regions, 
unblqssed by any knowledge of the light and liberty 
of the children of GOD. 


And these needs and possibilities were pleaded, 
faithfully, earnestly, until the Church of CHRIST 
began to realise that western China was no longer 
shut off from our efforts, as by a closed door, but 
was open, accessible, waiting for our tardy coming 
as witnesses of jESUS. 

Not western China only, however, was the richer 
for this journey. Deeply burnt in upon the traveller's 
heart had been the needs of the weary, toiling, 
suffering women he had seen— especially in YUN- 
NAN. For them he had been able to do nothing ; 
for them no one ever could do anything, until sisters 
from more favoured lands should come, filled with 
the love of jESUS to bring them blessing. For 
these women a new plea was raised, and for the 
heathen womanhood of China — a plea that found an 
echo in many a Christian woman's heart. And 
scores of missionary sisters toiling to-day in the far- 
off inland provinces of this mighty Empire, rejoicing 
it may be in seeing fruit of their labours in the 
transformed lives it has been theirs " to love into 
loveliness," bless GOD with grateful hearts for that 
long-ago journey, and for the incentive it became in 
the traveller's life, at any rate, to do all that one man 
could to help forward the great work of bringing 
Christ to the women of China. 



1877— 1879. 

WHEN Mr. McCarthy came up the Yang-tsi 
going west, he passed at Wu-chang Messrs. 
Turner and James, who had just concluded their 
first journey to Shan-SI, and were preparing for a 
second visit. One week later * they too set out, vid 
the Han. Shipwreck and pirates were encountered 
on the river, but Fan-ch*eng was safely reached early 
in March. Then came the trying cart-stage through 
Ho-NAN ; and spring had fairly set in when, crossing 
the Yellow River, they re-entered the province " West 
of the Mountains.*' Only a few months previously 
they had left it in the depth of winter. But now — 

** The hills were covered with early wheat, the P'u-chau 
plain was radiant with the blossom of pear and persimmon 
trees, while the ground seemed carpeted with a robe of 
green, bedecked with violets and other familiar flowers." 

Beauty and freshness, however, were sadly limited. 
The district immediately bordering the Yellow River 
>va3 pleasant enough, but the remaining three hundred 

• February loth, 1877. 
VOL. II. 225 IS 


miles of their route to the capital lay through a 
desolate, famine-stricken region, similar to the parts 
of Ho-NAN already crossed. The sufferings of the 
people were fearful. 

"There has been no rain in these districts for two or 
three years," wrote Mr. Turner. "The grass has dis- 
appeared ; the loose sandy soil is dried to powder, and carried 
by the wind in clouds. The cities are poor, the villages 
dilapidated, the fields barren, the people dirty and starving. 
In some places many have already died of starvation. The 
beggars are dreadful ; they go about in crowds, consisting 
principally of women and children. They surround the 
passer-by, and kneel down, crying for a few cash, but not 
in the way one hears elsewhere in China ; the plea is that 
of really starving people in dreadful earnest for a morsel of 
food ! ... At most places where we stopped for refresh- 
ment we had a large crowd of them round us watching 
each mouthful, and holding out their empty basins in 
mute appeal ! " 

Passing through P'ing-yang Fu and fifteen other 
cities, they arrived for the first time at T*ai-yuen, the 
* provincial capital, standing on its far-reaching plain, 
beautifully surrounded to north, east, and west by 
hills. The city is large and influential, though not 
particularly busy or populous — its wall, said to be 
thirteen miles in circumference, enclosing a good deal 
of ground still under cultivation. A fine Roman 
Catholic cathedral occupies a good position just 
inside the north gate, and no fewer than six foreign 
priests were resident, under the supervision of an 
Italian bishop, well advanced in years. Many of the 


heathen temples were large and imposing, their 
brightly coloured, blue and yellow roof-tiles adding 
much to the picturesque effect of their elaborate 

Engaging a native teacher, the brethren decided to 
give the next two months to evangelising the plain 
extending south of the capital, for almost ninety 
miles, to the prefecture of Fen-chau Fu. Well- 
watered, and populous, this important district con- 
tains no fewer than twelve walled cities governing 
the surrounding towns and villages. In many of 
these they preached the Gospel, and sold their Scrip- 
tures and tracts with considerable freedom ; and as 
the object of their presence gradually became under- 
stood they were kindy received. But their hearts 
were often saddened as the weeks passed on— spring 
giving place to summer, and the long, hot days 
merging again into autumn — and still the sufferings 
of the famine-stricken people continued unabated. 
Month after month went by, and the pitiless heavens 
above were just as clear and blue as they had been 
for three long, dreadful years ! No sign of rain was 
anywhere to be seen ; and the prayers of the people 
in their extremity still remained unanswered. 

" Night and day," wrote Mr. Turner, " incessant prayer 
was made for rain, the people crying aloud to their gods 
for that which alone could save them from death. Passing 
along the roads, we heard them groan out their petitions to 
Heaven ; but Heaven only seemed to mock at their calamity. 
Much of the grain that was sown never sprung up, and 


that which did appear above the surface was soon withered 
by the scorching sun. During the heat of summer, famine 
fever worked sad havoc amongst the starving; and by 
autumn the distress became so great that whole families 
committed suicide rather than face the hardships of 
approaching winter." 

Both the evangelists suffered severely from famine 
fever, and it seemed as though Mr. James would not 
have strength to rally. He evidently could not stand 
the continued strain of the circumstances that sur- 
rounded them. Being unable to travel alone, Mr. 
Turner was obliged to accompany him to the coast, 
although exceedingly reluctant to leave the province 
once again without any Protestant missionary, and 
that while the people were perishing by hundreds 
every day. 

Six hundred and fifty miles' cart-journey followed, 
to Fan-ch'eng; a terrible experience — one traveller 
sick, and both daily heart-wrung by the awful suffer- 
ing that surrounded them on every hand. 

"The scenes witnessed upon this journey," wrote Mr. 
Turner, from Hankow,* " have left an indelible impression 
of horror on my mind. It is difficult to conceive of a 
country in a worse condition. Trade has ceased ; for those 
who have money dare not part with it, except for the bare 
necessaries of life. Many of the cities are crowded with 
a ragged, homeless herd of starving people. The great 
road, so busy in the spring, is nearly deserted. The fields 
are barren. There is no grass, and no early wheat above 
the surface ; for the people are dispirited. Their crops 

• Reached January 1878. 


have failed so often that those who have grain are afraid to 
put it into the ground Many of the trees are destitute of 
bark, long since stripped off and eaten. The poor are 
literally starving. 

*' We see men once strong and well clothed staggering 
along the frozen ground with only a few rags to shield them 
from the piercing wind, their feeble steps, emaciated 
bodies, and wild looks telling only too plainly that they were 
about to spend their last night upon earth. In the early 
morning, as we passed, we saw the victims of the preceding 
night lying dead and stiff where they fell. On that open 
road men were writhing in the agonies of death. No one 
pitied them ; no one cared for them, for the sight of death 
had long since become common. Hundreds of corpses 
were lying on the roads. We saw them. Some had only just 
fallen ; others had been there longer, and were stripped of 
their poor rags. Hungry dogs were prowling about, only 
waiting for one bolder than the rest to commence the attack. 
Many of the corpses were fearful to behold. . . . Men, 
women, and children alike, were among the victims. Out- 
side some cities were heaps of skulls, bones, and pieces of 
human flesh ; and very often, away on the open country, 
we saw a number of corpses lying together, evidently the 
remains of wanderers, who, exhausted by their weary search 
after food, had huddled together to die. Families have 
been broken up, the wives sold, the children sold, or cast 
out upon the mountain side to perish, while the men have 
wandered about in the vain search for food. The whole 
district through which we passed was thus suffering, and is 
still in the same condition. Towns, busy and well-to-do in 
the spring, were half deserted ', and no wonder, when from 
twenty to thirty persons died there every day. 

" Much is being done by the Chinese officials to relieve 
the distress ; but the facts above stated show how inadequate 
their efforts are to meet the overwhelming need." 


In the end of November 1877, only two days after 
Messrs. James and Turner had left T'ai-yuen, the Rev. 
T. Richard of the Baptist Mission arrived with money 
for distribution among the famine sufferers. He had 
already been engaged in the neighbouring province 
of Shan -TUNG in distributing the large sums con- 
tributed to the Shanghai and T'ien-tsin Relief 
Committees ; but hearing of the worse distress in 
Shan-si he nobly resolved to go on there alone, and 
do what one man could to meet the awful crisis. 
Much sympathy was awakened at home by accounts 
continually appearing. The English Consul at 
T'icn-tsin wrote : — 

"In November the aspect of affairs was simply terrible. 
The autumn crop over the whole of Shan-si, and the 
greater portion of Chih-li, Ho-nan, and Shen-si had failed. 
No rain had fallen, and the heavens were pitilessly blue. 
T'ien-tsin was inundated wilh supplies from every available 
port . . . and the cumbersome machinery of the Chinese 
Government was strained to its utmost to meet the 
enormous peril which stared it in the face. ... In January 
1878, Tseng, the Governor of Shan-si, an able and bene- 
volent man, informed the Emperor that a thousand people 
were dying daily, and that six millions must l)e at once 

Before the summer of 1878 it was soberly computed 
that fully five millions of people must already have 
perished in that awful visitation — a number equal to 
the whole population of London, or of Scotland. 

The Famine Relief Fund, inaugurated in England 
under the Presidency of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 


remitted to China a sum of over ;^30,ooo, and the 
Missionary Societies ;^i 1,000 more, of which the 
larger half was contributed through the agency of 
the China Inland Mission. 

Many of the famine relief gifts were noble, but the 
most generous donors were those who gave their all — 
life itself. While the distress was still at its worst, 
typhus fever broke out in the stricken districts, and 
carried off thousands who until then had survived. 
The members of the various missions engaged in relief 
work were exposed to the contagion, and the first to 
fall was the Rev. A. Whiting, of an American society. 

The Rev. David Hill, of the Weslcyan Mission, 
Hankow, had been commissioned with relief funds, and 
joined by our brother Turner and Mr. Whiting had 
proceeded to T'ien-tsin, and thence, overland, to the 
capital of Shan-SI. The officials thankfully welcomed 
the additional help thus afforded, and work began at 
once ; but, before three weeks had elapsed, Mr. Whiting 
was taken ill with famine fever, and on April 2Sth, 
1878, he was called away to higher service — first of 
the devoted band who for Christ's sake have not 
counted their lives dear unto them, and who sleep in 
missionary graves in far-off Shan-SI. 

In the summer of that year a very favourable re- 
ception met Messrs. Hill and Turner in P'ing-yang Fu, 
part of a large temple being prepared for their use. 
The Prefect and officials promptly returned their visits, 
and entered heartily into their plans. The people 
also welcomed them ; and as the worst stress of need 


began to pass away, they could not but feel what a 
grand sphere the neighbourhood presented for Gospel 
efforts. Books and tracts that Messrs. James and 
Turner had scattered on their previous visits had 
aroused inquiry in the minds of some, amongst whom 
was one man, who came to Mr. Hill saying that they 
did not clearly understand the doctrine, and wanted 
a teacher to remain and instruct them. 

" When will the day dawn," wrote Mr. Turner, ** that 
shall see bands of native Christians scattered amongst the 
cities of this province, shedding light upon the millions now 
in heathen darkness ? T'ai-yuen and P'ing-yang both seem 
to be opening. Pray that we may be fitted to enter in as 
soon as God shall set before us doors of access ; and that 
more labourers may speedily be thrust forth into this 

Desires how abundantly fulfilled in the subsequent 
history of the work ! * 

In the end of July Mr. Turner joined Mr. Richard 
in his relief work at the capital ; and when, in the 
early autumn, the latter left for Shan-TUNG, Mr. 
Turner at T'ai-yuen, and Mr. Hill at P*ing-yang, 
found themselves single-handed — the only Protestant 
missionaries in the whole of distressed SflAN-SI. 

Both were very busy ; and Mr. Turner found that 
it was all he could do to keep up the extensive 
and important operations left by his able predecessor. 
For a few days all went well, but soon a distressing 

* For later developments in this province see chapters on 
Dr. Schofield, and Cambridge Band. 


attack of dysentery threatened to incapacitate him. 
There was no one else to carry relief to the famine- 
stricken sufferers, and their needs seemed the most 
urgent ; so as long as it was at all possible the lonely 
worker struggled on. Some of the villages were a 
long way off, and to visit them necessitated rough 
riding over bad roads, drenched to the skin by 
heavy showers that were already beginning to fall. 
At last, however, the brave spirit had to yield. A 
brief note was sent by special runner to Mr. Hill at 
P'ing-yang, and then, too weak to think or act, unable 
to sleep, scarcely more than semi-conscious much of 
the time, the solitary sufferer resigned himself to rest, 
like a little child, in the certainty of the Father's love 
and care. 

" I was indeed brought down to the grave," he wrote, 
" but Jesus was with me, and when I thought the end had 
come, I felt His arms sustaining me. So weary, and worn 
out with pain, I could not but rejoice to think that in an 
hour or two I should be with Him, to sin no more, and 
serve Him perfectly for ever ! '' 

But God had other purposes in store, and relief 
was at hand. After two weary weeks Mr. Hill arrived 
from his distant station, having made a remarkably 
quick journey, and his care was blessed of GOD to 
his friend's restoration. At the same time,* although 
they had no certain knowledge of the fact, reinforce- 

• See Chapter XXIV, " The First Women who went West." 


merits were on their way from the south, drawing 
near to the great and needy province that was never 
again to be left with only two missionaries. 

The influence acquired during those years of terrible 
distress was never lost. ShaN-SI was opened to the 
Gospel from end to end, and the result of the devoted 
labours of those early pioneers who did and suffered 
so much for its salvation, is still being reaped in 

A stone tablet may be seen, to-day, in the city 
temple at P'ing-yang Fu, put up in honour of Messrs. 
Hill and Turner, whose faithful and unwearied service 
is still fragrant in the hearts of many who then learned 
to love and trust the LORD ; and among the names 
of their colleagues none is more widely known in 
those regions than that of "Z/ Ti-mo-fat'' (Mr. 
Timothy Richard), the first foreigner who brought 
relief to the famine sufferers of T'ai-yuen. 

" The Chinese officials," wrote the English Consul, " now 
treat the missionaries with the most marked cordiality, and 
assist them in every way in their power. As for the people, 
they have at last opened their houses. The distributers, 
since last autumn, have seen more of real Chinese life than 
all other missionaries put together since China was opened 
to them. The advent of the foreigner in all the places 
visited is now hailed with delight, and the utmost courtesy 
and hospitality is extended to them, not only by those who 
taste their generosity, but by those who will never need 
it. This distribution of funds by the brave and judicious 
men engaged in the work will do more to open China to 
us than a dozen wars." 


F. H. Balfour, Esq., an English official, also 
wrote : — 

" The sight of so much self-sacrificing labour and Christ- 
like devotion as have been displayed by the missionaries 
throughout these troubles has filled Chinamen with astonish- 
ment. It has opened their eyes. 

" 'What,' they are reported to have said on one occasion, 
when thousands of them came flocking round the missionaries 
who had brought them such timely succour, ' are these the 
foreigners we have heard so much about — the malignant, 
unscrupulous, deceitful foreigners ? Well, we will never 
speak ill of them again, nor believe what is told us against 
them. The Mandarins leave us to die of starvation, while 
the foreigners they have taught us to hate are spending their 
very lives in saving ours.' 

" This is but a faint representation of the new-born good- 
will of the Chinese people to us ; and it is well that their 
friendship and gratitude should be cemented by further 
deeds of mercy." 

While recognising with gratitude to GOD the truth 
of these and many other testimonies to the value of 
the noble relief work done, one cannot but reflect 
with shame upon another side of England's inter- 
course with China. Our compassion for this great 
people in their need was comparatively brief and 
limited ; while the fetters we had forced upon them 
— in the accursed opium traffic, which brings their 
wealth to our coffers, but stains our hands with their 
blood — then bound, and still bind them. A few 
thousands of English gold had been doled out to 
the starving multitudes of northern China when they 


were dying by the thousand every day for want of a 
basin of rice gruel, or a piece of bread ; but what was 
that to the opium revenue which then was, and is 
still, ruining the nation, body and soul — a revenue 
that repaid us over and over again, more than twice 
on an average every week, for the whole sum of our 
generous gifts ! 

While we were doing something to help the famine 
sufferers, we were at the same time deliberately re- 
fusing to ratify the Chefoo Convention, which had 
been signed by our Ambassador on behalf of England 
fully two years before, simply because its last clause 
might have afforded the Chinese Government oppor- 
tunity for restricting our opium trade in her southern 
ports ! In spite of earnest protestations, that Con- 
vention remained unratified, in direct opposition to 
all principles of international honour, for nine long 
years, and even then was not finally concluded until 
the objectionable clause had been modified to our 
satisfaction. Truly a cry from China, " Be just before 
you are generous," might well have put England to 
shame ! 

But no such reproach escaped the lips of those 
who, in gratitude for the aid received, seemed almost 
to forget their great and cruel wrong. The Chinese 
Ambassador in London wrote to the Times that they 
regarded England's help as "an act of disinterested 
kindness, for which the people of China would ever 
remain her debtors." In a later letter to Lord 
Salisbury he wrote on behalf of his Government : — 


"The noble philanthropy which heard, in a far-distant 
country, the cry of suffering, and hastened to its assistance, 
is too signal a recognition of the common brotherhood of 
humanity ever to be forgotten ; and is all the more worthy 
to be remembered because it is not a passing response to 
a generous emotion, but a continued effort, persevered in 
until, in sending the welcome rain, Heaven gave the assuring 
promise of returning plenty, and the sign that brotherly 
succour was no longer required. Coming from Englishmen 
residing in all parts of the world, this spontaneous act of 
generosity made a deep impression on the Government and 
people of China, which cannot but have the effect of more 
closely cementing the friendly relations which now so 
happily exist between China and Great Britain. But the 
hands that gave also assumed the arduous duty of ad- 
ministering the relief; and here I would not forget to offer 
my grateful thanks and condolence to the families of those, 
and they are not a few, who nobly fell in distributing the 

A touching tribute, and one that well illustrates the 
ready response so often found amongst the Chinese 
to self-sacrificing devotion and CHRIST-Iike love. 

Oh that the " noble philanthropy '* of Englishmen 
all the world over, in these later days, might be stirred 
to its very depths by the cry of a more widespread 
suffering and more bitter woe than the worst horrors 
of the famine ever wrung from the heart of China — 
stirred to demand, in the name of that "common 
brotherhood of humanity," or rather in the higher 
Name of Him who sacrificed all that He might 
redeem China as well as England — the abolition of 
the national crime of our country that has brought 


ruin and degradation into so many millions of Chinese 
homes — the cessation of the iniquitous Opium Traffic. 
The province of Shan-SI, in common with every 
other part of the Empire, has suffered the inevitable 
effects of the opium habit, in a marked and wide- 
spread deterioration of the character and commerce 
of its people. 

" I asked my barber recently," * wrote Mr. David Hill, 
when the worst of the famine was past, "whether there 
had been any theatrical performances in the city of late. 

" * Certainly,' he replied. 

" * Were they given by the officials ? ' 

" * No, by the old clothes' stores. All branches of trade 
have their annual theatricals in T'ai-yuen Fu.' 

" * Have you, the honourable barbers ? * 

" ' Yes, in the sixth month.' 

" * How many barbers are there in this city ? ' 

** * More than three hundred. In the time of Hien-fung 
there were six hundred and more, but T'ai-yuen Fu has 
gone down sadly. Every branch of trade in Shan-si has 
suffered terribly during the last few years.' 

" * Wars and rebellions, I suppose ? ' 

"*No, not that. From such calamities we could have 
recovered. It is opium that has ruined us. In the days of 
Tao-kwang and Hien-fung trade flourished and everything 
prospered ; but now the only trade that is paying as in the 
old times is the trade in opium.' 

" * Do many in official classes smoke ? ' 

"* Nearly all; in fact, you may reckon that in Shan-si 
the number of opium smokers averages seven out of every 
ten of all classes of society.' 

" * But you don't smoke, do you ? ' 

• June 2oth, 1879, i" T'ai-yuen Fu, Shan-si. 


" * Ah, don*t I ! It costs me about thre2 thousand cash 
a month.' (Equal to three dollars.) 

" * And how long have you smoked ? * 

" * About ten years.' 

" ' Why, you must have spent a little fortune on opium ? ' 

" * Yes ; and the worst of it is I can't get cured of the 
habit. Our anti-opium pills are no use. They all contain 
more or less opium. And now, if I don't take the pipe 
three times a day this summer weather, I'm good for 
nothing, and can do no work. It is simply a hopeless case, 
much as I wish to be rid of it.' 

'* * Do any of your assistants smoke ? ' 

"*Yes, there are five of us, and four smoke opium. 
The only one who does not is the young boy who helps in 
the shop. It is this that is bringing Shan-si to beggary.' 

"All this was said without the least animosity towards 
the foreigners, but in the bitterness of the man's soul. 
Getting on towards fifty years of age, he felt himself a slave, 
an unwilling, wretched slave, to a habit he hated, despised, 
and cursed." 

It is interesting to notice in connection with the 
subsequent development of missionary effort in this 
province, the leading position of usefulness occupied 
by opium refuges, which have been widely esta- 
blished, and have proved an invaluable aid in bringing 
the people under the influence of the Gospel. 


August 1877 — ^January 1878. 

AMONGST the eighteen brethren given for inland 
China in answer to the prayer of 1875, James 
Cameron * is remarkable as having itinerated more 
widely than any other European in the great Empire 
of the East. His lifework was essentially that of a 
pioneer. Of giant frame, and unfailing Scotch 
endurance ; of simple habits, strong faith, and deep 
spirituality, he possessed a good equipment for the 
task that carried him through every province in China 
proper, except Hu-NAN. Like many another of our 
early workers, he has gone to his rest and reward. 

James Cameron's first work in China w^as in the 
eastern provinces. During his second year he was 
stationed with Mr. Nicoll, at I-ch'ang. Even then 
his itinerant aptitude found scope. Unable to do 

 Mr. Cameron and Mr. George Nicoll came out together from 
the Missionary Training Institute at Harley House, in East London, 
and, accompanied by Mr. G. W. Clarke, landed in Shanghai on 
September 30th, 1875, nine years to a day after tlie arrival of the 
Lammermuir party. 



Otherwise than attempt to reach as many as possible, he 
visited all the leading towns and villages between his 
station and the western boundary of Hu-PEH. After 
the I-ch*ang riot Messrs. Cameron and Nicoll went 
forward to Ch'ung-k'ing in Si-c'huen— the first Pro- 
testant missionaries to reside within the borders of 
that large and important province. From this basis — 
already a thousand miles from the sea — commenced 
the ' widespread evangelism of Cameron's first long 

Joined by Mr. Leaman, of the American Board, 
who had a large supply of Christian literature, Messrs. 
Cameron and Nicoll set out in August, 1877, for the 
provincial capital — a three weeks' journey overland 
through a populous country, affording excellent oppor- 
tunity for preaching. Good sales and an attentive 
hearing for the Gospel were found during their nine 
days' stay at Ch'eng-tu, with the size and grandeur of 
which the visitors were much impressed. 

In mid-September they started west again, across 
a well-watered plain, bounded by the lofty hills that 
lie beyond Kwan-hien. 

Ten days* difficult travelling brought them to 
Ya-chau, the great commercial gateway of Eastern 
Thibet. On a pouring wet night at the end of Sep- 
tember they reached the free ferry outside the city, 
and, after crossing, a weary walk to the gates and a 
long search for the inn to which their things had been 
taken, lay between them and rest. 

Ya-chau is a place of importance ; the emporium 

VOL. II. 16 


of the trade in brick tea, so essential to Thibetan 
existence. Water communication connects it with 
Ch*ung-k'ing ; and baggage animals and poorly paid 
coolies literally swarm the roads during the travelling 
seasons. Of these men Cameron wrote : — 

"The loads the coolies manage to carry are almost 
incredible, varying from about 130 to 400 lbs. in weight ! 
On one occasion a coolie fell down not far from where 
we were, and it required the united strength of three of 
us to help him get his load up to his shoulders again. 
They only travel from six to nine miles a day. . . . The 
food of these men consists chiefly of potatoes, and Indian 
corn made into coarse cakes. They sleep on the clay floor 
of the wayside inns, with a thin mat beneath them, and 
very little covering to keep them warm. But for the 
number that lie together I do not know how they could 
bear the cold, for the frost is often severe in these parts. 
How they manage to support themselves and their families 
upon the miserable pittance they earn is a problem I have 
not yet solved." 

Ya-chau alone might well have claimed the 
brethren's lifework, but they could not stay. A few 
books were sold, one morning given to street preaching, 
and they started again for Ts'ing-k'i, a week's journey 
southward. In a city at which they were detained 
by Mr. NicoU's repeated attacks of ague, the people 
listened in attentive crowds, asking many questions. 
One of the temples had a large number of idols made 
to resemble foreigners in appearance and dress, and, 
more extraordinary still, others that were worshipped 


as " Gods of Opiunil' three of which had their mouths 
smeared with the abominable stuff. 

"We met a few Thibetans on the street," wrote Mr. 
Cameron, " and a Lama with his train. He was seated in 
a green-coloured chair, and had a button on his cap, some- 
what after the style of a mandarin. He was followed by 
quite a large party of priests and Lamas on horseback, with 
shaven heads, and attended by others on foot who seemed 
to be Chinese. This man was of a darker complexion, 
and had thinner features than the average Chinaman. In 
the same city we also found fish, potatoes, and splendid 
bread — the nearest approach to our Glasgow scones of any 
I have yet seen." 

Mr. NicoU grew so much worse here, that after 
thought and prayer it was felt that he could not 
continue the journey west, but must return by easy 
stages to Ch'ung-k'ing. Mr. *Leaman undertook to 
accompany him, as he was unfit to travel alone ; 
and thus, early in October, the three friends had to 
part, Cameron setting out upon his solitary way to 
Eastern Thibet. 

He was alone now. One coolie and a mule sufficed 
for his small baggage, the bulk of his silver being 
sewn into an inner garment he carried upon his own 
person. Though but a moderate allowance, it proved 
burdensome enough during the long march. 

" I miss my companions much," he wrote, " but 
shall soon get accustomed to being alone." 

Well it is for the solitary worker in the far-off 
heathen lands that he can claim the Master's promise, 


' m with you alway ! " 
eventful months were 
elapse ere, in another 
ountry, having passed 
as near to the gates 
of death a.i a man 
may, without quite 
crossing their 
shadowy portal, 
Cameron was 
again to meet a 
' or hear the music 
of his native 
tongue. But surely 
it was well worth 
hile. How else 

1 he so deeply have 
the blessedness of 
him who makes the Lord 
alone his trust ? 
Five days later, in the early sunlight of an autumn 
morning, the border town of Ta-tsicn-lu was reached. 
Up to this point the mandarins rule directly, as 
in other parts of China ; beyond, the people, only 
indirectly subject to Pekin, are styled Man-tsi," and 
governed by their own Lamas. In customs, religion, 

* Not altogether ao exclusive as their countrymen of Thibet 
proper, the Man-tsi still have strong anti-foreign prejudices, and, 
while allowing Chinese officials, merchants, and others to live 


appearance, dress, and language, they are true 
Thibetans, although their territory lies within the 
province of Sl-CH*UEN. 

Eastern Thibet now lay ahead, with its strange 
people, unknown language, wild mountainous up- 
lands, and everlasting snows ; in all the darkness 
of its unbroken heathenism ; a country never pre- 
viously entered by the Protestant missionary. The 
border town was small and unimportant. Half its 
inhabitants were Man-tsi, and the Lamasery* within 
its walls marked the modification of religious and 
political opinions. Cameron supplied the city well 
with tracts, purchased .the few commodities needed 
for, barter, and on October i6th commenced the next 
stage, seven days across the mountains to Li-t*ang. 

It was hard travelling through a lofty, barren 
country. For two weeks the road rarely, if ever, 
descended below twelve thousand feet, and night 
accommodation was often difficult to find. Of the 
first inn, he wrote : — 

"They gave us a miserable place to sleep in, and the 
night was very cold. There was no bed except a little 
straw. The floor was broken and so were the walls, through 

and travel amoni;st them for purely business purposes, they do 
not permit any Chinese women to pass tlie border ; Ta-tsien-lu 
being the last point at which such may be found. 

* Lamaseries are the Thibetan religious edifices connected 
with Lamaism^ the form of Buddhism prevalent in Thibet. 
They may be broadly said to combine the uses of temple, 
monastery, and Government offices. 


which the wind came freely, making us glad to escape to 
the common room, and find a seat near the fire of green 
wood. " 

Tsan-pUy the staple food of the Thibetans, was in 
vogue here, and the travellers learned that it must 
be their main subsistence when their rice was done. 

" The people have a very dark wheat," wrote Cameron, 
" which they thoroughly dry in an open pan over the fire, 
and afterwards grind with a hand-mill, the flour so made 
being called Tsan-pa Mien. Then brick-tea is well boiled, 
and strained through a bamboo sieve, into a chum, some- 
thing like our old-fashioned country chums at home ; a 
handful of butter and a little salt are next added, and the 
whole is well churned together as if for butter making. 
The liquid is poured into basins, and each person adds 
enough Tsan-pa flour to make it into a paste ; this he does 
with his hand, keeping the basin spinning round all the 
while. Then the mixture is taken up by handfuls, crushed, 
and eaten ; and when the whole is finished they wind up 
by cleaning the basin with the tongue ! Fortunately each 
person uses his own basin, and carries it with him ! " 

Truly chopsticks and civilisation were left well 
behind ! And what now lay ahead ? Rumours of 
difficulty and danger were rife. On the first night 
the landlord and certain fellow-pilgrims .so alarmed 
and discouraged Cameron's Sl-CH'UEN coolie, that 
the Scotchman had to give him a good dose of 
medicine before he would attempt to sleep. A better 


tonic still, however, was his master's quiet faith and 
confidence. Unarmed, and without defence, except 


in God, the missionary had no fear, and by degrees 
his coolie gained courage. 

" Dangers there arc," Cameron acknowledged ; 
**but God will bring us through." 

Next day, long steep ascents over wet slippery 
paths brought them above the morning fogs into 
bright sunshine, and, crossing the snow line, they 
found themselves in intense cold, surrounded by 
the white peaks of the mountains bordering on 
Thibet. The afternoon descent into the valleys was 
welcome. Cattle, sheep, and horses were grazing 
on the lower slopes. Here and there a number of 
strongly built, square-looking, three-storied houses, 
proclaimed the presence of a Man-tsi settlement, and 
the people themselves were to be met in their sheep- 
skin dresses, armed with long knives and swords, 
secured in their broad belts. Their rough, woollen 
garments of various colours, loosely made in one 
piece (not unlike a short dressing-gown), were girded 
below the waist with long pieces of woven cloth, and 
high blanket boots, reaching almost to the knee, 
completed the costume. Both men and women had 
dark matted hair, which looked as if no comb had 
passed through it for years. 

" Some are wiser," wrote the observant Scotchman, 
" and cut it off." 

Ablutions, either of the face or person, arc de trap 
among Man-tsi, who never wash, unless occasionally 
at the New Year. The journal runs : — 

" A litde distance from our halting place we overtook a 


man who walked on with us, and knew a few words of 
Chinese. *Is there an inn here?' I inquired. 

" * I have a place where strangers put up ; but what have 
you to pay for lodging ? * " 

" * Tobacco, bread, and needles,' I replied. The latter 
being current coin in Thibet. 

" He turned up his nose at this, said he did not want such 
things, and would take silver only if he lodged us. This I 
refused to give. Near his house we met a Chinaman in 
Thibetan guise. He also tried for silver, but seeing that 
I was determined in my refusal he gave it up, advised the 
first man to take us in, and came with us to the house. 
During the evening we discovered that he was son-in-law 
to our host. 

" We passed through a door into a large enclosure, where 
a huge chained dog attacked us, though we were surrounded 
by several members of the family who came forward to 
unload our mule and carry in the things. A young, but 
strong-looking woman caught hold of the dog's rope and 
pulled him back with all her might — he on his hind legs 
attempting to spring. Getting into the house was far from 
easy. It was terribly dark, and the lower part of the 
building, as we walked across it, felt more like a stable 
than a room. I found afterwards that it really was so. 
Presently I stumbled against a staircase, and was told to 
ascend it. A light glimmered near the top, and presently 
some one appeared with a piece of burning firewood, which 
guided me into the room. Roughly speaking, it must 
have been eighteen feet by twelve, and formed the family 
apartment and guest chamber for chance lodgeis. 

*'0n one side was the kitchen range, with two large 
iron pans ; and clean milking utensils, hooped with iron. 
Five chips of wood laid on the gridiron and suspended 
from the roof by a chain, served as a lamp. The roof was 
about six feet from the floor. A dresser with shelves 


behind the cooking stove displayed a number of strong, 
bright brass plates. The room possessed neither bench, 
stool, nor chair; a small short-legged construction, that 
stood on one side, doing duty as table. 

" Around the room were small heaps of skins, on one of 
which I seated myself, to the amusement of the younger 
members of the family, who all sat on the floor. The 
household consisted of six persons, the father and mother, 
two grown-up daughters, and two little boys. The son-in- 
law tried to palm himself off as a Government interpreter ; 
but when I proved sceptical, confessed his relationship and 
occupation, — the cultivation of a piece of land near by. 
Tea was soon ready, and then there was a general laugh, as 
we had no bfisins. The family kindly lent us some, and 
we had bread and eggs with our tea. The two men, our 
host and his son-in-law, asked for an egg each, which I gave 
them, and then the Chinaman left. 

" On his departure the fun began. I wanted to learn 
a few Words of the language, and my blunders afforded 
entertainment. It does not seem to be difficult. Many 
of the sounds are unknown to the Chinese, but easy of 
acquirement, I should judge, to a foreigner. Several house- 
hold things, such as tables, etc., retain their Chinese names, 
these luxuries being unknown to the old Thibetans. I 
learnt and wrote down several useful words and sentences. 
Our host requested me to read them over, and was highly 
pleased with their correctness. He always put me right if 
I gave a wrong sound. 

"Very soon we were quite on friendly terras, only we 
could not converse much. We were invited to eat Tsanpa^ 
and when our rice was ready I gave them some. The host 
shared it with his boys ; and when we had finished our 
meal he divided the remainder amongst the family, keeping 
by far the largest part for himself and his favourite son. 

"Supper over, our sitting-room became the common 


bedroom, the women taking one side and we the other. 
They only spread a few skins on the floor, the garments 
they wear during the day doing duty as bed covers. The 
master of the house had a sort of h'ght sheet, which was 
well tucked in about him by one of the daughters ere she 
retired. Quietness soon reigned, and after some wakeful 
hours I had a sound sleep. 

" We were up early, and, after eating a little rice gruel, 
paid our host one hundred cash (equal to about fourpence) 
and a little tobacco. He was delighted at our liberality, 
and before I left gave me an enjoyable draught of sweet milk. 

" * If you ever pass again, be sure to put up at my 
house ! ' 

" * I certainly shall,' I answered, as we parted on the road." 

Hard and exhausting travelling followed, through 
wild country, to the difficulties of which, poor fare 
and worse accommodation added not a little. " A 
huge, snow-clad mountain " had to be crossed ere 
they could reach their next Sabbath's halting-place. 

"The first part of the ascent was steep — up the rough 
bed of a torrent, fortunately dry, but bad for walking. The 
lower part of the mountain was well wooded ; but it was 
bitterly cold, the wind often seeming to pierce to our very 
bones. Both of us had sore and swollen lips, heavy colds, 
and bad throats. . . . On the summit the wind was very 
high, and we had hail ; but things bettered as we descended 
the other side." 

As they hastened down-hill, anxious to reach some 
sort of shelter before night, the travellers were un- 
expectedly hailed from below by a Chinese official 
in charge of a small roadside station — two tiny huts 
hidden by the bank. This lonely settlement scarcely 


looked prepossessing, but the people seemed kind, 
and Cameron determined to remain with them over 
Sunday. The flat-roofed cottage was just high enough 
to permit the tall .foreigner to stand erect inside, 
without taking advantage of the aperture left in the 
middle, for the double purpose of giving the light 
entrance, and the smoke exit. Other window there 
was none, and when the hospitable fire burnt high, 
the visitors were fairly driven by the smoke into the 
snow outside. Much real rest and comfort, however, 
were found here. 

" Our host treated us well," wrote Mr. Cameron, " bring- 
ing us tea, bread, a large basin of soup, with plenty of meat 
in it. We enjoyed it heartily, and he told us that it was a 
Man-tsi dish, and contained milk, butter, and vegetables. 
Thus did our Father show His gracious care for us. He 
well knew that we needed rest and refreshment, and here 
they were unexpectedly provided, in a place we should 
certainly have passed had we not been hailed." 

Most of the quiet Sunday was spent in conversation 
about the things of GOD. The kindly host, alas ! was 
an opium smoker, and consequently largely unable 
to grasp spiritual truth. He could read and write, 
however, and books, in which he seemed interested, 
were left with him. 

Li-fang was still eighty miles away. An early 
start and a long day's journey brought them next 
evening to a lonely wayside house, where they might 
have found shelter ; but Cameron determined to 
go on, not liking the appearance of the people. 
Twilight closed in upon their rapid walk, and 


shepherds' tents by grazing flocks were passed as the 
sun went down. The moon rose, full and clear, and 
the belated travellers pushed on among snow steeps, 
till the poor discouraged coolie quite gave way. He 
had no burden to carry, the mule having done double 
duty ; but even so, and in spite of his companion's 
constant cheer and help, he seemed to lose all hope. 
The last climb was the worst. 

" Had there been a rock," wrote Cameron, " or even a 
few bushes to afford the least shelter, we should certainly 
have passed the night on the hillside, although so awfully 
cold. Harbour lights were never more welcome to tempest- 
tossed mariners than was the heap of stones that marked 
the summit of the hill to me and my weary companion ! 
We were 13,700 feet above sea level. The descent was 
difficult. The cold grew more intense. On gaining the 
valley we found a good road leading through pastures, and 
in many places saw the watch-fires of the shepherds. . . . 
At last we reached a village. All the people had gone to 
bed, and we knew they would be afraid to get up, thinking 
that we were robbers. The dogs set up such a barking, 
however, that at last one man appeared, but kept judiciously 

" * Where can we put up for the night ? * I asked. 

" It was some time before he pointed to a house. 

** * Will you call the people for us ? ' 

" He refused, and slunk away. 

" I lifted up my heart in prayer to God, and again 
knocked at the first house we had tried. It seemed long 
before any response was given ; and we had almost made 
up our minds to pass the night under the overhanging roof 
of a temple near by, when our Father answered prayer, 
and very soon we were seated by a good fire, with a pot of 


hot tea before us ! . . . The people of the house told us 
that we must have walked fifty-six miles since morning." 

The banks of a quiet stream threading a fine ravine 
led them next day to Li-t'ang, which, though but a 
small and unimportant place, possesses the special 
interest of being one of the highest cities in the world. 
The houses are wretched, and population scanty, not 
amounting to more than a thousand families. About 
one hundred of the men are Chinese tradesmen and 
merchants from the distant province of Shan-si, and 
soldiers or servants in the official households. The 
only object that pleases the eye is the gleaming 
golden roof of the great Lamasery at the end of the 
principal street. Within its far-reaching enclosure, 
this elaborate structure contains no fewer than three 
thousand Lamas ! A second great Lamasery some 
little distance beyond the walls, is said to be inhabited 
by almost as large a number of these indolent 
immoral priests. 

The oppression that the people have to suffer at 
the hands of their religious rulers was an oft-recurring 

" Two-thirds of the land," wrote Mr. Cameron, " is said 
to belong to the Lamas. The people have to pay tithes 
regularly four times a year ; and many are so poor that, 
in the winter, they are dependent on the priest for food. 
In lending, his measure is small, but in receiving back again 
he employs a larger measure, and requires interest besides. 
Money is borrowed on the same hard terms ; and if it is not 
paid back the interest amounts to so much that the client 
either becomes a beggar, or refuses to pay. If the latter, he 


is left alone until the Lamas see that he has some little 
substance ; then they pounce upon him, and away go all 
his earnings. 

"The gross immoralities of the Lamas cannot be de- 
scribed. They dread the foreigner entering their country, 
lest the people should believe the new doctrine, and no 
longer pay them for chanting prayers. 

" * If you succeed in getting the people to hear your 
teachings, we shall soon have no rice to eat,' they openly 
avowed to the French priests." 

The painted walls and pillared portico of the great 
Lamasery, giving access to the stairway and extensive 
buildings within, were described by the traveller. But 
further he was not allowed to penetrate. As usual 
in Buddhist buildings the courtyard frescoes crudely 
portrayed the blessedness or torments of a future state, 
for all in that unevangelised country anticipate re- 
ward or punishment in the life to come. 

Leaving the little, lone and lofty Tartar city, the 
travellers journeyed on to Ba-t*ang, the next impor- 
tant centre, a long week's tramp over the snow-clad 
uplands. The first night a kindly Chinaman offered 
to take them in, and as they walked together he 
heard for the first time the wonders of a Saviour^s 
love. The sun had set before they reached his 
dwelling, and it was piercingly cold. 

" Upon arriving," says Mr. Cameron, " we were ushered 
into our room. Its dismal appearance almost beggared 
description ! On a low partition a tribe of hens were 
roosting. Later on these were removed, that our next 
day's food, in the shape of rolled lumps of dough, might 


be placed to dry where they had been. The room was 
so narrow that this was the only expedient. Our beds 
were made of earth, raised about eighteen inches from the 
floor. We had no fire, and, not feeling well, I had to lie 
down with a burning skin, at the same time almost shivering 
with cold." 

Next day we expect to find the pioneer ill and 
unable to go forward, but the journal simply reads, 
" Up early, and away before the sun shone over the 
mountains " ! 

Rough roads, poor accommodation, cold, danger, 
and loneliness, were by this time familiar enough to 
the solitary travellers ; and yet the last three days 
of their journey to Ba-t'ang seemed worse than any 
that had gone before. Still higher mountain passes, 
still rougher roads among eternal snows, and scarce 
a trace of human habitations. On the last day of 
October the highest point was reached — an eleva- 
tion of 15,600 feet, considerably above the summit 
of Mont Blanc. More than 7,000 feet below them 
lay the city of Ba-t*ang, which had to be made 
that night. A lonely barren country stretched 
between. For twenty miles they did not meet a 
single living being, and then only encountered one 
solitary man. They had been walking since before 
dawn, and long ere they reached the city, darkness 
came on. When at last, footsore and weary, they 
did arrive, it seemed as though they would never 
find lodging. Ba-t'ang boasts of no inns. Strangers 
have to seek accommodation in private houses, or 
go without Again and again the foreigner and his 


attendant were refused quarters, after having patiently 
answered all the various inquiries made as to their 

" At last," wrote Cameron, " a woman took pity on 
us, and led us to a resting-place — not a very good 
one ; but we were thankful for it * Hitherto hath 
the Lord helped us/ " 

Grateful for the refuge thus provided from frost 
and cold, the weary strangers prepared to rest. The 
bed looked very pleasant, but " things are not what 
they seem." 

"Sleep I could not. For a time I scarcely imagined 
what the cause might be, not having had much trouble 
from nocturnal visitors since we left the plains of Si-ch'uen. 
At last, however, I struck a light, and to my dismay found 
my Ba-t'ang bed almost as bad as those that had cost me 
so many restless nights further east. My foes gave me no 
peace ; and there was nothing for it but just to heave a 
sigh and lie down again ! " 

Ba-t'ang, at which four days were spent, is on the 
main road to Thibet, and not far from the frontier 
of that great closed land. Its small but beautiful 
valley, open towards the south, is surrounded by 
lofty sheltering mountains. The climate consequently 
is comparatively mild, and some fruit and vegetables 
can be grown. The loftiest point in the neighbour- 
hood is said to be 22,000 feet high. The Chinese 
mandarin here was quite friendly. 

" Have you any intention of seeking to enter 
Thibet ? " he asked the stranger. " No ? Ah, that 


is excellent ! The Lamas are determined in their 
opposition to foreigners crossing the border ; in fact, 
it cannot be done." 

Ignorant of the language and customs of the people, 
it would indeed have been out of the question for 
Cameron at that time to have penetrated Thibet. 
The day is yet to dawn that shall see those closed 
doors thrown open to the messengers of Christ. 
As it was, the missionary had to content himself 
with telling the glad tidings to the Chinese official 
and his friends, who listened with some attention, 
and showed him much kindness. Although never 
before visited by a Protestant missionary, Ba-t'ang 
had long been the home of Roman Catholic workers, 
and Cameron found two French priests resident there, 
one of whom gave him much information. He did 
not seem to find his position encouraging, owing to 
the powerful influence of the Lamas. 

Close to Ba-t'ang run the upper waters of the Yang- 
tsi, here only two hundred yards wide. Ten days* 
journey beyond, on the northern border of YUN-NAN, 
lies the last Thibetan settlement, for which Cameron 
set out early in November, with an official escort for 
the dangerous roads. Among great snow-clad moun- 
tains the pioneers pushed on, scorched by frost, bitter 
cutting winds, sr.ow-glare, and brilliant sunshine, till 
face and hands were skinned again and again. The 
boundary was reached on the third day. A large 
detachment of soldiery had just arrived to guard the 
Ba-t'ang high-road to Thibet proper. The missionary 

VOL. II, 17 


Stood on the actual border-line of that great closed 
land. It was the point of his nearest approach ; 
and as he turned aside from the high-road, so long 
followed, to go southward towards YUN-NAN, his 
heart was full. 

" We could see the houses of the Thibetans,'/ he wrote ; 
" but at a considerable distance. A good view was obtained 
of the border, as we had to walk just outside it for a long 
way. Near at hand were low-lying hills, and in the distance 
lofty, snow-clad peaks. As I gazed upon it I wondered 
when the messengers of Jesus would have free access 
there. // wi// be open some day^ 

In mid- November the mountain boundary between 
Eastern Thibet and YuN-NAN was crossed, and four 
days later the snow-capped heights round A-ten-tsi 
came into view, followed by the little valley itself, 
with its flat-roofed, compact-looking settlement. The 
streets were narrow, and plentifully supplied with 
mal-odorous refuse. But a small room in an inn — 
secured without much difficulty — afforded matter for 

Shelter and supplies had been reached just in time ; 
for on the very night of his arrival Cameron was 
taken ill with severe continued fever. For two or 
three weeks he lay suffering and helpless, at one time 
for several days quite thinking the end was near. 
His heart was in perfect peace : " To one who lives 
for God what could death be but gain ? " The LORD 
was with him ; he did not feel alone. The only matter 
that gave him concern was the question as to what 


was to become of his unused silver. There could not 
have been much of it, for he had already been 
travelling three months, and had started with no 
superabundant supply, but, " See what a trouble it is 
to be rich ..." the journal naTvely remarks. Daily 
prayer, however, was ascending for the far-off, solitary 
worker ; and it pleased the LORD to spare his valued 
life for a few more years of toilsome and devoted 
service. Slowly the fever began to abate, and toward 
the end of November returning strength made him 
long to be on his way. Before leaving A-ten-tsi he 
had the joy of fully preaching CHRIST to the people 
and officials of that remote Chinese-Thibetan town. 

The nearest mission station, Bham6, in Upper 
Burmah, was still almost two months away across 
western Y UN-NAN. Between lay the whole great 
province^ altogether destitute of Gospel light, never 
even visited by a Protestant missionary, till Mr. 
McCarthy passed through five months before. What 
needs, what waiting fields ! 

Leaving the cold and snows of A-ten-tsi on 
December 3rd, Cameron struck south to Ta-li, a 
prefectural city of YuN-NAN, where we now have a 
station and several workers, although at that time 
the Roman Catholic Mission was the only one within 
its walls. Barren heights, and wild, lonely passes 
were gradually exchanged for open country, in- 
creasingly populous and cultivated, as the road 
descended to milder regions ; and soon the difficulties 
and dangers of those long weeks among eternal 


snows, replaced by very different scenes, became a 
memory of the past. 

Before long the first purely Chinese village was 
reached, and Cameron was able once again to preach 
the Gospel without interpretation, the people listening 
with interest, and seeming to understand all he said. 
At Wei-si, the capital of a district where three of 
the aboriginal tribes of western China (the Man-tsi, 
Mo-so, and Min-kia) are found, Cameron called upon 
all the officials, some of whom listened with much 
attention to the things of GoD. 

Most of the Min-kia aborigines could speak no 
language but their own, but some had learnt Chinese, 
and he was unexpectedly brought into contact with a 
family of this type. 

The travellers had completely lost their way, and as 
darkness came on found themselves wandering in some 
fields beside a stream, across which a few houses were 
espied. Making for one of these, they requested a night's 
lodging, and were peremptorily refused. 

"You had better pass on to the next settlement," re- 
marked the owner ; " there you may get a bed." 

Further search in the gathering darkness scarcely seemed 
hopeful : and, hungry and tired, they decided to camp out 
where they were, rather than risk uncertainty. Seeing this, 
ihe householder somewhat grudgingly invited them into his 
grounds, and left them to make a fire and settle down for 
the night under the open verandah. After their evening 
meal he and his son came out and sat down. Though the 
settlement was Min-kia, they spoke Chinese fluently, and 
Cameron made good use of his opportunity to learn some- 
thing of the history and habits of the tril^. The Mo-so, it 


seems, were the real aborigines of the district; how long 
the Min-kia had been there, or whence they originally 
came, none could tell. For centuries they had been settled 
in and around Si-ch'uen ; and although possessed of no 
written language, and in close contact with other races, had 
wonderfully preserved their identity. 

As the evening wore on, two men from neighbouring 
houses joined them round the glowing embers, in the chill 
December moonlight. It was a curious scene — natural 
enough to the simple people themselves, but strange, and 
very interesting, to the travelled foreigner. By-and-by, as 
the householders began to feel at ease, anddrew their atten- 
tion to the most important of all themes ; and great was the 
interest with which they listened to the wonderful story of 
the love of God, and His " so great salvation " for all men, 
and for them. There and thus in the frosty moonlight, for the 
first time probably, the Gospel was brought to the Min-kia ! 
Some of them could read Chinese, and welcomed the tracts 
left to recall the strange new truths, first heard that Christmas 
season, from the only missionary they had ever met. 

" I was glad indeed," he wrote, "that we had lost our 
road that night ; and although my bed was low and hard 
and cold, I slept as soundly as if in the best inn ! '' 

Four days later Ta-li Fu was sighted in its densely 
populous valley, by the shores of a beautiful lake, and 
not far from a range of hills decked with snow. The 
city and neighbourhood offer noble scope for Christian 
work, as Cameron found, preaching openly in the 
streets and tea-shops to large and attentive audiences. 
A Roman Catholic Bishop and two priests were carry- 
ing on a wide work here. 

" When will Protestant missionaries be labouring in 
these regions ? " sorrowfully wrote the pioneer. 


Christmas was spent at Ta-H ; and then on toward 
the south-west the march was resumed for Bham6. 
The ground was now more trodden ; for Cameron 
was here the second missionary who had passed that 
way.* The last days of the old year found him 
amongst the narrow valleys, rough roads, and mountain 
streams beyond Ta-li ; and by New Year's day, 1878, 
he was climbing the almost interminable hills sur- 
rounding Yung-p'ing Hicn. With a solitary French 
priest, encountered here, the equally lonely Scotch 
missionary was glad to hold some little conversation 
in Chinese. His account of matters was far from 
cheering. He had heard of our station in Bham6, 
and surmised that Cameron was going thither ; but 
he spoke much of the dangers of the road. Two 
priests who had been sent that way in 1876 had been 
lost, and never heard of since. It was supposed they, 
too, had been murdered. 

Preaching in the crowded streets and tea-shops of 
Yung-ch*ang, and distributing tracts, which the people 
received willingly, occupied the first Sunday in the 
New Year ; and then through lofty snow-clad hills, 
Cameron made his way to ,Momien. Rooms here 
were hard to. obtain. The trade route had fallen into 

• Just three years previously (at the closeiof 1874) Augustus 
Margary had been the first foreigner in these districts. The 
Commission sent to inquire into his murder at Man-wyne had 
subsequently taken the same route. Mr. McCarthy, in the 
summer of 1877, and afterwards Captain Gill and Mr. Mesney, 
had also preceded Mr. Cameron by a few months ; but he was 
only the second missionary traveller to cross the borderland. 


the hands of banditti, and many travellers had already 
been detained for weeks, unable to proceed. A small 
corner in a loft, occupied by at least twenty others, 
several of whom were constant opium smokers, was 
the only refuge at first to be found,, but rather better 
quarters were secured later on. The military had 
gone out to deal with the marauders, and .soon after 
Cameron's arrival they returned with seventeen, of 
whom all but two were beheaded. Their heads were 
put in cages by the roadside, as a warning to passers- 
by, and their bodies left to lie for several days in the 
open field. 

The road was now moderately safe ; and large 
companies of travellers who had been detained at 
Momien continued their journey to Man-wyne, our 
friends amongst them finding good opportunities for 
conversation about the Gospel. 

Their hostess at Man-wyne, a good old lady, was 
garrulous about the Bham6 foreign teachers. She 
had a son across the Burman frontier, who had been 
very ill about a year before. He was quite uncon- 
scious, in high fever and extremely weak, when two 
English missionaries, travelling amongst the Kah- 
chen hills, arrived at the little town in which he was, 
and strangely enough put up next door. All they 
could do to save his life they did ; and when the 
anxious mother arrived, having ridden in haste across 
the wild and dangerous borderland, she found, to her 
unspeakable joy, that her boy was on the road to 
rapid recovery. 


** How can I express my gratitude/' she said, to 
the strangers who had saved his life ! 

Their kindness was unforgotten. And on inquir- 
ing, Cameron found that the much-loved missionaries 
were none other than Messrs. Stevenson and Soltau, 
of the C. I. M. 

Three days were spent at Man-wyne, among the 
Shans, Kah-chens, and Chinese who thronged the 
market and tea-shops. And then, under the escort 
of a Kah-chen mountain chief, Cameron went on 
to Bhamd across country much like the Thibetan 
highlands,— sometimes hospitably entertained, and 
sometimes camping out by the way. Many oppor- 
tunities for preaching were found en route, but at 
the end of ten days a letter from the British political 
agent at Bhamo requested him to come down at 
once to that city, and give up all thought of returning 
to China vid YuN-NAN ! Following these instruc- 
tions he left the mountains, paid a brief visit to 
Messrs. Soltau and Adams, at Bhamo, and thence 
descending the Irrawaddy to Rangoon, took steamer 
to Canton, re-entering China at that point. 

Thus were commenced the itinerant labours of 
this noble missionary evangelist, who during the first 
seven years of his wanderings travelled through 
seventeen provinces of China proper, and beyond the 
Great Wall, and who in many an important region 
was privileged to be the first witness for JKSUS, and 
salvation through His Name. 


TWO years had now elapsed since the September 
day, in 1876, when the Convention was signed 
at Chefoo, that practically opened inland China to 
missionary effort. Far and wide, during this brief 
interval, our brethren travelled, through all the hither- 
to unentered provinces, proving that China's age-long 
seclusion was indeed ended, and its people brought at 
last within reach of the Gospel. 

Valignani had never been able to land upon the 
forbidden shore. These men, within two years, had 
journeyed thirty thousand miles through the un- 
known ; and within five years from the Convention 
not only penetrated with the Gospel every one of 
the eighteen provinces, but itinerated widely in 
Manchuria, and crossed the borders of Mongolia as 

A glance at the accompanying map, published in 
May 1878, will give some idea of the extent of the 
itinerations accomplished at this time. Taken collec- 
tively, they form a marked epoch in the story of the 
Inland Mission, which at the signing of the Chefoo 

Convention had almost completed its first decade. 


Not a little devotion and zeal, heroism and patient 
endurance, are represented by the windings of this 
small white line ! The men who, in face of loneliness 
and hardship, pioneered a way in these distant regions 
for the Gospel, willing to lay down life itself that 
inland China might learn a Saviour's love, are un- 
known, it may be, to the world's praise and honour, 
but their reward and their record arc waiting — above 


Both at the time of these journeys, and subsequently, 
much criticism fell to the share of the Inland Mission 
in connection with them. They were condemned as 
aimless wanderings, and considered a waste of time 
and strength. And if nothing more had been their 
object or their outcome than a passing evangelistic 
visit and some added knowledge of the country and 
people, such strictures had, perhaps, been just. Time, 
however, has proved that they were a means to an 
important end, as a glance at the present position of 
the C. I. M. stations throughout inland China will 
abundantly attest 

Up to the time of which we write the interior of 
this vast land, although nominally accessible to 
missionary effort, was practically shut ; for no one had 
gone to open the door. No Protestant missionaries 
were residing in those inland provinces, and in the 
majority of them none had even travelled to tell of 
Christ. This our brethren did, and soon their 
presence led to settled work in many places. 

Christian books and tracts were scattered widely on 
these journeys, and commenced their quiet influence 
in moulding thought and awakening desire. Friend- 
ships were formed among the people, and impressions 
made of the utmost value, at such a crisis, when 
China by treaty-right was fully thrown open to 
foreigners. In hundreds of towns and cities the first 
.stranger to be known was the Christian missionary, 
speaking the language and wearing the dress of those 
to whom he brought nothing but love. 


It would be difficult indeed to measure the far- 
reaching influence for good of a life like Cameron's, 
for example, upon the vast number of people with 
whom he came in contact during the six years of his 
unparalleled itinerations. Apart altogether from the 
direct result of his preaching and bookselling work, 
hundreds of thousands must have'got from his Christ- 
like life, as he passed through every province in 
China, except one, some idea of the value and power 
of his Faith. 

These were the pioneers, but others quickly 
followed. Ere long the vast interior of China was 
opened up to the residence of women as well as men, 
and the extended operations of the Inland Mission 
to-day are largely based upon the outcome of those 
first journeys. 

" But," some will say, " why seek to cover so large 
a field ? It is clearly true that if you are to scatter 
yourselves over the whole of China you must go and 
itinerate first. But why attempt the impossible? 
* Qui trop embrasse nial Hreint! Better remain in 
some localised, limited region, which you may hope 
adequately to influence, and let the work gradually 
grow from that settled point. These itinerations are 
a mistake ; and the more permanent work to which 
they lead a waste of power." 

To which we answer, the responsibility rests not 
upon us. We are only seeking to obey a command, 
clear, definite, unalterable : " preach the Gospel to 
every creaturer The principles that would hold us 


back here would have kept us from coming to China 
at all ; for there is surely plenty to do at home with- 
out leaving our own shores ! But the region to be 
reached is both a fact and a command. 

Look at it as a fact. 

Imagine Europe solidified ; her English isles and 
her peninsulas — Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Spain 
and Portugal, Italy, and Greece — drawn into the 
continental bulk ; and one semi-circular shore line 
running for over four thousand miles with scarce a 
bay or inlet, from the White Sea to the Black. 
Imagine that solid Europe, a single country with a 
single capital ; one Emperor, one civilisation, one 
language, though spoken forms vary with varying 
climate and sphere. Imagine it possessing one 
national type of physique, education, thought, faith, 
manners, and morals. Imagine it one of the most 
ancient empires in the world ; called by a single 
name ; and inhabited, according to its last imperial 
estimate, by fifty millions more human beings than 
the entire population of Europe. Finally, imagine it 
heathen, densely, darkly heathen, with all that that 
involves of suffering, sin, and need, and you have 

Larger than the whole of Europe, and much more 
populous, how could a mission-centre in London or 
Paris, in Rome or Constantinople, evangelise such a 
sphere ? How many millenniums would it require for 
the good seed of the Kingdom to spread, by a gradual 
livening process, from the sea-board to the remotest 


regions of Norway, Germany, or Russia ? When 
would the Gospel have reached England from Rome 
had it not been for the devoted missionaries who 
traversed hundreds of miles of unevangelised territory 
lying between, to get to the wild people of the remote 
island that we call home ? 

Surely one mission-station at the capital, at least, 
of every country would be little enough for the 
evangelisation of this heathen Europe that we picture. 

And the region to be reached is also a command. 
What did our Master mean, what responsibility did 
He lay upon us when He said, " preach the Gospel to 
everj^ creature " ? 

As a Mission, we have been face to face with an 
unevangelised continent, million-peopled, and open 
to us in almost every part — a land that CHRIST has 
called His people to possess for Him. Given such a 
fact and such a commission, nothing less than the 
evangelisation of the whole of China, can be our duty. 

But how make such a duty do-able ? How accom- 
plish such a work ? 

The leaders of the Inland Mission have been second 
to none in their deep sense of the importance of 
localised missionary and pastoral efforts. It is not 
the relative value of such methods, as compared to 
wide-spread evangelisation, that they have been called 
to emphasise, but the necessity of both. 

" As well might one discuss," writes Mr. Hudson Taylor, 
" the relative merits of land and water, of mountains and 
plains, of animals and vegetables. All exist, all are in- 


dispensable. The one does not supersede the other, but 
is its necessary complement." 

Evangelisation, widespread, continuous, embracing 
" every creature," is the duty of the Church, as long as 
there is any region without the stated preaching of 
the Gospel 

I. It is no new method. 

It is old as the Gospel itself; for it dates from 
the ministry of Him who said, " Let us go into the 
next towns that I may preach there also : for there- 
fore came I forth ; " and who left with His disciples 
as his last message, " Go ye into all the world." 
They literally obeyed this command, and "went 
everywhere preaching the word." 

" It might well have been asked then," continues Mr. 
Taylor, "would such itinerations accomplish anything of 
permanent value when the work extended beyond the 
limits of Palestine to the heathen world where the darkness 
around was so great? But history proves that the task 
thus attempted was actually accomplished, and speedily 
accomplished. And we do well to inquire, is there any 
reason to assume that similar work done now in China 
would be attended with results less valuable and en- 
couraging? My own firm belief is that as great effects 
would be now seen in China from similar labours as were 
seen eighteen hundred years ago in Asia Minor and in 
Europe, and that our difficulty lies mainly in the obstacles 
that exist in the way of our doing the work. 

"The Gospel we have to preach is the same as that 
proclaimed by the Apostles of old. It is said in the 
Word to be seed; 'incorruptible,' that is, imperishable 


seed. Scatter it where you will, it cannot perish. It may 
lie dormant, and lie long, like wheat in an Egyptian 
sarcophagus. But it will not die. It * liveth and abideth 
for ever.' 

" But what is the seed ? It is not the printed Scriptures, 
merely. ... It is not Christian books and tracts, useful 
as they are in their place. . . . This seed is the preached 
(iospel, the proclaimed good news of something which 
the heathen, as they are^ can appreciate ; the personal 
testimony of living witnesses to the Lord Jesus Christ 
as an almighty and an immediate Deliverer from the power 
of sin, as well as from its eternal consequences. 

"Talk theory to the heathen, and they are generally 
unmoved ; tell them merely of blessings in store for the 
future, and they are often too sceptical or too occupied 
with the pressure of present necessity to hear what you 
have to say. But, as experience proves, tell your audience 
that you have an infallible help for every opium smoker 
among them, for every drunkard, for every gambler; 
that you proclaim a Saviour who has never once failed to 
save immediately any soul that really trusted Him, both 
from the power of sin and from its eternal consequences, 
and you will soon see that the Gospel is good news to your 
hearers, that it can command attention, and will accomplish 
the mightiest changes the mind of man can conceive, or 
his heart desire. 

" But so to preach Christ we must ourselves be filled 
with the Spirit, be abiding in Christ, be conscious of the 
fulness and power of His great salvation. The man who 
is consciously overcome by sin, who habitually succumbs 
to temptation, who is only half saved himself, cannot 
preach such a Gospel. And this, brethren, I confess with 
shame, was my experience for many years. But when con- 
scious of the indwelling of an Almighty Saviour we can preach 
Christ, and are not afraid to speak good of His name."' 


II. It is no unfruitful method. 

Many, in all mission-fields, have been led to CHRIST 
through hearing the Gospel thus preached for the 
first time, and from the experience of our own 
workers in China not a few instances might be given. 
But not only in immediate conversions is this 
widespread itineration fruitful. It is also most 
important as a preparatory work. In this connection 
Mr. Taylor adds : — 

** The missionary who has frequently itinerated through a 
district is looked upon by many with kindly feelings. His 
occasional presence has removed misapprehension, and he 
has made some friends. His character and objects are 
becoming understood, and the help thus secured will go 
far to carry him through remaining opposition. 

" But in more important ways, also, such work is essen- 
tial, and economical of time, labour, and money, to a 
high degree. The Chinaman is a slow-thinking being. . . . 
Try to imagine his difficulty in understanding the most 
elementary truth about the existence of the one true God. 
But without that knowledge a man has no true idea of 
sin as the transgression of God's law. And without the 
knowledge of a Being who can forgive sin, the offer of a 
Saviour is useless. The Buddhist can understand some 
system of counterpoising sin, but of an atonement he can 
form no conception. 

" While there will everywhere be found a few prepared 
of the Holy Spirit to receive the Gospel at the first offer, 
the great mass of the people will only gain a very general 
idea of the truths you present. But even if it be impos- 
sible to go again for some time, this impression will not be 
lost or useless. Superficial work is often done in a hurry, 

VOL. u. 18 


but solid, abiding results, in China, generally take a few 
years. The beginner, who is so inexperienced as to have 
no fears for the future, may be carried away by what he 
sees of apparently rapid success. But it is only after time 
has been allowed for truth to grow and deepen in its hold 
upon mind and spirit, that the quiet, steady Christians are 
gathered in, who become the strength of the Church. And 
while the truth is thus slowly permeating, I do not think 
it is a loss of time to go over a good deal of ground and 
start its first process. 

" Do as they do in Manitoba ; go over the land and 
plough, break up the soil, throw in the seed, go away, and 
come again to find a harvest. ... I would expect to see, 
in the long run, a very much larger ingathering from this 
sort of itinerant work than from efforts restricted to a 
small corner of the field. 

" In conclusion, let us ever bear in mind that the whole 
work is the work of God. Each agent performs but a small 
part, yet he is not isolated. A man's conversion is, I 
believe, a regenerative change produced by the Holy 
Ghost. It is not an influence produced by man on the 
mind of his fellow-man. And I believe that the Holv 
Ghost will never produce that regenerative change, and 
then leave the soul to struggle on alone. If the Lord 
sends Paul to plant, He will certainly send Apollos to 




*' Wc, happy Englishwomen, who can read, write, and enjoy varied 
studies — we arc debtors to every woman who cannot. There are 
thousands of women quite as intelligent as we arc, who are ignorant 
only because they have not had our privileges. We are deeply in debt 
to them. We women who are free, who are placed in the social 
]X)sition for which God designed us, who are honoured, cared for, and 
loved — we are debtors to every zenana captive, debtors to all who are 
refused woman's real rights, debtors to the whole secluded, degraded, 
down- trodden womanhood of the world. Ah, to how many millions, 
then, are we debtors ! And we women who have comforts and allevia- 
tions in sickness, who can command generous and skilled surgical or 
medical aid— we are debtors to all who suffer unrelieved, who groan 
unheeded, who die unpitied. 

** May Christ, the King of Glory, touch by His mighty power the 
hearts of his favoured daughters in Christian lands, that the debtors may 
all unite in one holy effort of prayer, giving, and going, and the debt 
to His daughters in India (Africa, China, and other lands) lovingly and 
ungrudgingly be paid. His kingdom be advanced, and His coming 
hastened!" Miss S. S. Hewlett. 



"TTiriLL you not tell me," asked an Indian 

^ V missionary of an intelligent Hindoo, " which 
of our methods of working you fear the most ? " 

" Why should I put such a key into your hands, 
Sahib ? And yet, I trust you, and I will. We do 
not fear your schools ; our children need not go to 
them. We do not fear your preaching, for we need 
not listen. But we do fear your doctors, and we 
fear your women. Your women and your doctors 
make their way into our homes and hearts. We fear 
them most." 

A fundamental truth lies here. Touch the heart, 
you move the life. Win the homes, you mould the 
people. Hence the supreme importance of woman's 
work the wide world over. For women can go to 
women with a sympathy and love that find their way 
through all barriers of ignorance, indifference, and 
superstition. And once the women won, it is a 
comparatively easy matter to influence the families. 

"China for Christ!" What does it mean but 
homes of China transformed by the love of jESUS ? 



And can this ever be, until the mothers, sisters, 
wives, have learned the sweetness and the power of 
His Name? 

What are they like, these homes in China ? Are 
they accessible? Do the women really need us? 
Can we do much to help them? 

Would that some pen could make their sorrows 
live to Christian hearts that question thus. There 
are no homes in Chinia, as we count homes. There 
is no happy fireside, no genial board, where father 
and mother gather the children round them, one 
family, free and alone. There is no cheery, social life 
embracing brother and sister alike, letting them grow 
up together, sharing the same interest, and mingling 
with one another's friends. There are no " marriages 
made in heaven " based upon mutual respect and love. 
There are no sacred ties of common faith and worship, 
uniting heart to heart in bonds eternal. Home in the 
deepest, truest sense is unknown among the heathen. 
And yet there are homes, countless thousands, in 
which millions of women spend their lives from 
infancy to old age, scarcely ever going beyond them — 
women with hearts like ours, needs like ours, and with 
the same capacity for blessedness in this world and 
the next, but women how dark, how helpless, how 
oppressed, with what unsatisfied longings, what' 
dreary, suffering lives, and what hopeless deaths ! 

One-fifth of all the women in the world are found 
in these homes in China— a number so vast as to be 
almost inconceivable. One baby girl out of every 


five is cradled in a Chinese mother's arms, un- 
welcomed and unloved unless by that poor mother's 
heart, born to a life too often ended ere it is well begun. 
One little maiden out of every five grows up in 
ignorance and neglect, drudging in the daily toil of 
some poor Chinese family, or crying over the pain of 
her crippled feet in the seclusion of a wealthier home, 
One young girl in every five questions life with 
wondering eyes from behind the paper windows of 
the women's courtyard of a Chinese dwelling. 
Amongst all the youthful .brides who, day by day, 
pass from the shelter of their childhood's home, one 
out of every five goes weeping * in China, to the 
tyranny of a mother-in-law she dreads, and the 
indifference of a husband she has never seen. Of all 
the wives and mothers in the world one out of every 
five turns in her need and longing to a gilded 
goddess of mercy in some Chinese temple, counting 
her beads and murmuring her meaningless prayers in 
hope of help and blessing that never come. Of all 
the women who weep, one out of every five weeps 
alone, uncomforted, in China. Out of every five who 
lie upon beds of pain, one is wholly at the mercy 
of Chinese ignorance and superstition. One out of 
every five, at the close of earthly life, passes into the 
shadow and the terror that surround a Chinese grave, 

* Chinese etiquette demands that the bride should appear 
most unwilling to be taken to her husband's home. Too often, 
however, her tears and reluctance are the result of real sorrow 
and fear. 


never having heard of Him who alone can rob death 
of its sting. One-fifth of all the women in the world 
are waiting, waiting, in China, for the Saviour who 
so long has waited for them. What a burden of 
responsibility does this lay upon us — the women of 
Christendom ! 

For they can be reached. They are not hidden in 
zenanas. Though the aristocratic and upper middle 

classes are a good deal kept out of sight, the women 
of the lower orders are comparatively free. They 
.stand in the doors of their houses, gossip in the 
courtyards, carry their washing down to the ponds 
and streams, crowd the theatre.s and temples, and 
stop one in the .streets. They are hospitable, friendly, 
talkative, quick-witted, intensely curious, and full of 
eager questions as to anything strange or new. Of 


course they are afraid of us at first — and no wonder ! 
Considering all the terrifying rumours they have 
heard about " foreign devils " from barbarous lands 
across the sea, and remembering, too, the strangeness 
of our manners and appearance, contrasted with their 
own, the marvel is they should so soon forget their 
fears, and welcome us as they do. 

For they do welcome us. Love begets love in 
China as elsewhere. And some of us have never met 
with truer sympathy and kindness than from women 
far away in the heart of that great land. 

The story of the Inland Mission could not be told 
without a section on Woman's Work for Woman ; 
for by the grace of GOD the C. I. M. was not only 
used to open the earliest stations in the Interior, but 
for many years it was the only Mission that at- 
tempted to send ladies inland. In face of criticism, dis- 
couragement, isolation, and difficulties of every kind, 
its devoted workers were the first women to enter no than nine of the inland provinces : — 







Sh EN-SI. 



To realise the need that constrained them to so 
unprecedented a course, in spite of native and foreign 
prejudice and their natural shrinking from the hard- 
.ships involved, one must know something of the con- 
ditions of life among the women to whom they went, 
and therefore — breaking briefly into our historic se- 
quence — I venture to insert the following glimpse of : — 


China's Homes and China's Women. 

A woTftafCs life in China — what lies behind those words? 
A little lassie well-born in the " Flowery I^nd " will 
be probably called " Pure Filial Piety," " Fair Flower," 
" Delicate Perfume," " Secure Silver," or some such title, if 
she is thought worth naming at all. Many are considered 
too insignificant for any appellation beyond that of " big 
sister," " second sister," " third sister," and so forth, or 
simply " one," " two," " three." Before her feet are bound 
she romps merrily enough with her brothers, running about 
as freely as our little ones at home. At ten or twelve, 
custom confines her to the house, but while under her 
parents' roof she is often kindly treated, and may be taught 
to read and write, though, as a rule, a knowledge of 
household matters, needlework, and delicate embroidery 
is considered enough learning for her and her young 
companions, who are "only girls." But if education give 
them little, nature and art do much. Bright and attractive, 
they set off their olive complexions, dark eyes, and glossy 
black hair to advantage by brilliant garments, flowers, and 
trinkets in abundance. Spent in " the women's courtyard," 
their lives, though very different from those of their sisters 
in distant Christendom, are not wholly dark or dreary. 
Gleams of sunshine brighten almost every lot; and while 
health is good and fortune fair there may be a measure of 
happiness even under such unnatural conditions. Chinese 
mothers are fond of dressing up their children in showy 
colours, and seem to take pride and pleasure in them while 
they are quite young. Sometimes a link of love unites 
the wives and husbands, and parental affection is not 
uncommon, so that in her early days " Fair Flower " may 
enjoy comparative freedom and happiness in her father's 
home. But when this much is said, one has touched upon 
all the brighter side of life for her. And what remains ? 


The rest is a sad slory. 

Betrothed in babyhood, she is transferred in her teens to 
the authority of her mother-in-law, and married to a man of 
whom she knows nothing, and who has never seen or 
spoken to her before the wedding day. So much is this 
change dreaded that sometimes the girls of a family, or 
clan, will bind themselves together by the most solemn 
vows, to take opium or some other poison, within a certain 
time of their marriage, and so put an end to their lives, 
rather than endure the misery that the future might entail. 
And when it is remembered that every man in China who 
can pay the price of a wife is married, no matter how 
unattractive, deformed, or vicious he may be, this desperate 
decision does not seem so strange. 

Should the bridegroom happen to be an eldest son, the 
girl's position is considered enviable. Her younger sisters- 
in-law have to bear the brunt of the hard work and worry 
of every day, while she takes her place as second in import- 
ance in the household. Should she become the mother 
of boys^ she has attained the highest happiness open to her 
in life ; but sad indeed is her condition if it be otherwise. 
To have no sons in China is considered a sufficient cause 
for divorce, and in any case a second wife will be taken. 

Enclosed within high walls, the only access to a Chinese 
mansion is by the great, heavily barred gate that faces 
south. Within are rooms for the retainers, kitchens and 
offices upon the first courtyard ; guest halls and apartments 
for the men upon those that follow; while away at the 
back, opening out of these, are dwellings set apart for the 
women. Dark rooms, sometimes handsomely furnished, 
but always dirty and forlorn, open from the court by 
curtained doors and papered windows that admit but little 
light and air. The ladies are often graceful and courteous, 
with an intelligent look, due to the lofty forehead, formed 
by pulling out the hair round the brow from the time of 


marriage. Perfumed, painted, and robed in silk, their 
rich, dark tresses elaborately dressed, and glittering with 
jewelled pins and ornaments, they are gay enough outwardly, 
at times, even in the unattractive surroundings of their 
often dreary homes. Rarely, very rarely, may they go out ; 
and when they do, it must be in covered chairs, closely 
screened from view. 

The mother-in-law is the absolute head of such a house- 
hold. One or more rooms are given to each young wife, 
but the meals are usually in common, and all the house- 
keeping is in the elder woman's hands. Husbands — good, 
bad, or indifferent — are practically of far less importance at 
home than this domestic despot. Indeed, in some parts of 
China the young women are not supposed to speak to their 
husbands at all during the first three years of married life. 
Home blessings, the sunshine of united hearts, sympathy, 
love, unselfishness, are unknown elements in such an ex- 
istence. Feuds and jealousies, passion and strife, embitter 
every day ; while ceaseless gossip and malicious slander 
banish all mutual respect and confidence. Painful narrow- 
mindedness, and the grossest ignorance and superstition 
flourish in these conditions. And never a breath of a 
purer air lifts the heart heavenward. 

Nor is this all. Dreary and monotonous at the best, 
too often such lives are further shadowed by sorrows the 
result of cruel selfishness and sin. Frequently the men are 
gamblers, opium-smokers, and worse ; and the fate of the 
women and children— entirely in their hands — may be of 
the saddest. It is not an uncommon thing for wealthy 
families to be brought to poverty and shame through the 
vices of husbands and fathers ; and men are at liberty even 
to se// their wives and daughters to obtain money for 
opium, or to pay their gambling debts. 

Picture it! Ponder it! Pray over it! And think— do 
they not need us ? 


Not only these, however. Girls and women of the poorer 
classes, with harder work, fewer comforts, and less protection 
from cruelty, oppression, and wrong, need, even more, the 
help and blessing we can bring. 

Little daughters-in-law living like slaves in the homes of 
their future husbands, whose parents, too poor to care for 
them, have been obliged to let them go as children to the 
families that have bought them for their sons — oh, how 
they need the protection of a friend ! Thousands of these 
poor children continually endure indescribable sufferings 
from the unrestrained violence of those who have legal 
right to do with them what they will. It is the commonest 
thing for such little sufferers to take poison, or jump down 
a well, to end their misery. 

One case may serve as an example for very many. The 
child, a bonny little lass of eight, had been brought to her 
mother-in-law some three years before I knew her. The 
neighbours said that then she was plump and merry as 
a child could be. I saw her wan and wasted — silent, 
trembling, stupid with terror — ^and covered all over with 
scars of burns, cuts, and bruises, left by many a fit of 
passion vented upon her defenceless head. One bitterly 
cold autumn morning, drawn to the window by heart- 
rending cries, I saw her father-in-law, a tall, powerful 
man, who had dragged her out of the cottage without a 
scrap of clothing upon her poor shivering little frame, 
beating her violently with a branch from a thorn bush 
he had cut on purpose. Of course we interfered at once. 
But long ere this, that suffering little life has probably 
been sacrificed, as so many are in China, to persistent 

The awful fact that year by year in that dark land scores 
of thousands of women, oppressed beyond endurance, end 
their unhappy lives by suicide, speaks volumes in itself. 
Many such cases almost every missionary has witnessed ; 


but the large majority are never heard of, never known, 
except to the heart of God. 

" If thou forbear to deliver them that are drawn unto deaths 
and those that are ready to be slain ; if thou sayesty Behold 
we knenv it not ; doth not He that pondereth the heart consider 
it ? and He that keepeth thy soul, doth not He know it ? and 
shall not He render to every man according to his works f " 

By God's grace and in His strength we can deliver, 
many a time. And even where our presence and sympathy 
can bring no outward help, there is always the message of 
eternal freedom and blessedness for the soul. 

Far away in the heart of China I had a friend. She was 
a fine, bright, intelligent young woman, with one little girl, 
and a wretched opium-smoking husband, who left her to 
earn her own living and support her child. She was in a 
situation in the city, and came often to the mission-house 
to hear the Gospel which she loved. 

One hot July day I was suddenly called to an opium 
case. A woman had taken the poison; would we go at 
once ? Hurriedly we followed the messenger outside the 
city, to an open temple by the highway, where a large 
crowd was gathered. There, unconscious on the floor, I 
found — my friend. 

It was no lime for questions ; we did all that was 
possible, in spite of her strenuous resistance and pitiful 
pleadings to be allowed to die. After several hours she 
began to rally. And then, to our horror, we learned the 
following facts : — 

Unexpectedly that morning her husband had arrived. He 
seemed strange, insisted upon her leaving her situation and 
coming home at once, bringing the little girl. Her alarm 
was exchanged for despair and desperation, when upon the , 
road she learnt that he had sold her to pay his gambling 
debts, — sold her and her child to a man in a neighbouring 
city, to a life compared with which death were a boon. 


But one resource is left. By the roadside is a little inn. 
They stop to rest. She is prepared, seizes her opportunity, 
and swallows enough opium to kill two. They continue 
the dreadful journey, but befoie long she cannot walk. 
Some hours later I found her in the wayside temple. 

Had she not taken the poison, nothing could have 
rescued her from her dreadful fate. Had no missionary 
been there to save her life and arouse sympathy on her 
behalf, probably little would have been heard of the 
occurrence — only one tragedy more among so many ! But 
as it was, the thing became known all over the town. 
Public feeling was strong. And the people themselves 
made a contribution to buy her back and rid her of her 
wretched husband. To our unspeakable joy this was done. 
She came to the hall, and we had reason to believe that she 
was saved, not for time only, but for eternity. 

Of course there are very many cases of unutterable 
cruelty and wrong, in which we can do nothing but suffer 
with the oppressed, and cry to God to undertake their 
cause. Women are bought and sold in China every day, 
and become the helpless slaves of their legal owners, with 
no hope of deliverance but in the grave. That we can do 
so little in some directions should but urge us to neglect 
no service that is within our power. 

One phase of painful distress we are fully able to alleviate. 
What the women of China suffer physically, none but those 
who have lived ainong. them can ever know. Not only 
have they no doctors, properly so called, but the most 
elementary knowledge of nursing seems equally lacking, and 
comfort in sickness is a thing undreamed of. I have seen 
Chinese women speechless with amazement at the sympathy 
and kindness lavished upon an English mother at an inland 
station ; seen them weep bitter, indignant tears to think of 
the neglect and hardships they themselves have to suffer in 
times of equal need. Medical missionaries, women as well 


as men, are sorely wanted in every part of China, and may 
there find noble spheres of Christ-like service, rich in its 

A letter lies before me recently received from one such 
worker in central China, the only doctor in a region large 
as England and Wales put together. 

" Yesterday," he writes, " I was called to a patient — a 
young woman — who had been suffering terribly for three 
days. It was the saddest case I ever saw in my life. 
Before now the poor young thing must have passed away, 
a victim to the gross ignorance of the people. She might 
have been saved had I been called only one day earlier. 
As it was, too late, I had to leave her to die. Think of it ! 
And I have saved many a worse case at home. The 
experience was such a terrible one that, old and accustomed 
surgeon as I am, I have been quite upset by it ever since. 
As long as I live the memory of that scene will cling 
to me. 

** I look forward thankfully, as I think of it, and of all 
the awful sum of preventable anguish around us here, to 
the time when we shall have a regularly established medical 
work in this neighbourhood. 

" Oh — what the women of China suffer ! Come as soon 
as you can, and bring them the Gospel. And let us do all 
we may to help them in other ways as well, while we have 
the opportunity.'' 

Yes, they do need us ; we can help them ; and what 
is more, we alone have the power. Only women can 
go to these women in their dark and distant homes. 
Here and there the doctor may be called in a case 
of emergency, but we only are welcomed freely, as 
friends and sisters. None but women can sit down 
beside them ; patiently, lovingly enter into all their 


' "  » 

sorrows, and tenderly point them to jESUS, the one 
refuge for sinful and weary hearts. 

Did not the Master include this great, suffering 
womanhood of China in the largeness of His love 
and pity when He said, carry the glad tidings " to 
every creature " ? Did He not know that only 
women would be able to obey that part, at any rate, 
of His last command ? And will He hold us guiltless 
if it be forgotten, disregarded, unfulfilled ? 

How have we — the women of Christendom — dis- 
charged this great obligation ? What has been done, 
as yet, for China's homes and China's women ? 
Something during recent years, but ah, how little 
compered to the overwhelming need ! Utterly 
beyond the reach of present agencies, millions upon 
millions wait our tardy coming, never having had 
a chance of hearing of the Saviour of the world. 
Travel in the country, they flock to you from the 
villages ; enter the city gates, they crowd around you 
in the towns. Old women bent with years, mothers 
burdened with little children, girls with their tiny 
crippled feet, all more or less hampered by the 
restraint of custom, and unable to go far from their 
homes to meet us ; how can they ever hear the 
Message unless we bring it patiently within their 
reach ? Thousands of them are passing day by day 
into the darkness of an unknown future, leaving 
millions upon millions more to whom no light can 
come unless we, who say that we are Christ's, rise 
up in His strength to prove, by lives of love and 
VOL. II, 19 


unquestioning obedience, that we are His indeed for 
any service, even unto " the uttermost part of the 

Sisters that dwell at ease midst blessings won for 
us at so great a price ; mothers rejoicing in young 
lives, yours only to make the most of for GOD, and 
for the world ; happy women of Christian lands, with 
all your culture, freedom, faith, your capacities for 
devotion, sympathy, patience, love — would that to 
you the cry might come from these far-distant 
homes and hearts oppressed : " We grope amid the 
shadows, and can find no light ; we sink beneath the 
burdens of our weary way, no love to pity, no voice 
lo cheer, no hand to help ; we suffer, sin, and weep, 
and there is none to wipe our tears away ; we know 
not what to teach our little children ; we know not 
how to meet the terrors of the tomb ; alone, we die 
in the darkness, drifting,— whither we cannot tell! 
Oh, if there be a Saviour, if you have any message 
of healing, hope, or rest, in mercy, in compassion — 




AMONG the most striking characteristics of our 
day is the great acceleration of missionary 
enterprise on all hands. 

" * The first fifty years of this century/ says Mr. 
Gladstone, * marked more progress than the previous 
five thousand in art, science, invention, and dis- 
covery ; the next twenty-five more than the previous 
fifty ; and the next ten more than the previous 

" Probably the statement is not an exaggeration. 
God never sounded a louder signal gun than now, 
and no combination of events ever startled the atten- 
tive observer like the present. William Carey led 
the way in the organisation of the church for modern 
missions in 1792. In rapid succession followed the 
organisation of the great missionary societies, and 
the sending forth of missionaries, till now between 
two and three hundred societies are represented by 
six thousand labourers."* 

• The Dhntie Enterprise of Missions, p. 287. A. T. Pierson, 



Fifty years ago, at the Treaty of Nan-king in 1842, 
China began to open to the Gospel. The little 
handful of Protestant missionaries, then hampered 
and restricted in their efforts at Canton, have been 
replaced by more than fifteen hundred workers, 
scattered throughout the length and breadth of the 
land. Similar progress may be noticed in almost 
every sphere of missionary labour ; for GOD is moving 
on, and His purpose clearly is the evangelisation of 
the world, before the rapidly nearing close of this 

Among the most important developments of this 
march of modern missions has been the rapid growth 
of woman*s work for women the wide world over. 
The dawn of this century saw the devoted Elizabeth 
Fry consecrating her all to Christ-like labours on 
behalf of a degraded womanhood. She has been 
followed by a great host of noble women, who in 
varied spheres have given themselves to the service 
of their generation. Before their faith, prayers, and 
patient, skilful labours, what mountains of difficulty 
have become a way, what gates of brass have been 
cut asunder, what apparent impossibilities have been 
turned into victorious proofs of the miracle-working 
power of God ! 

About the time that Florence Nightingale, amid 
the horrors of the Crimean war, was patiently working 
out her awful problems, opening a pathway of use- 
fulness and devotion which thousands of women have 
since followed among the sick and suffering in every 


rank of life ; about the time that Mrs. Ranyard , 
moved with Divine compassion for the poor and 
ignorant of our great cities, was organising and 
developing that noble Bible Women's agency now 
so widely at work for their evangelisation, other 
women, less known, but no less devoted, were spend- 
ing their lives in similar service, pioneers in far- 
distant lands, shrouded with the gloom of heathenism. 
Their difficulties and successes cannot but be full of 
interest to us who in later days have entered into 
their labours. They patiently toiled and suffered 
through long years to make a way by which, now, 
we may have free access to millions upon millions 
of women they could never reach. If their respon- 
sibility was great, and led them to give up all, laying 
down life itself in obedience to the Lord's command, 
how much greater is ours in these last days, when 
the whole world is open to our efforts, and we are 
indeed without excuse ! 

The development has been rapid. Only since the 
middle of this century have Christian women been 
able to go freely to the women of heathendom. 
Little more than fifty years ago India and China 
were completely closed against this form of mis- 
sionary effort. To-day openings abound, and the 
cry on all hands is for more labourers. In 1852 
Mrs. Elizabeth Sale began her village work in India, 
which led a few years later to the development of 
Zenana missions, the light of India's " shut in " 
womanhood. During the same decade, decided 


advance was made towards the evangelisation of the 
women of China, when the first unmarried lady 
missionaries were sent out as an experiment. 

Protestant missions in the Empire of the East were 
still in their initial stages. No foothold even for men 
had been granted before 1842. The country was not 
nominally open until i860. And up to the Chefoo 
Convention, in the autumn of 1876, the interior was 
practically inaccessible. General work being so re- 
stricted, it is needless to say that efforts for women 
were even more hampered. From the first, brave 
and devoted missionary wives had accompanied their 
husbands to this difficult sphere, and their patient 
self-denying labours had been fruitful. Before the 
middle of the century no fewer than seven such had 
been laid to rest in Chinese graves. They were able 
to accomplish much, directly and indirectly, but none 
felt more keenly than they the need of reinforce- 
ments ; of younger unmarried women who, free 
from home duties, might give themselves entirely to 
the work. 

But could such go to China? The customs and pre- 
judices of the people were all against it. How would 
they find homes ? How would they be protected in 
great heathen cities ? How would they reach the 
people ? And besides, where were the parents who 
would be willing to let their daughters face such 
dangers, unmarried and alone ? The need for their 
help was evident and pressing. Married ladies with 
the care of settled stations could not possibly undertake 


the work ; and unless single women could be found, 
able and willing to consecrate themselves to it, the 
whole evangelisation of China must be retarded, for 
" the surest and speediest way to Christianise a people 
is to convert and educate their women." 

To an American Mission belongs the honour of 
having been first to recognise and endeavour to meet 
this need,* when in 1850 the American Protestant 
Episcopalians sent Miss L. M. Fay to Shanghai. The 
Berlin Foundling Hospital in Hong-kong followed this 
bold example, and many devoted German workers 
came out. In 1859 the American Methodist Epis- 
copal Mission added to their representatives at 
Foo-chow two sisters whose names have since become 
widely known and honoured throughout missionary 
circles — the Misses B. and S. H. Woolston. In 1866 
the Presbyterians and Baptists followed, the latter 
sending Miss A. M. Field to Swatow, where she has 
since rendered invaluable service. But up to that time 
the larger English Societies had scarcely begun to 
enrol unmarried ladies among their representatives 
in China. 

In 1866, when the Lammermuir, outward bound, 
was bearing the first party of the Inland Mission to 
Shanghai, there were, all told in China, only fourteen 

• Individual effort there had been. As early as 1844 Miss 
Aldersey, an English lady settled in Ningpo, was working on her 
own account among the women. But up to this time, as far as 
we can tell, no Society had attempted to send out unmarried 


unmarried lady missionaries. Seven of these were in 
Hong-kong, and the little handful on the mainland 
were scattered in six of the principal coast cities ; 
while a hundred and fifty millions of women in the 
vast Interior were still utterly unreached, " having no 
hope, and without Go I) in the world." But on board 
that outward-bound ship, numbered in the first party 
of the Inland Mission, was a little band of sisters — 
two married ladies, and with them six young earnest 
workers — going out to consecrate their lives to the 
women of China. GOD speed them as they travel 
eastward ! Hard has been the parting from home, 
and loved ones ; difficult is the pioneer work that lies 
ahead ; but four, at least, of their number shall live to 
see brighter days dawn for China, and wonderful 
advance in the evangelisation in which they have 
come to take part. 

Now mark the change. Only ten years, and the 
number has increased nearly fivefold ! The first 
General Conference of Protestant missionaries in 
Shanghai, May 1877, represented a company of three 
to four hundred missionaries, including no fewer than 
sixty-two lady workers, not counting missionaries* 
wives — the number having risen from fourteen to sixty- 
two within the decade. How great and cheering such 
an advance; yet how utterly inadequate! The Con- 
ference urgently appealed for labourers, women as well 
as men — " devoted women to penetrate the homes of 
the people." What were sixty-two such workers among 
as many millions of women, with still as roany millions 


more living beyond their possible reach ? Eight 
months before, that untouched Interior had been 
practically thrown open to Heralds of the Cross by 
the signing of the Chefoo Convention. Since then 
pioneer bands of men had penetrated far into its 
darkness with the Light of Life. Already they were 
travelling through the nine provinces still without any 
resident missionary, and multjtudes wherever they 
went thronged to hear their message. But what 
about the women ? They could not learn from men. 
Unless women preachers could come to them they 
must be left unreached. 

And there were women with hearts full of love, who, 
from their settled stations in the seaboard provinces, 
looked out over the far-reaching country, and longed 
to be the first to go and seek those sister-souls. 

China was opening, why should not her women 
be blessed ? Yet, far away across the populous land, 
hundreds and hundreds of miles to distant Mongolia, 
Burmah and Thibet, in countless thousands of cities, 
villages, and homes, millions of women were waiting, to 
whom no one had ever attempted to carry the message 
of God's love. No women-evangelists had traversed 
those rivers teeming with human life, or trodden 
those fruitful plains crowded with homesteads and 
dotted with towns and cities. No dweller in all 
those far, fair regions had ever looked into the eyes 
of a Christian sister, or heard the name of jESUS. 

When would missionary workers go to them ? 

For the present there seemed no way. Custom and 


prejudice were all against it. And even the opinion 
of fellow-missionaries was not favourable, as a rule. 

As late as 1877 a remarkable document was issued 
by the Government Foreign Office at Pekin, utterly 
condemning woman's work. The missionary question, 
as a whole, had come up for consideration, and several 
suggestions were made as to the modus operandi to 
be pursued. Among other desired modifications was 
this, that " in order to exhibit the reserve and strict 
propriety of Christianity, no Chinese female should 
enter the chapels nor foreign women propagate the 
doctrines." Thus it was actually proposed to stop all 
work for the women of the country ; and public feeling 
being strongly in favour of the suggestion, lady 
missionaries had to keep out of sight as much as 
possible for some time. 

Only twenty years ago ! Well might the burdened 
heart, longing after those unreached millions, sadly 
exclaim, in this connection also, " (7//, Rock^ Rock ! 
when wilt thou open ? " 

But it is open now. Go, travel, see ! The women 
as well as men of China are ready to receive the 
Gospel. Out of its fifteen hundred Protestant 
missionaries fully half are women, and at least a 
fourth, unmarried women, whose whole lives are 
absorbed in the work. 

How did it come about? Who were the first to 
go to the far Interior? What success had they? 
What difficulties ? What reception ? 

In the next chapter we shall see. 



THE first woman who went was a mother. 
Thirteen hundred miles away across the ocean 
her husband and children in the home-land followed 
with love and prayers her distant journey and the 
founding of the Orphanage she had gone to start, as 
much convinced as she that GOD had called her to 
this special work. 

It was the terrible famine time of 1878. Tidings 
of the distress in Shan-SI had reached Shanghai, and 
relief work had been started before Mr. Hudson 
Taylor left for England at the end of the year. For 
more than twelve months half the globe had been 
between him and home, and although his wife had 
cheerfully spared him for the work's sake, it was with 
an often longing heart. But now reunion was at 
hand. On board the mail steamer passengers and 
crew alike were eager to reach Europe in time for 
Christmas. No expense was spared. Extra coal 
was piled on engine fires. And in the middle of 
December a speedy voyage terminated at Marseilles. 

Then followed days of happy work in the old 



home-circle, destined ere long, however, to be strangely 
interrupted. Terrible tidings began to reach Pyrland 
Road week by week of the alarming proportions 
assumed by the famine in northern China. Clearly 
this was no ordinary time of scarcity such as frequently 
arises from drought or flood in various parts of the 
land. Now whole provinces were being rapidly 
depopulated. Millions had died already. Millions 
more were on the verge of starvation. Ghastly 
horrors were reported of deserted villages where the 
dead lay unburied ; of wives and children sold away 
or deserted ; of fever-stricken cities, outside whose 
walls huge pits were dug to receive the uncoffined 
bodies of numberless daily victims. What could be 
done to succour the distressed, and make the most of 
the openings that abounded for the Gospel ? 

Up to this time Shan-si had been one of the nine 
unoccupied inland provinces in which missionary 
work was scarcely yet begun. No foreign lady had 
ever been seen within its borders, nor in any of the 
vast regions to south and west of it. For men- 
evangelists to penetrate these districts was not easy, 
but for women to attempt it had been considered 
impossible. Now, however, in SnAN-sl, at any rate, 
old barriers were broken down, and the sufferers 
seemed ready to respond to any touch of sympathy. 
Hundreds of orphan children were dying, day by 
day, or being sold and taken south, to a life of shame. 
Ladies were unspeakably needed to come and gather 
these poor little ones into Christian schools, and seize 


the opportunity of gaining access to the women in 
their desolate homes, no longer closed against the 

But who could be spared for this responsible 
undertaking? All the China Inland Mission staflf 
seemed absolutely needed in their own important 
spheres. Doors that had cost long toil to open 
could not be left to close again ; young converts in 
the older stations could not be abandoned by those 
who had gathered them in. And yet none but an 
experienced missionary would do for this difficult 
work in Shan-SI. The problem was pressing, and 
hard of solution. 

And so it came about that one morning, early in the 
New Year, Mrs. Hudson Taylor was startled by the 
unexpected suggestion from her husband's lips, — 

" Could not you go ? " 

" Impossible ! " was her immediate rejoinder. And 
the conversation ceased. 

But the suggestion would not be dismissed. The 
wife's heart well knew what it must have meant to 
him who made it, and, coming from such a source, the 
words had serious weight. He would never have said 
such a thing if he had not meant it. Could it be that 
the thought was of GOD ?. 

Her husband was ready to spare her ; but after the 
loneliness of their long separation, to be parted again 
so soon ; to leave him when he was far from strong, 
and seemed so much to need her help and sympathy, 
surely this could not be right? And then the 


children — the lads at school ; the little ones in the 
nursery, full of funny prattle, charming ways, and 
baby-loveliness that never come again — how could 
she part from them to go to that terrible, fever- 
stricken, famine district, which had already cost 
missionary lives, and was likely to cost more ? She 
was ready with her whole soul to " seek first the 
Kingdom," but could such a step be of GOD ? 

And yet if she did not volunteer, who would go 
forward? There were young candidates ready to 
sail for China ; but where was the woman with her 
knowledge of the language, and familiarity with the 
people, who could be the pioneer of such work in 
Shan-si? She said nothing, but thought much, and 
waited upon GOD for guidance. 

One thing was very clear — the care of her children 
is a mother's first work for GOD. And Mrs. Taylor's 
heart was filled with joy and thankfulness as she 
realised that unless they were suitably provided for it 
could not be her duty to go. If this call were of the 
Lord she should certainly see His hand opening the 
way by providing care for the little ones that would 
satisfy His heart as well as her own. For the 
present this seemed impossible. And the mother's 
questionings were set at rest by the assurance that 
unless the LORD thus set her free, she might 
remain at home, and know it was not in selfishness or 
rebellion ; and that if He did so provide, husband and 
children would be better cared for than by her 
presence with them. It would be safe to leave them 


if He said go, and safe to trust Him about the 
strange, new path. 

One unsuccessful attempt to get the children 
mothered, and then Mrs. Taylor felt that there was 
no more for her to do. If GOD wanted her in China 
He would work. And in a few days He did ; so that 
Mrs. Taylor wonderingly saw her family provided 
for, unasked, in the very way she would have most 
desired. Now she knew certainly that her husband's 
thought had been of GoD ; and at once her going 
was spoken of and preparations commenced. 

Still some much-valued friends questioned the 
wisdom of the step, and Mrs. Taylor felt, for their sakcs 
as well as for her own, the need of further confirma- 
tion. She thought much of Gideon, often feeling, like 
him, very unfit for the grave responsibilities to be 
assumed. It strengthened her to notice how gently 
the Lord had led him on from step to step, until his 
faith was ready for whatever obedience might involve. 
And, remembering Gideon's fleece, she too was led 
to seek from GOD a sign that this strange step was 
indeed His ordering, something that in times of trial 
and weakness, sure to come, she might recall for her 

Her prayer was twofold. She asked the LORD 
graciously to confirm His guidance by sending her 
a .sufficient sum to meet the expenses of a small 
outfit, and also to add a special gift of fifty pounds — 
neither more nor less, but exactly fifty -to be appro- 
priated to another purpose. 


More willing to give and to guide than we can be 
to follow, the Lord did not long keep His child 
waiting. That very day a gentleman called at 
Pyrland Road, asking for Mrs. Taylor ; and after 
some little conversation, inquired whether it were 
really a fact that she intended starting shortly for 
China. Upon being told that she was preparing to do 
so unless the LORD hindered, he took from his purse 
a cheque, which he said he had brought towards any 
necessary expenses of outfit, and that he would like 
it to be reserved exclusively for that purpose. The 
amount thus provided was exactly the sum usually 
given by the Mission for the outfit of candidates. 
With an expectant heart she waited, still saying 
nothing of her other special prayer. Half a week 
later the morning post brought a letter containing a 
cheque for fifty pounds, with permission to appro- 
priate it to the very purpose for which it had been 
ask^d of God. 

More than this, on the very day that Mrs. Taylor 
sailed for the far East, further encouragement was 
given. While the farewell Communion service was 
going on, a donation of one thousand pounds reached 
Pyrland Road, for work among the famine sufferers. 

" Please enter it anonymously," was the request. 
** It docs not represent any superabundance of wealth, 
as my bu.siness affairs will miss it. But if you, for 
Christ's sake, can separate, I cannot give less than 

Several new workers accompanied Mrs. Taylor to 


China, the provision for whose going was little less 
remarkable than that made for her own. 

Reinforcements had been badly needed on the field ; and 
early in the New Year several candidates were accepted to 
sail in the next out-going party. But funds for passage and 
outfit were not forthcoming, and it seemed as though their 
departure might have to be put off until the autumn. 
Urgent letters, however, continually pleaded for more 
workers, and in the end of March Mr. Hudson Taylor was 
constrained to pray for very definite guidance. He told the 
waiting volunteers of the difficulty, and asked them to look 
to God for supplies, if it were His will for them to go 
at that time. Prayer was also requested for the general 
funds of the Mission. Large sums had been poured in for 
famine relief, but other supplies were low. 

On Tuesday, April 2nd, the Council was to meet at 
Pyrland Road, when the question of the out-going party 
would have to be decided. At the previous Saturday 
afternoon prayer-meeting, a friend not often present, and 
who knew nothing of the special circumstances above men- 
tioned, was led to pray, with marked emphasis, for just the 
help and guidance needed. As encouraging as it was un- 
expected, this prayer did much to assure those present that 
the Lord's answer was near at hand. 

The day for the Council meeting arrived, but meanwhile 
God had not failed to fulfil the expectation of His people. 
Two donations, received on Monday, had strengthened 
their faith, and a third, arriving on Tuesday morning, caused 
great joy and thanksgiving. The first of these was only 
six postage stamps, sent anonymously, from "a believer,'* 
but it told of a love that had done what it could. The 
second brought the larger sum of fifty pounds, with sym- 
pathy and cheering words from an Irish friend. And the 
third ran thus: "As you are receiving so marked an 

VOL. 11. 20 


answer to your prayers, in the number of workers volunteer- 
ing to go out in connection with the Mission, we feel we 
cannot do better than send you some additional pecuniary 
help this year. I have therefore much pleasure in enclosing 
a cheque for fiwt hundred pounds." 

In the evening the Council assembled. But before they 
had been able to commence proceedings Mr. Taylor was 
called out to see a gentleman who had come to say that a 
donation of one hundred pounds was being sent from Scot- 
land, expressly for extension work, and to increase the 
number of labourers in China. 

"Thus," wrote Mr. Taylor, "before we were able even 
to consider the matter, England, Ireland, and Scotland 
had all sent in their response to the prayers that had 
ascended to the Throne of Grace." 

These four donations exceeded six hundred and fifty 
pounds. The need was met. And, after providing for a 
sufficient remittance to China, enough remained to cover 
the passage and outfit of a large party. 

Thus provided for and guided, Mrs. Taylor and her 
fellow-travellers set sail from London on the second of May, 
followed by the warmest prayers of many of the Lord's 

Upon arriving in China, in the early summer, the 
younger members of the party soon found themselves 
in suitable surroundings for the prosecution of their 
first work, the study of the language ; but for Mrs. 
Taylor the question of how to begin operations was 
not quite so easily settled. To gather as many as 
possible of the destitute children, and seek to get 
amongst the women of the famine region, was the 
purpose kept in view, but it was some time before any 
suitable way seemed to open. Of course the tempter 


came with frequent suggestions of discouragement, 
and many friends were ready to question the possi- 
bility or wisdom of such an effort 

" But all along," she wrote, " I was thankful to be 
able to look back with confidence, and say, *GoD 
provided the means to save the orphans, and so 
clearly guided to my coming out for this work, that 
I am sure He has some plan in view. I will wait 
and see.*" 

Mr. Turner was communicated with about openings 
in Shan-si, but replies seemed slow in coming ; for 
while he was travelling from place to place distributing 
relief throughout his large district, the mails lay 
untouched at T'ai-yuen. The long, hot summer was 
hardly over, however, before letters arrived from him 
and Mr. Richard, saying that the news of Mrs. 
Taylor's coming had been an answer to many 
prayers ; that there were now, all around them, such 
openings for winning the hearts of the people as 
might never occur again ; and that they would give 
the warmest welcome to any reinforcements. 

Mrs. Taylor, Miss Home, and Miss Crickmay — 
both of whom had already been in China for about 
two years — started at once for T*ien-tsin, in the 
experienced escort of Mr. Bailer. From this point 
a long and difficult journey lay before them, through 
a region never previously traversed by foreign ladies. 
The country was barren and desolate, bearing many 
traces of the sufferings of the famine time. The 
villages and towns were peculiarly lifeless, with a 


significant absence of children and old people, as 
well as of dogs, fowls, and other common homestead 
occupants. No babies were to be seen anywhere, 
nor any little children — a pathetic indication of the 
awful crisis through which the people had just 

The chilly autumn evening of the last day of their 
journey had deepened into dusk, when, just as the 
city gates were closing, the weary travellers reached 
T'ai-yuen. Thus on Wednesday, October 23rd, 1878, 
the capital of Shan-SI was entered by missionary 
women, the first to penetrate so far into the darkness 
of inland China. 

When the tidings reached England, a few weeks 
later, Mr. Hudson Taylor wrote, with deepest thank- 
fulness : — 

" None but those who know what it is to pray and wait 
and watch for months, it may be years, for the opening of 
hearts closed against Christ, or of doors long shut to the 
Gospel, can fully understand the joy with which we have 
watched openings made in province after province, first for 
itinerant work, and then for more localised efforts. And if 
such has been our joy as brethren have been enabled to 
go so far inland, with what grateful hearts to God do we 
record the safe arrival of our first party of missionary 
sisters at the capital of one of the nine hitherto unevangelised 
provinces ! " 

It was indeed a great step in advance ; and a 
bright prophecy for the future. 

Soon after Mrs. Taylor's arrival at T ai-yucn, Mr. 

-^« k — « — « ^ 

r//£ /y/?5r women who went west. 309 

James, who had left a year before, returned with his 
bride. They were quickly followed by Mr. and Mrs. 
Richard ; and as the winter came on quite a con- 
siderable staff occupied the three mission-houses in 
the city. Relief work was still needed, though the 
worst of the famine was mercifully past, and the 
ladies soon began to be very busy among the women 
and children. Sewing classes were started, giving 
employment to women in distress, and thus relieving 
many, whilst regularly bringing them under the 
inftuence of the Gospel. Visiting the homes of those 
thus reached gave access to numbers of houses in 
the city, and gradually won the confidence of a large 

Suitable premises being secured, the Orphanage 
was commenced, and a number of destitute little 
girls were gathered within its kindly shelter. The 
condition of these unfortunate children, when first 
brought to the missionaries, may be better imagined 
than described. Covered with sores, their poor little 
starved bodies were wasted to skin and bone ; in 
some cases their filthy rags had to be actually soaked 
off before they could be got rid of! The work, 
though often repulsive, was repaid by the rapid im- 
provement of the children's health and appearance. 
Most of them, in a very little while, became changed 
almost beyond recognition, and not one died 

Such was the state of the district, however, that 
comparatively few children were obtainable. Not 
that the people were unwilling to bring them, but 


Simply that there were none to bring. During the 
awful famine rnonths the majority of little girls had 
either perished from starvation, or had been sold by 
their distracted parents and taken south. The 
scarcity of children remaining in the capital was 
pitifully apparent. Mrs. Taylor, during the whole 
period of her stay of five or six months, positively 
saw only one little baby. 

From that day to this woman's work in Shan-SI 
has gone on growing in usefulness and blessing. 
Miss Home and Miss Crickmay laboured there -for 
some years, and have been followed by a large band 
of devoted sisters, some of whom, alone, at their own 
stations, have been used of GOD to build up large 
and prosperous native churches. 

Mrs. Taylor never regretted her pioneer journey 
to inland China, with all that it involved. Her life 
was spared, and about a year later husband and wife 
met again in the Empire of the East. He had been 
seriously ill after her sailing, and again on the way 
out. " You will never live to reach China," the 
Singapore doctor told him. But he did live ; and 
they were reunited. Three of the children she left 
behind her in England are labouring to-day in con- 
nection with the China Inland Mission, two of them 
with children of their own, as sweet as those the 
mother trusted that summer lo God's care. 



THE departure of Mrs. Hudson Taylor for China, 
in the spring of 1878, called forth much sym- 
pathy at home. Thoughtful attention was drawn in 
many Christian circles to the women of that great 
country, and in the providence of GOD the worker 
was at hand who could take this deepened interest, 
and turn it to account. 

A week before Mrs. Taylor sailed, Mr. McCarthy 
reached home after his walk across China, with a 
heart burdened by the condition of the women he 
had seen in the far west, longing to tell their needs, 
and help to heal their woes. Deeply convinced of 
the responsibility resting on Christian women to 
carry and send the Gospel to their sisters in every 
land, he largely devoted himself to the work of 
rousing the conscience of the Church upon this 
supremely important subject. Many hearts were 
stirred. Little companies began to unite for prayer ; 
and soon after Mrs. Taylor left England, a ladies' 
" Prayer Union " was formed, specially to seek blessing 



upon the women of inland China. Circulars were 
sent out, meetings held quarterly in the members' 
houses, missionary addresses were given, and hundreds 
joined. Several were thus led to devote themselves 
to the work, two sisters of Miss Boyd, the Secretary, 
sailing in the autumn of the year, for China. Definite 
prayer was made that missionary women might be 
enabled to go inland, and from that time decided 
advance is noticeable in this direction. At first, how- 
ever, the very idea had to be mentioned with utmost 
caution, lest the Consular authorities, hearing of the 
proposal, should interfere with its accomplishment. 

Meanwhile, Kan-suh and Shen-SI had no worker 
among five millions of women. Far away in this 
distant north, Mr. Easton was toiling and travelling 
alone, living in inns, unable to settle anywhere, 
patiently scattering the good seed, and holding on 
till brighter times should come. His companion, Mr. 
George King, had come down to the coast, reluctantly 
leaving the brave pioneer single-handed. 

In beautiful Si-CH'uen, far west up the mighty 
Yang-tsi, ten millions of women had no missionary. 
Our brethren, J. H. Riley and S. S. Clarke, were 
holding the fort alone at Ch'ung-k*ing, — the only 
station in that vast and populous province, larger in 
area than Austria and Switzerland put together. Mr. 
George Nicoll had come down to the coast early in 
the year for much-needed rest and change, his heart 
burdened with the needs of the women of the west — 
so accessible, so dark, so needy, all unreached. 

A Fll^E YEARS* STORY. 313 

Farther south, YUN-NAN and KWEI-CHAU had 
again four millions of women with no one to bring 
them the Light of Life. One lonely missionary, 
Mr. Broumton at Kwei-yang, was living at the only 
station in these two provinces, as large as Norway 
and Sweden put together. He had had visits from 
several colleagues on itinerating journeys — amongst 
others from Mr. George Clarke, who had » penetrated 
as far as KWANG-SI — but at this time he was the 
only evangelist in those vast regions, and could do 
nothing to reach the women. 

Hu-NAN and KWANG-SI, equal to Italy and 
Portugal in size, with a population of twenty-three 
millions, had no Protestant worker at all, as they 
have none to-day ! And Ho-NAN, north of the 
Yang-tsi, more than twice as large as Ireland, was 
without any lady evangelist among its seven millions 
of women. 

Three times as large as the German Empire, these 
eight inland provinces contained almost thirty 
millions of women, none of whom had ever heard from 
a sister's lips the story of the love of jESUS. No 
wonder there were thought and prayer about sending 
workers to these regions. No wonder there were 
women in the missionary band, ready and longing to 
go as soon as a way should open. 

Amongst the missionary party residing at Yang- 
chau was one who, though only a short time in the 
country, had endeared herself to all who knew her 
by her bright earnestness, warm-hearted affection. 


spirituality, and entire devotion to the work* Early 
in the summer of 1879 she was united in marriage 
to Mr. George King, who had recently come down 
from Kan-SUH ; and when the hot suns of August 
rose upon the great mid-China plains, tlmily Snow 
found herself as Emily King, at Hankow, with a 
three or four months' journey up the broad Han 
before her, to her husband's distant sphere. No 
European woman had ever been seen in any of the 
towns and cities that border this mighty river. Great 
had been the crowds and excitement attending the 
first men-missionaries who had travelled that way. 
What would happen if a lady were known to be 
passing there ? And then, at the end of the journey, 
where should she find a home ? So far it had been 
impossible to secure a house in Ts'in-chau, where 
the missionaries hoped to make their headquarters. 
Rough accommodation in native inns was all the 
strangers could count upon, and that might be re- 
fused them or withdrawn at any time. Brave must 
be the young bride who would dare to face such diffi- 
culties, and strong the husband's faith that would not 
shrink, on her account, from such a lot ! And yet 
with all the courage and the faith, there must have 
been moments when the heart almost failed at the 
prospect of that first journey. 

A little boat was chosen from amongst the crowded 
shipping at the juncture of the Han and Yang-tsi, all 
arrangements were carefully made, and then came 
the long parting from the missionary friends re- 


maining at Hankow — the base of supplies, the last 
point of contact with the outside world. 

Thus they set their faces northward, hundreds 
and hundreds of miles of unbroken heathenism 
stretching away before them. Weeks and months 
must pass, changing summer suns for wintry blasts, 
ere they could reach their journey's end. And then, 
they have no home to go to, and only one Christian 
friend to bid them welcome — like themselves a 
pilgrim-stranger, homeless in a heathen land. 

What is the secret of their untroubled confidence 
and peace? 

"The Lord go with you," said a friend, bidding 
them farewell at Hankow. 

" Yes," replied the young wife brightly ; " with us, 
surely ! And He has gone before." 

Strong in this assurance they went forward. And 
He had gone before. In the early autumn, after 
three months* travelling, the great city of Han-chung, 
the most important centre on their route, was reached. 
Winter, in that region always severe, was coming on, 
and Mr. King felt it would be wise to break the 
journey. Of course it seemed most unlikely that 
premises would be obtainable, and yet he could but 
try. Negotiations were soon in progress ; but just 
as matters appeared hopeful the mandarin sent 
round to warn the landlord against renting to these 
foreigners, as they had not reported themselves at the 
Ya-mun, and nobody knew who or what they might 
be. Mr. King soon explained, asking to be allowed 


to remain for a time ; and the Ya-mun dignitary, 
discovering that the foreigner was an old acquaint- 
ance, readily granted the necessary permit, and 
became kind and friendly. Filled with thankfulness 
and much encouraged, the missionaries settled down 
in this important sphere. The house was large and 
convenient, with a room in front capable of holding 
two hundred. They purposed remaining for the 
winter only, and then going on to Kan-SUH, but it 
soon became impossible to leave the growing work. 
Women flocked to Mrs. King's meetings, and day by 
day her husband was as busy as could be among the 

In the spring Mr. Easton came down from Kan- 
SUH to visit the new station. 

" God has been very good to us," he wrote, " and we 
feel most thankful for such a suitable place as we have 
in this important city. The work goes on amazingly. . . . 
Men come in crowds to hear the preaching, and the sick 
flock to Mr. King for medicines. The rescue of opium 
suicides is of almost daily occurrence. Yesterday — Sunday 
— we had public worship in the little courtyard, when about 
one hundred attended, nearly half of them women. 

" Mr. King has already had the joy of baptising one man 
here, the tirstfruits of Shen-si.'' 

Thus was the great city of Han-chung opened to 
the Gospel, and an entrance won for women to the 
second of the nine unreached inland provinces — Mrs. 
Hudson Taylor and her young companions in neigh- 
bouring SllAN-Si having been the earliest pioneers. 


It was a brave venture, that first journey to Han- 
chung, but what shall we say of the attempts and 
successes that followed ? Their story is one to shame 
our shrinking faith and little devotion in the service 
of the Lord we profess to love. 

Reinforcements were needed. Mrs. King, alone 
and overwhelmed with work, was in danger of break- 
ing down. But no married couple could be spared to 
go to the new station. Who would brave the dangers 
of that three months' journey, and be the next to 
carry the Gospel to the women of the far north-west ? 

Four years before that time, a lady of independent 
means, Miss Elizabeth Wilson, of Kendal, had come 
out to China, at her own charges, in connection with 
the Inland Mission. Already well past middle life, 
it would have been only natural if she had chosen 
some comparatively easy sphere at the coast, where 
a mea.sure of home comforts and surroundings might 
have been secured. But such was not her spirit. 
Courageous, earnest, devoted, wherever the need 
was greatest there would this woman go. Help was 
wanted at Han-chung. Willingly relinquishing her 
own sphere, in and around Hankow, she was the first 
to volunteer for the post. With one young com- 
panion — Miss Faussett, now Mrs. Samuel Clarke, of 
KwEl-YANc; — this brave lady set out upon the long 
and diflficult journey, desiring no escort but that of 
two native Christian servants. Starting in the end 
of Februar}' 1880, they reached their destination th^cc 
months later, on the twenty-first of May. 


It was a noble forward movement, eclipsing all 
that had hitherto been attempted, and proved con- 
clusively the startling fact that women, strong in 
faith, might, alone and unaided, successfully penetrate 
remotest inland China with the Gospel. Many 
similar journeys have been made since then ; but 
this was the first, and the most remarkable, consider- 
ing the age and inexperience of the travellers, and 
the difficulties through which they were brought in 
perfect safety. 

Twelve months after the ladies reached Han-chung 
a dark cloud of sorrow and bereavement over- 
shadowed the missionary home in that distant inland 
city. The work had been manifestly prospered, and 
all seemed to promise future blessing. In the middle 
of April 1 88 1 Mrs. King wrote : — 

" Our little son is four months old to-day. He is a great 
attraction and wonder to the Chinese, who cannot under- 
stand his being so white. Mr. King gets grand opportunities 
of preaching. Lately he baptised two more men and a 
woman. Eighteen women have been baptised in all, and 
how many men I cannot exactly tell. 

"The Lord is with us. He will never forsake those 
who put their trust in Him." Adding in a postscript — 
***The Lord is risen indeed.*" 

Less than a month later, the young wife was called 
from earth to heaven, leaving her little one mother- 
less, and the husband from whom she had never once 
beftn parted, desolate and alone. How Fore his need, 
in that great darkness, of the Presence of which she 


wrote ! Typhoid fever had done its deadly work, 
and the first missionary grave hallowed the soil of 

Others filled up the ranks. Many a noble woman 
followed to carry on the task her hands laid down. 
Shen-si and Kan-SUH have claimed no small share 
of the love and toil of C.I.M. evangelists, whose 
record is above, known fully to God alone. But the 
devoted Emily King was privileged to be the first to 
lay down her life for the women of that great region, 
as she had been pioneer in bringing them the Glad 
Tidings of great joy. 

A bright September day in 1879, one month after 
the departure of Mr. and Mrs. King for the north, 
witnessed the double wedding, in the cathedral at 
Shanghai, of Mr. George Nicoll, from Sl-CH'UEN, to 
Miss Rowland, then only six months in China; and 
Mr. George Clarke to Mademoiselle Rosier, a Swiss 
lady, who had come out with Mrs. Hudson Taylor 
little more than a year before. Mr. Nicoll was 
returning to Ch'ung-k'ing, and Mr. Clarke to Kwei- 
yang, capital of distant KWEI-CHAU — and, of course, 
the ladies were to go with them. 

It was a long and dangerous journey. Few 
foreigners had ever penetrated so far to west and 
south, and never any women. Their route lay up 
the Yang-tsi to Hankow ; thence by native boat to 
I-ch'ang, an important mart three hundred and fifty 


miles farther west; there a Sl-CH'UEN junk would have 
to be obtained for the Yang-tsi rapids and the further 
journey to Ch'ung-k'ing, in which city Mr. and Mrs. 

NicoII would be at home. Not so the Clarkes, how- 
ever. Another month's travelling lay before them, 
due south, to Kwei-yang, capital of the neighbouring 
province of KwEI-CHAU. And from the time the 


pilgrims left Hankow — during all the four months of 
their journey — they would only pass two mission 
stations, one in each of these vast provinces, among 
whose thronging cities, myriad homes, and needy 
hearts no Christian woman's influence had ever yet 
been known, 

Preparations were carefully made for this difficult 
undertaking, but little was said about it, for fear 
of hindrance from official quarters. In the end of 
October the travellers set out, and a month later 
they were ready to leave I-ch'ang. Here, early in 
December, came the final parting from friends and 
colleagues — the real venture of faith— as they turned 
their faces westward. Winter had set in. Mornings 
and nights were bitterly cold on the wide, bleak river. 
In their roomy junk (divided into three compart- 
ments, and a place for the boatman's family) they 
extemporised a cooking stove, and settled down to 
make the best of circumstances — glad to be travelling 
together as far as to Ch'ung-k'ing. . . . Through the 
impressive grandeur of the Yang-tsi gorges they 
moved by slow degrees, the great river rushing at 
a fearful pace over its numerous, terrible rapids, and 
majestic mountains rising on either side, whose rock- 
hewn walls towered, sometimes, a thousand feet 
above the foaming torrent. At night the windows 
of the boat had to be carefully closed with wooden 
shutters to conceal the foreign ladies, for fear of 
crowds and excitement — inevitable had they been 
seen. If they could only reach their destinations 
VOL, IT. 21 


quietly all would be well, but disturbances en route 
might have proved a serious hindrance, spreading 
rumours ahead. 

Christmas was near before the rapids were passed. 
Many a danger had been safely met and conquered, 
and the worst seemed over, when suddenly one early 
morning out in the open stream the boat struck a 
hidden rock, and began to fill with water. 

" Ashore ! Ashore ! as quickly as possible ! " rang 
out the startled cry. 

The women were landed, and left to watch the 
goods rescued from the quickly sinking junk. In 
addition to ordinary luggage, bedding, stores, etc., 
eleven boxes of books belonging to the Bible Society 
were on board, and as they filled with water were 
exceedingly heavy and difficult to move. Tents had 
to be rigged up on the bank ; and for a week the 
forlorn little party camped out as best they might, 
in cold, discomfort, and weariness, under their poor 
shelter. Daylight hours were spent in drying their 
dripping belongings, and trying to save the books 
from utter ruin ; and at night they had to sleep 
under umbrellas in the wind and rain. A poor way 
to keep Christmas ! But they made the best of it, 
singing the old home hymns, and enjoying a capital 
pudding, contrived by Mrs. Nicoll in spite of circum- 
stances. By degrees the wreck was raised, repaired, 
and rendered habitable, and on December 29th they 
re-embarked, thankful to have lost nothing, and 
experienced no ill-effects from cold and exposure. 


Surely, now, all would go well ? 

Within a few hours a rope broke in the strain of 
the current The mast snapped, and they found 
themselves drifting down stream, in danger of a 
second wreck. Missionaries and boatmen rowed 
hard, and catching a backwater brought up at the 
very spot where they had spent Christmas drying 
their goods. The boat was abandoned as useless, 
and sending on a servant to Ch'ung-k'ing for chairs, 
they prepared to finish the journey overland. 

In view of this finale two hearts at least must have 
been filled with apprehension. How should they — 
foreign women — ever enter the great city unobserved ? 
What if their presence were discovered, or sounded 
abroad by their chair bearers? What if riotous 
crowds should gather to impede their progress? 
What if they were unable to settle, and their long 
journey should prove in vain ? But committing 
themselves to the LORD they went forward. 

The city they were now nearing has well been 
called the Liverpool of China. It is a great com- 
mercial centre, situated at the junction of the Kia- 
ling river with the mighty Yang-tsi ; a city set on 
hills, surrounded by battlemented walls, and contain- 
ing a population of three or four hundred thousand. 
Crowded shipping lines the river, extending far on 
either side. The streets are irregular, steep, and 
picturesque, though dirty in the extreme. Here, in 
1877, Mr. McCarthy had obtained a house, and opened 
the first Protestant mission-station in Sl-CH'UEN ; and 


here Mr. Nicoll had followed in charge of the work, 
until, for his marriage, he had gone to the coast. 
Just a year had elapsed since he had left the city, 
and glad indeed he was to see again its distant gates 
and towers. 

Closely covered in sedan chairs, without luggage or 
anything that might betray their presence, the ladies 
were borne swiftly and silently through the crowded 
streets to one of the busiest parts of the town. Up a 
little by-lane, a large door gave immediate access to 
a narrow entry and the " Jcsus-hall," through which 
they found their way to the inner court-yard, sur- 
rounded by the dwelling rooms and the handsome 
apartment for receiving guests. Warm was the greet- 
ing given to the travellers by Messrs. Riley and 
Samuel Clarke, who had held the fort alone so long, 
and now had the joy of welcoming the first lady 
workers to Sl-CH'UEN ; and keen was the interest 
with which Mrs. Nicoll, especially, surveyed her new 

Nothing escaped that quick, close scrutiny, from the 
handsome carved furniture of the guest hall, and the 
narcissus smiling its cheery welcome, to the pitiful 
little traces of bachelor ways and doings—the ragged 
table-cloth, the forlorn arrangement of the rooms, and 
the dust of a week swept up and left behind the door 
according to Chinese custom. 

It. did not take long to settle in; and soon a 
woman's touch did wonders in brightening the mis- 
sionary home, although keeping it strictly in harmony 


with its Chinese surroundings. But greater than any- 
other change was the magic attraction that, from the 
very hour of their arrival, drew the women in crowds 
to the no longer quiet. mission-house. As soon as it 
was known that ladies had come, the women flocked 
ins first from the town and neighbourhood, and then 
from greater distances. It was nearing the time of 
the' Chinese New Year, when in every household the 
worhen are very busy. New garments have to be 
made for the great festivals — New Year's time being 
the principal holiday in the Chinese calendar — and 
for several weeks beforehand the women hardly go 
out at all, so occupied are they indoors. In spite of 
this, however, one or two hundred came daily to sec 
Mrs. Nicoll. And after the New Year, often as, many 
as five hundred a day ! 

" For nearly two months past," she wrote, " I have daily 
seen some hundreds of women. Our house has been like a 
fair. Men also have come in large numbers to hear the 
Gospel. They are spoken to in the front part of the house ; 
the women Isee in the guest-hall at the back, arid in the 
court-yard before it, for the room is very soon filled. As 
soon as one crowd goes out another is waiting to come in. 
Often indeed while seeing out one company at the front 
door, another has found its way in at the back." 

Women of all classes alike gathered round her. 
On the second day after their arrival the ladies were 
invited put to dinner at the house of a military 
mandarin, the old gentleman coming himself to 
fetch them, and waiting to escort them through the 


gathered throng. But it was on wet days, especially, 
that grand folk came to pay their visits, thinking that 
those that had to come on foot would be prevented 
by the rain. Then the little lane and entry would be 
crowded with chair-bearers waiting for their aristo- 
cratic mistresses, and Mrs. Nicoll, amid clouds of 
smoke from the long pipes in the guest-hall, would be 
surrounded by her gaily-dressed, small-footed friends, 
delighted to have her all to themselves. 

Month after month the rush of visitors kept up, until 
the warmer weather came again, and the missionary 
lady — single-handed among the ten million women 
of Si-CH'uen — was well-nigh exhausted. Sometimes 
the strain was so great that she used to faint away 
in the midst of her guests, and find herself brought 
to by the women fanning her, full of commiseration. 
They were very happy, but trying times. Often she 
had to get up at three o'clock in the morning to 
attend to her letters, or, if left till later in the day, had 
to write with the rooms full of women — watching with 
the keenest interest, talking loudly, and asking ques- 
tions all the while. At first she could speak but little 
of the language, having only been out about a year. 
But she was learning quickly, and had the help of 
an elderly native evangelist, who used to talk to the 
visitors when she was tired. 

For two years after her arrival in Ch'ung-k*ing Mrs. 
Nicoll never saw a foreign sister, and then only had a 
passing visit from one on a journey. In her loneliness, 
she thankfully welcomed the kindness of many of her 


Chinese friends who showed real sympathy for her 
in her busy, solitary life. One elderly lady, knowing 
how weary she must be, used sometimes to send round 
her chair early in the morning, insisting upon her 
coming away at once from the mission-house. When 
she had got Mrs. Nicoll safely in her own home, she 
would send out all the young women and children, put 
her into a clean bed, and sit down quietly to fan her, 
until the tired missionary was fast asleep. Then she 
would prepare an inviting meal, watching all the while 
that her guest might not be disturbed, and when the 
latter awoke would persuade her to eat a good dinner. 
Often the same kind friend would send round some 
nice hot dish for breakfast, thinking that Mrs. 
Nicoll's cook might not have prepared just that 
delicacy for the foreigners. 

In many of the mandarin's families Mrs. Nicoll had 
the freest access, and found the ladies full of sisterly 

Hers was indeed a busy life ! Managing for a 
considerable household, helping in her husband's large 
work, visiting continually, holding "at homes" for 
the women of the town, constantly called out to cases 
of opium suicide — of which there were sometimes two 
and three in a night-^no wonder she found more 
work than she could compass. The only woman 
missionary in all that vast province of twenty million 
people — the first to live and labour for the women 
of Sl-CH*UEN — what an honour for her ! what a shame 
to the Church of Christ ! 


But the daily work was little, compared to the 
heart-burden caused by the sin and suffering all 
around. Infanticide was dreadful, and the opium 
curse everywhere doing its deadly work. 

" Even infants," she wrote, " have to have the poison 
breathed into them at certain hours, when their 
mothers have been in the habit of taking it before 
their birth." 

To women such as these, the message she had come 
to bring was wonderful and welcome. Could they 
know their sins forgiven? Could they be set free 
from the prison-house of vicious habit ? Was there 
really a GOD who could and would deliver " His 
people from their sins " ? By degrees many of them 
received the Gospel gladly, and were baptised and 
added to the growing church. Later on other workers 
came to reinforce the station, and Mrs. NicoU was 
relieved ; but we must not trespass upon that after- 

For one short week after their arrival at Ch'ung- 
k'ing Mrs. Nicoll had the companionship of her friend 
Mrs. George Clark^. For nearly three months they 
had travelled together, all the way from Shanghai to 
Si-CH'UEN. Together they had entered that great 
province. And gladly would they have remained 
together in the work. But Mrs. Clarke's long journey 
was not yet done. Another month of overland travel 
lay before her. Still another unentered province had 
to be penetrated, and a work commenced among its 


women. Greater loneliness and hardships yet must 
be encountered if the women of KwEl-CHAU were to 
hear the Gospel. 

Quiet, brave, patient — that little Swiss woman was 
just the one to go forward to such a charge. Full 
of missionary spirit, courage, and devotion, she did 
not count life itself dear to her in the service of 
the Lord she loved. And to her was given the 
privilege of being the first Christian woman to enter 
not KWEI-CIIAU only, but also distant YUN-NAN ; 
and finally, at the most westerly point yet reached 
by China Missions, to lay down her life for Christ's 

Hard was the parting to those two tenderly attached 
friends. Mutual joys, sorrows, difficulties, dangers, 
and blessing had knit their hearts in one. Married 
together, that autumn day five months before ; 
alone together, now, hundreds of miles from any 
Christian sister, and with such a work before them, 
little wonder that it was difficult to say farewell. 

The last day came, and side by side they knelt that 
New Year's morning, committing one another to 
their GOD. As Mrs. Clarke poured out her soul in 
longing for the women of western China, her com- 
panion, with overflowing love for the devoted worker 
she might never sec again, clasped her hand in 
sympathy too deep for words. Both felt a strange 
presentiment that their next meeting would be in the 
presence of the King. 

An hour later, and they were parted, Mrs. NicoU 


left alone in the midst of the great city, Mrs. Clarke 
out on her journey southward, toward three vast 
provinces whose women had .never heard the Name 

of Christ. 

Alone in the distant Kwei-yang capital, Mr. Broum- 
ton was eagerly expecting the travellers' arrival. 
Mr. Clarke had been there before, but now a lady was 
coming, to make the lonely home more bright, and 
to reach the women for whom nothing had yet been 
attempted. Four weeks later the Clarkes arrived, 
after a difficult but remarkably quiet journey, and 
very soon the women began to gather round them. 

Toward the end of the same month, February 1 880 
two other ladies started from Wu-ch'ang to join Mrs. 
Clarke in her distant sphere. Their journey — the 
third accomplished by European women in the far 
I nterior-^— was remarkable, as proving that even Hu- 
NAN, the most strongly anti-foreign of all the provinces 
in China, was open to the itineration of women as 
well as of men. Travellers experienced in dealing 
with the Chinese — English consular officials, mer- 
chants, and missionaries — had met with serious 
difficulty within its borders. For ivofnen to attempt 
to cross it might well have seemed impossible. But 
when, for the sake of their sisters in western China, 
this formidable journey was undertaken by a newly 
made widow and one young companion, the hand of 
a protecting GOD was over them for good. Miss Kidd 
had been twelve months in China, Mrs. W. McCarthy 
ten. Landing with her husband in the spring 01 


1879* they had been designated for KWEI-CHAU and 
KwANG-SI, but a two days' fever in the midsummer 
heat at Wu-ch*ang^ had laid him in an early grave. 

" We were going west \together, and, GOD willing, 
I still will go," was her quiet resolve. And when 
reinforcements \yere needed for KwEl-CHAU she 

Mr. Bailer, who had accompanied Mrs. Taylor to 
Shan-si, was at liberty to escort this party also, and 
thus was the first to cross Hu-NAN with foreign ladies. 
Beautiful, populous, healthy, rich in produce and 
exports, and inhabited by people of a fine, determined 
character, and great ability, this province has always 
oflfered a noble sphere for missionary enterprise, but 
never yet granted permanent entrance to the Gospel. 
Proud, exclusive, and bitterly opposed to Christianity, 
its ruling classes utterly refuse access to their cities, 
or any prolonged residence within their borders ; and 
many a time has their opposition resulted in tur- 
bulent uprising and riotous ejectment of European 
travellers. Yet here, amid perils seen and unseen, 
our friends courageously and safely journeyed, meet- 

* June 1879 was unusually hot. Mr. William McCarthy, 
brother to Mr. John McCarthy of our Mission, was superintending 
the removal of some furniture one Saturday, and was exposed 
to the sun. A restless night followed; on Sunday he was in 
high fever; and on Monday morning died of heat apoplexy. 
His bright spirituality and earnestness were full of promise. 
"His brief career has been a blessing to us ail," wrote one; 
" I am a better man for having known him, though but for so 
short a time." 


ing a kindly reception from the women, to whom 
they found free access, and amongst whom, all along 
their route, they published the story of the love of 


The following letter from Miss Kidd contains the 
first record of evangelistic work amongst the women 
of Hu-NAN, sit// without any missionary to-day, 

** We left Wu-ch*ang on the 19th of February, 1880, these 
words ringing in our ears, ' You have only the great God 
to take care of you.* Truly our trust in Him has not been 
in vain. 

" We soon set to work and made our boat comfortable. 
It had ^y^ little rooms, and really they were very nice. 
The head boatman was a Christian, and always ready with 
a word for Jesus. His wife was on board, and became 
much attached to us. . . . 

" All the way along, except at large cities, Mrs. McCarthy 
and I have been able to go ashore, or invite the women to 
come on board to see us. 

" I like these Hu-nan women so much ! They have 
been very kind, most willing to receive us and listen to 
our message. Amongst them our fair hair and unbound 
feet seem to pass almost unnoticed. The whiteness of 
our complexion strikes them most, and when they put 
their hands beside ours they laugh very heartily at the 

"Our native Christian woman was the greatest help. 
Never having seen foreigners before, the women along our 
route were naturally a little afraid of us at first. But she 
explained so nicely all about us and our presence in their 
midst, and soon they would draw near, take us by the 
hand, and invite us to their houses. Once indoors, we were 
often surrounded by quite a crowd. 


" One incident amused me much. We had anchored at 
a village for the night, and some women asked us to go 
ashore. Mrs. McCarthy had face-ache, so I went alone. 
A woman about half my size, with a baby in her arms, 
took hold of one of my hands, and a young girl of fifteen 
took the other, and thus they led me along the village 
street, telling me not to be afraid of the crowds, for tkey 
would take care of me ! At our destination a large number 
of women came to see me, some of whom seemed to grasp 
the facts of the Gospel very clearly. The same little woman 
with the baby led me back to the boat. The I^ord bless 
her, dear, kind soul ! 

"Sundays we thoroughly enjoyed. For then we never 
travelled, and invariably found opportunities for work. 
After morning worship with our own people, Mr. Bailer 
and Mr. Trench would go ashore to preach on the streets, 
and we to visit the women in their homes. 

" * Why do you not stay to teach . us ? ' they would ask, 
at some places. * Why do you go on to Kwei-chau ? We, 
too, are longing to hear ! ' 

" We were much struck all along our journey through 
Hu-NAN by the well-to-do appearance of the people, and 
the remarkable beauty of the scenery. . . . We had to 
pass a great many dangerous rapids, and nearly every day 
our boat sprung a fresh leak. Notwithstanding our perils, 
however, God brought us through in safety, and here we 
are to praise Him. 

"In April, nearly two months after we left Wu-ch'ang, 
we reached the end of the water journey, and chairs and 
coolies were engaged for the road. We had rather dreaded 
this overland travelling, but found our fears groundless. 
It was most enjoyable. Our resting-places were not at all 
uncomfortable, and we had everything we could wish. 

" In crossing the high mountains the air was delightfully ' 
bracing, and the views lovely. At night in the inns the 


landlady always came in to see us, and we would invite 
her to bring her friends to hear the Gospel. Sometimes 
the room was filled several times over with attentive 
listeners. . . . 

" After nine days on the road we reached our destination, 
and were heartily welcomed by Mr. and Mrs. George 
Clarke. . . . Every day since our arrival we have had 
visitors. I like what I have seen of the Kwei-chau 
women, and am very glad to find that they can understand 
my Chinese." 

A few months after the arrival of Mrs. W. McCarthy 
and Miss Kidd, a little son given to the Clarkes 
brought sunshine into that distant missionary home. 
But before the end of the year the child-life was 
recalled by Him who gave it, and the parents' hearts 
left desolate and empty, with more room for love, 
but the little loved one gone. In their sorrow and 
bereavement they heard the voice of GOD. The 
needs of the Christless, heathen lives around them 
stood out more clearly than ever before, and their 
very freedom from the home-ties that had been so 
dear, seemed to summon them to go farther into the 
darkness and seek to pioneer the way for the Gospel 
in the neighbouring province of YUN-NAN. Just 
beyond them it lay, a vast region, more than twice as 
large as England, and with a population of at least 
five millions, among whom no Protestant missionaries 
had ever laboured. Others had come to KWEI-CMAU, 
and the Clarkes felt that they could now be spared. 
No one was ready for YuN-NAN. Had not GOD set 
them free that they might go ? And so the close of 


the year, darkened for them by the loss of their little 
son, carried their letter volunteering for YUN-NAN to 
the Director of the Mission, and at the same time, far 
away, God was preparing a place for them in that 
as yet unentered sphere. 

Four years earlier, Messrs. Stevenson and Soltau 
had been thwarted in their purpose to enter Yun- 
nan and Western China vid Burmah.* Hindered 
by the Indian Government, they had settled down 
at Bham6, close to the Burmo-Chinese frontier, to 
work and wait, and pray for the opening of the gates 
of the West After long patience their hopes were 
at last realised, when, an old trade-road having been 
re-opened across friendly territory, they were able 
to secure places in the second caravan from Bhamo, 
and found themselves on New Year's Eve 1 880-81, 
surrounded by the busy, crowded streets of Ta-li Fu, 
with the blue waters of a Chinese lake below, re- 
flecting the snow-capped mountains iof YuN-NAN. 
The fame of their frontier Medical Mission secured 
for them a warm welcome even in official circles in 
this important city ; and impressed by the healthy 
climate, large population, and abundant opportunities 
for evangelistic work, they felt not a little inclined to 
accept the pressing invitations given them to stay in 
Ta-li and commence similar efforts. But, for them, 
it was impossible. Their destination was Shang-hai, 
and after a brief stay they travelled on, completing 

• See Chapter XI. 


that remarkable journey in which China was crossed 
for the first time from west to east. On the last 
day of the old year, before leaving Ta-li, they held 
a Watch-Night service in that distant Chinese city, 
praying especially for some one to come and com- 
mence missionary efforts there for the women as well 

as the men. Little did they think that through 
sorrow and bereavement the Unseen Hand was even 
then preparing an answer to their prayers; little 
guess that forty days' journey away to the east, in 
the nearest mission-station, two hearts beside a 
little grave, watered by tears, in the closing days of 
VOL. II. 22 


that same year had consecrated themselves to GOD 
for the men and women of YUN-NAN. 

Messrs. Stevenson and Soltau did not go to Kwei- 
yang, nor meet with Mr. and Mrs. Clarke. Passing 
through Ch'ung-k'ing, however, they found at Mr. 
Nicoll's station a Chinaman who owned a house in 
Ta-li Fu, and was willing to rent to foreigners. Mr. 
Hudson Taylor, on hearing the circumstances, sent 
word to take the house, and shortly afterwards the 
deeds were forwarded to Mr. Clarke at Kwei-yang by 
the hand of a brother who was to set him free for the 
journey. Thus, in the lovely month of May 1881, 
Mr. and Mrs. Clarke went forward to their new work. 
None but a mother can know what it cost that 
mother's heart to leave the home brightened for a few 
short weeks by the presence of the treasure GOD had 
taken, nor how hard it was to part from that little 
lonely grave outside the walls of the city. But there 
were other mothers* hearts aching and burdened 
among the millions of YuN-NAN — other women with 
greater sorrows, and none of the faith that cheered 
and strengthened her. To these she went, longing to 
help them with the comfort wherewith she had been 
comforted of GOD. 

The difficult journey was accomplished in safety. 
On May 30th the boundary was crossed, and YUN- 
NAN entered for the first time by a woman missionary, 
and on June 24th the travellers reached Ta-li Fu. 

The house rented for them stood pleasantly near 
the city wall, which commanded fine views of the 


mountains and lake. But unfortunately it was still 
occupied by two Chinese families, who would not turn 
out to make room for the strangers, although the 
latter had legal possession for a term of six months, 
The one little yard was given up to the pigs and 
fowls and children, and the Clarkes were sadly 
cramped for room, and deprived of any possibility of 
quiet. Visitors crowded to see them in large numbers, 
coming early in the morning, and staying till late at 
night. So great was the curiosity of the people, that 
Mrs. Clarke was unable for a long time to go out 
freely, and could only receive the women in the house. 
From the very first they had to face trouble and 
opposition, largely due to the Roman Catholics, who 
seemed to do everything in their power to prevent 
Mr. Clarke getting quarters, spreading rumours that 
frightened the people and kept up suspicion and 
mistrust. For two months Mr. Clarke could get no 
teacher, and for five months his wife was unable to 
engage a woman-servant to help hef in the house. 

Letters but rarely reached them, communication 
with other stations being diflScult. Their correspond- 
ence was sometimes seven or more months after date, 
and their position was extremely lonely. Yet they 
felt sure of the call of GOD ; that they were in the 
right place, and at His bidding. The needs around 
them were unutterably great. Sometimes at night in 
that first trying summer, after the long, busy day, they 
would go up alone together to the city wall, and look 
out over the lake bordered with hundreds cf populous 


villages, intensely realising the condition of the vast 
province in which they were the only Protestant 

But it was trying work, for Mrs. Clarke especially. 
It seemed as if the hearts of the people would not 
open to her, much as she longed to reach them. And 
sometimes the home left behind in Kwei-yang, with 
all its cherished memories, seemed very dear and very 
far away. 

" It is just a year this August,*' she wrote to Miss Kidd, 
" since we rejoiced over the birth of our darling boy. How 
soon it passed away ! So often I think of that little child, 
in the Glory. What a change the year has brought ! It is 
better for us not to know the future. Have you been again 
to see his little grave ? " 

After telling of some of the difficulties and trials she 
adds — 

" We have not yet got a house, and the people will not 
let us remain in this. But we both feel assured that we 
have obeyed the call of God in coming here. Others will 
follow us some da/. . . . Notwithstanding all, we are very 
happy in Ta-li Fu ; we are in good health, and realise the 
presence of the Lord." 

By degrees the long, hot summer wore away. 
More snow began to fall on the mountains, and the 
six months were nearly ended for which the house 
was taken. But still the Clarkes had no home. Just 
as matters were really getting serious, a scholar of the 
town consented to rent them a house, and they were 
able to get settled by Christmas after all. This new 


abode was a great improvement. " Mud floors are 
not very warm in winter," wrote Mrs. Clarke, " and it 
will be nice to have a real bedroom again." 

Far greater than any personal discomfort, however, 
was the trial that came from contact with the sin and 
suffering around them every day. 

"This is a terrible place," she adds. "Sodom and 
Gomorrah could not have been more wicked. Just as I 
write the husband of my woman has come — a wretched 
opium smoker— and taken her little girl away. Last year 
he sold her two other children ; this one is only three years 
old. We can do nothing to prevent it. God help them ! 
He wishes to sell his wife as well. 

" One of our neighbours went further, and was going to kill 
his wife and child. My husband and three women held 
him. I never before witnessed such terrible scenes. Oh, 
what a land ! Nothing but sorrow and sin." 

Difficulties of communication being so great, it had, 
from the first, been decided to open an intermediate 
station at the capital of the province, Yun-nan Fu. 
This Messrs. Eason and Andrew accomplished in 
January 1882. And in July, more than a year after 
they had left Kwei-yang, Mr. and Mrs. Clarke had 
the joy of welcoming these brethren at Ta-li, and 
uniting again in prayer and fellowship with others 
of the Lord's people. 

It was decided that, for a time, Mr. and Mrs. Clarke 
should occupy the new station at the capital, leaving 
the young men for quiet study at Ta-li. Thus in the 
autumn these brave pioneers were again homeless in 


an unfriendly heathen city. The opposition here was 
even greater than at Ta-li. The landlord would not 
let them remain, and was continually urging their 
departure, and no one else was willing to rent to the 
foreigners. The people would not believe that Mr. 
and Mrs. Clarke were different from the Romanists, 
whom they cordially hated. Many false reports were 
spread about them, and no one would come near their 

Week after week went on, and not a single woman 
came to see Mrs. Clarke, or invited her into their 
homes. She could not get a servant, and had to 
do all her own washing and housework, and to 
make her own shoes. Sometimes she would go and 
stand on the door of the street, and call or beckon 
the neighbouring women to come over and talk. 
Some might venture, timidly, but none would come 

" Nobody but GOD," she wrote, " can tell what 
patience we need. He knows I am longing to work 
for Him. If I cannot reach the women at present 
I can pray to be ready in His good time." 

The only way seemed to be to make friends with 
the children in the streets. Mrs. Clarke had some of 
Mrs. Grimke's text cards in Chinese, and these she 
gave to the little ones, who by degrees came again 
for more, bringing their mothers with them. Some 
of these women asked Mrs. Clarke to their houses, 
and so the tiny coloured cards opened the door. 
Amongst the men Mr. Clarke had more oppor- 


tunities, and was very busy preaching every day on 
the streets and printing off tracts from wooden blocks 
that he had brought with him. Many thousands 
of these he sold and distributed both in Ta-H and 
Yun-nan Fu. 

After nearly a year at the capital they returned 

again to Ta-li, glad to be back in their old home by 
the lake and near the glorious mountains. To Mrs. 
Clarke the beautiful sunsets upon the snow peaks and 
blue expanse of water, recalled happy home-days of 
long ago, in her own loved Switzerland. Often would 
she steal out when a quiet evening came, to forget 
the present scenes, and think' once more of the 


exquisite mountains and villages of her far-off Father- 

To their distress, the missionaries found the Ta-li 
people less friendly than they had been at first. 
Already the French troubles in Tong-king were 
beginning, just over the border, and the natives 
naturally connected all foreigners with their hated 

On August 20th, 1883, not long after their return, 
a little son was born to them in their loneliness. They 
called him " Ta-li," with many hopes and prayers. 

The heat was very great, but in spite of this, and 
all the inconveniences of their situation, Mrs. Clarke 
seemed to be making progress towards recovery. 
She had by this time the help of two women-servants, 
and much kindness was shown by some Roman 
Catholic neighbours. Her husband rejoiced to hope 
all would be well, for he had been not a little troubled 
by a vivid dream, twice repeated, that he was to be 
parted from her at this time. Far, far away from 
friends and help, how anxiously he watched day by 
day for the returning strength that seemed slow in 
coming. There was no European doctor within more 
than six weeks* journey. There was no lady to share 
the nursing, or cheer her in moments of weakness. 
For more than two years she had not seen a sister 
in the LORD, or had the companionship of any but 
Chinese women. Days pa.ssed slowly by, and still 
she seemed no stronger. At last she became decidedly 
worse ; complications came on, she could take no 


food, and suflfered exceedingly from sickness, pain, 
and terrible thirst. Always gentle and patient, she 
tried every means her husband could think of to 
obtain relief, but in vain. The LORD had need of 
her. The home summons had come, and she knew it. 

On Friday, October 5th, thinking that she should 
never see another sunrise, she wished to take the 
Lord's Supper for the last time with her husband. 
The little baby, six weeks old, was by her side, its 
innocent eyes, warm breath, and tiny clinging fingers 
sending a thrill of yearning through and through the 
mother's heart On the eve of that last, long parting, 
and yet in perfect peace, those two together broke 
bread in their grief and isolation, remembering 
the Man of Sorrows. They reconsecrated their little 
son to God, christened with his father's tears, and 
committed themselves entirely to His hands, for life 
or death. Both were wonderfully at rest, and even 

" Oh, read to me about the New Jerusalem ! . . . 
I shall soon be by the river of the water of life and 
thirst no more," she said. 

Tenderly her husband told her something of what 
she had been to him through all those years of 
loneliness ; how he had always admired her devotion, 
and been uplifted by her Christlike spirit, in the 
midst of hardships and trials. " No, do not flatter 
me," she whispered. " I am the least of all Christians. 
I feel I have done less than any woman in the 


A group of China women stole in to her bedside 
next day, and in the solemn hush of that chamber 
of death, she told them with joy and triumph of her 
perfect rest in CHRIST, and begged them, too, to put 
their trust in the Saviour. Others gathered round, 
some Roman Catholics amongst them, moved by the 
earnest testimony she bore as to her faith in the 
finished work of CHRIST. 

Then came the last, long night. Her husband 
watched beside her, as he had done, alone, for forty- 
eight days past. The Lord\s Day morning dawned, 
ita shining radiance gilding the snow-peaks and 
lighting the blue lake-water — a silent prophecy and 
symbol of the uncreated light of the city that hath 
" no need of the sun." She lay in great pain, longing 
to go home. 

'* Take care of my little son," she charged the 
Chinese' nurse. 

Thoughts of the dear child gone before seemed to 
be much with her. 

" I shall have one little boy in heaven," she said 
to her husband, "and you one on earth." 

Twilight fell, and deepened into a perfect autumn 
evening, as the Lord's Day closed. Slowly the sun 
went down behind the mountains, flooding all the 
lovely scene with light. And • in the gloaming, 
peacefully, she passed away to GOD. 

"The Lord gave her to me," wrote the heart- 
broken husband, "and the LORD has taken His 
own. . . . This is the deepest water He has ever 


caused me to cross. Blessed be His Name for the joy 
of knowing jESUS in every circumstance of life. . . . 

" Now I am alone. An empty chair stands beside 
me at my solitary meals. There is no dear face or 
voice to cheer me, save that of my motherless boy. 
Thank GoD for this solace ! * The LORD is good — 
and doeth good.*" 

On Monday, scores of women from the city came 
to look their last on the quiet face that they should 
see no more. Great was their surprise at its calmness, 
as of a sleeper in perfect rest. Amid heathendom's 
darkness, cruelty, and terror of the unseen, a peaceful 
death-bed is almost inconceivable. Silently the women 
stood, wondering much at that still presence, and at 
the story of those who had heard her dying words 
of joy and triumph. Never could they forget it, 
never lose the memory of that hour that brought 
them face to face with death robbed of victory, and 
the grave of its sting. 

Far from the home-land a letter had been travel- 
ling for months to reach the hands and heart that 
now were still. It brought some little Swiss flowers 
from her loved mountains, and the day they came 
her husband with his own hands laid her to rest. 
Outside the south gate of the city she sleeps in her 
lonely grave, with China all around her and the 
flowers on her breast. 

So closed the year 1883 upon woman's work in 
inland China — from its most distant outpost, one of 


the bravest of its pioneers gone to her last long 

Five years before all the vast Interior had been 
without a single woman-worker; but when Mrs. 
Clarke died at Ta-li Fu ladies were settled in six 
of the nine inland provinces, and two more, Hu- 
NAN and Ho-NAN,.had been traversed and resided 
in for shorter periods. One of the most note- 
worthy of these pioneering achievements was that of 
Miss Wilson of Kendal, who, not content with going 
with a native escort only, to Shen-SI, had pressed 
on with Mr. and Mrs. George Parker to Kan-SUH, a 
province as large as Great Britain, and so far west as 
to belong to central Asia almost more than to China 
proper. With only one Protestant mission-station, 
this great region had no worker amongst its women 
until the courageous journey of this noble English 
lady, and her Chinese friend.* 

A summary of the work done thus far, is worth 
recording : — 

In October '78 Mrs. Hudson Taylor reached T*ai-yuen, 
capital of Shan-si. 

In November '79 Mrs. King arrived at Han-chung, in 

In January '80 Mrs. Nicoll settled at Ch'ung-k'ing, in 

In February '80 Mrs. George Clarke reached Kwei-yang, 
the capital of Kwei-chau ; and Mrs. W. McCarthy and Miss 
Kidd started to cross Hu-nan, on their way to join her. 

* Mrs. George Parker is Chinese by birth, and was trained 
in the Yang-chau mission-school. 


In January '81 Mrs. George Parker and Miss Wilson 
found a home at Ts'in-chau, in Kan-suh. 

In June '81 Mrs. G. Clarke went on from Kwei-yang to 
Ta-li Fu, in Yun-nan. 

In March to June of the same year, '81, a second 
memorable journey was made by ladies across Hu-nan, 
when Mrs. McCarthy returned, as Mrs. Broumton, to 
Kwei-yang, taking Miss Kerr with her. They were wrecked 
on the way, and had to stay a fortnight in one place far 
in the heart of the province — Lo-si-p'ing, near Kien-yang 
Hien — where they had great encouragement in their work 
amongst the women, and perfect freedom of access to them. 

And in December '81 Mrs. Henry Hunt, a young bride, 
went up to Ru-ning Fu, her husband's station in Ho-nan, 
and was able to reside there for more than two months, 
having access to women of all classes. Disturbances occurred 
which necessitated her leaving, and it was some years ere 
woman's work was again recommenced in that province. 
But a beginning was thus made, and Mrs. Hunt was the first 
to preach the Gospel to the women of Ho-nan. 

Thus within three brief years, October '78 to 
December '81, C. I. M. women-workers had been 
enabled to enter and settle in six of the inland 
provinces, beside bringing the Gospel to hundreds of 
women in Ho-NAN and Hu-NAN, where they could 
not long remain. 

Only those who know the difficulties and trials of 
life far in the heart of China, and the dangers and 
hardships of long journeys in such a land, can fully 
appreciate all that these facts mean. Only those who 
have experienced continued loneliness, isolation, and 
peril among the heathen, can know what those 


pioneer women endured. Only those who, under 
such circumstances, have faced sickness, far from any 
medical aid, acute suffering, and even death itself, 
can understand what the sacrifice involved that was 
sealed by those first missionary-graves in far-off 
Shen-si and Yun-nan. 

God gave those early workers faith and courage, 
and the burning love to CHRIST and China's women, 
that led them to count all things but loss that they 
might by any means save some. GOD opened the 
way. before them, and carried them through all 
difficulties, opposition, and danger. GOD sustained 
their hearts in hours of suffering and loneliness, and 
made true in their experience the words spoken by 
Mr. Taylor to one of their number, on the eve of 
parting : — 

" You go forth in a new pathway. Much of 
solitude and heart-loneliness must certainly be yours. 
But the harder the way, the more complete the 
loneliness, the sweeter and closer will be your fellow- 
ship with Christ, who has trodden the same path 
before you. And in His work and will you will find 
peace and blessing." 

Think of that little pioneer band in those first years 
— eight or a dozen helpless women, scattered at their 
distant posts, one station to each of those vast inland 
provinces, most of them i,SCX) miles or more from 
the coast ; picture their daily lives, surrounded on all 
hands by that boundless sea of heathenism, millions 
of suffering, degraded, dark -hearted women, and they 


SO unable to do what they would to reach them ; 
think of them in their hours of heart-hunger, dis- 
couragement, pain, and feel the wonderful power of 
the Unseen and Eternal that so sustained, comforted, 
and strengthened them. Scene after scene rises 
unbidden as we recall their faithful service ; but one 
— the last — perhaps more than any other, sums up 
and expresses the supreme soul-secret that lies behind 
them all. 

Far off in loneliness and pain George Clarke's 
young wife lies dying in distant YUN-NAN. For 
more than two years she has seen no Christian sister, 
and now at the close only Chinese heathen women 
gather around her bed. Above all | the suffering, 
above all the anguish of parting from husband and 
child, her spirit rises on wings of faith to GoD, and, 
filled with joy and triumph, she is striving, even in 
death, to win those heathen women to the Saviour 
of the world. This has been her life-work and 
supreme longing ; it shall also be her last endeavour. 

She has seemed to accomplish little, but her heart 
is stayed on GOD. She has done what she could. 
It was in His will that she should toil and suffer 
among the pioneers, apparently unrewarded. Results 
will come in His " due season " ; blessing that she 
will have helped to bring, souls that she will have 
won in part. " Others will come after usl* she has 
written ; and often in her sorest trials that conviction 
has been her stay. Her life has been willingly spent 
in laying the foundations. And it is finished now* 


She cannot see the fruitful work, the wide and noble 
labours yet to follow. She cannot realise the future 
women's stations, or the scores of loving young 
evangelists who, successful and blessed beyond her 
highest dreams, are to succeed her in the way her 
pilgrim feet have trodden. She only knows that 
for her the pilgrimage is ended, and that before her 
flows among the shadows the river she must cross 

All is over now — the long patience, the isolation, 
the soul-burden in the midst of heathendom, all the 
hours of heart-ache and longing for the far home-land 
and loved ones, all the burning tears shed on her 
baby's grave, and over China's awful sin and sorrow, 
all the sw^eet brightness shown for her husband's 
sake in trial, and amid irksome inconvenience, all the 
loving influence on cold, heathen hearts around her, 
the selflessness that had put her in touch with their 
smallest need, the tireless efforts for their salvation, 
the studies, household labours, service, prayers— all 
are ended now, and through her uplifted eyes the 
strong spirit almost seems to see the city beyond 
the river. 

Her husband repeats to her the well-loved hymn, 
" Leaning on Thee^ How true she has found it, how 
comforting through all those years. It is fit that 
what has been so long her confidence should be her 
final message. One worn hand lies in his, the other 
tenderly clasps their little child, but the pilgrimage 
is ended, and she must cross alone. 


Alone? Did they think so who watched that pale 
transfigured face ? Could they think so who looked 
into those clear eyes that saw so far beyond the 
poor Chinese city, beyond the dark-eyed faces that 
bent over her? The very heathen women at her 
side could see she was not unattended, could catch 
the meaning though they knew not the language of 
her faint dying song — 

" Leaning on Thee no fear alarms, 

Although I stand on death's durk brink; 
1 feel the Everlasting Arms, 
I shall not sink." 

For in this faith she went down to the shadowy 
river ; in this faith she passed over to the other 

VbL. li. '25 



present-day pictures, 
and facts for the thoughtful 

FIVE years have passed away, and twilight is 
again falling on the Empire of the East, veiling 
its vast expanses, river, mountain, desert, plain, and 
populous cities. It is a cold March evening, the busy 
working-day is over, as the great city of Yang-chau, 
with its three hundred thousand men and women, 
fully understands. The sun has set, and all the shops 
are closing. Even in China rest must sometimes 

Dimly the waning light slants through the windows 
of a large house on the P'i-shY Kiai. The evening 
meal is ended, but gathered round the tables the 
friends still linger who are so soon to part. Chinese 
in dress and surroundings, they are still foreigners 
in face and language — a goodly company of thirty- 
five young missionary sisters, recently come to this 
strange land. The calm, steadfast look in those 
earnest faces is certainly not the outcome of Chinese 
ethics, faiths, or philosophies. They are singing in 
the twilight, hymns of the homeland, and thinking 



of the parting on the morrow, when half their little 
band will be dispersed and scattered, like lights into 
the darkness, far to north, south, and west over the 
vast Empire. Happy and helpful have been their first 
student-days here in the Training Home at Yang- 
chau, and very solemn and sacred are the last hours 
passing so quickly away! Twilight deepens, the 
lamps are lighted, and in a few minutes before 
evening worship, several gather round a large map 
of China to trace out the long journeys that each 
must take. 

What a land, this to which their lives arc given ! 
How vast ! How inconceivable its needs ! No 
wonder that the last hour of their sojourn here 
together should be spent in heart-communion with 
the Unseen Guide, Sustainer, Friend of all. Going 
forth from this quiet upper room into the furthest 
depths of heathen China, these young, helpless 
women, inexperienced in the ways of the great nation 
that surrounds them, without wealth, wisdom, power, 
or protection, have no refuge, and no strength, but 


Strange experiences lie before them. 

These, recently from London, will be two months 
travelling steadily up the great Yang-tsi before they 
reach Sl-CH'UEN, the scene of their future labours. 
The three next go with them to their destination, and 
then on beyond to Pao-ning, two and a half months' 
pilgrimage. Three are bound for the capital of 
YUN-NAN, that great southern 1 province where, five 


years before, a precious life had been laid down that 
the women might have the Gospel. They will be 
four months travelling, three by boat and one by 
overland. Some are en route for SllEN-si, and must 
make their way for three months up the Han ; while 
the last group, going on beyond them to distant 
Kan-SUH, have still a month's overland journey to 
Lan-chau, and thence a further stage to Liang-chau, 
which they may hope to reach in five or six months 
from the time of their departure to-morrow. 

Well may they commend one another to GoD in 

From the narrow street without, the sound of 
passing bells and feet on the uneven way comes up 
to the quiet room, where all are gathered for the 
last time, and the great temple-gong peals forth from 
the Buddhist shrine with its ten thousand idols, close 
at hand. 

Within, the Holy Supper is spread by gentle 
hands, a simple table in the midst, bearing bread 
and wine, and over all a pure white cloth, on which 
the mellow lamplight falls. Peaceful and radiant are 
the faces gathered here, and sacred the benediction 
that closes this hallowed hour : — 

The Lord Jesus Christ Himself says — the Lord 

says especially to those who are leaving us — " All 
power is given unto Me, go ye therefore, and lo, I 
am with you all the days, even unto the end." 

« * « « » 4( 

Again five years have passed away, and now we 


stand at the distance of a decade from 1883, and the 
close of the last chapter. 

Can it be ten years only since George Clarke's 
young wife lay dying in far-ofT Ta-li Fu ? 

" Others will come after us/* she had written. She 

was right. Many have come. 


Only knowing China as it is to-day, one finds it 
almost impossible to realise that so short a time ago 
Woman's Work in the Interior was in its earliest 
initial stages. 

Two stations in Shan-SI where women were 
labouring ; one in SllEN-Sl, with two lady mission- 
aries ; another in Kan-SUH, also having two workers ; 
in Si-CH'UEN two stations and three ladies only ; 
in KWEI-CHAU one station, and one solitary sister ; 
in YUN-NAN the only woman worker laid in her 
quiet grave ; and in Ho-NAN, Hu-NAN, and KWANG-SI 
no one at all to tell the women of Jesus — th's only 
ten years ago ! 

Yet, even so, it was a great advance upon previous 
conditions. A little while before, there had been no 
lady missionaries in any of these nine inland provinces. 
Imagine a population larger than the entire French 
and German nations, scattered over an area three 
times the size of France, wrapped in the densest, 
most self-sufficient heathenism the world has ever 
seen ; and then picture, as a spiritual agency to reach 
this sphere, a few evangelists itinerating among thQ 
men, and no one at all for the women, 


Such was the state of things in inland China as 
recently as 1878. 

Ten years ago, in 1883, the experiment had been 
tried. It was a matter for great thankfulness not 
only^o have proved that this vast territory was 
accessible to women, but to have obtained residence 
for them in as many as eight of its populous cities. 
There they were, living and working unhindered. 
But how small a step after all ! Only the threshold 
of the Interior was crossed, only a tentative effort 
was begun. 

As yet, even in the C. I. M., there was no 
systematic organisation for the work of women. 
Very few unmarried ladies had gone inland, and 
prejudice was still strongly opposed to their doing 
so. There were no stations anywhere in China 
worked by ladies only, and thus a great principle of 
development had not yet been adopted. There was 
no home set apart for receiving and training the 
young sisters as they landed. In fact, the great con- 
ception of women evangelists for inland China was 
but beginning to dawn. And there lay that vast 
Interior, waiting for the Gospel. 

Only ten years ago ! 

And to-day, what has been the result of the early 
beginnings traced in our last chapter? How has the 
brave attempt of those pioneer women been justified ? 
How has their faith been rewarded ? 

In January 1876, when Miss Wilson of Kendal 
sailed for China, there was only one unmarried 


C. I. M. lady on the field.* Since that time more 
than three hundred and seventy have gone out, and 
the present staff includes two hundred and twenty 
single sisters. 

Ten years ago, in October 1883, there were twenty- 
seven principal stations, at eighteen of which ladies 
were working in association with other missionaries, 
but no stations were being worked by women only. 
Now there arc a hundred and six principal stations, 
in eighty of which ladies are working, and twenty 
of the latter, in six provinces, are superintended by 
them alone. 

Advance, in the interior, only entered as described 
in the last chapter, has been equally remarkable : — 

In 1883 
Shan-si liad 2 stations with lady workers 

M tl »l 

If >» M 

•• l» l» 

M »» l» 

t» »» If 


t» l» M 


Total 8 Total 37 

And the women workers in those provinces, then 
only eight in number, are now more than seventy- 
five — a growth of between seven and eight hundred 
per cent, in a single decade. Well may we exclaim, 
<* What hath GOD wrought ? " 

* Miss|Emineline Turner, now in HOfffAN. 






















In I 












But fully as important as this statistical increase 
has been the advance in more intangible ways— the 
development of the whole conception of woman's 
work for inland China. To-day it is no longer 
considered impossible or even difficult to send ladies 
to the remotest parts of the Empire. It is generally 
recognised that they can live and work as well among 
women fifteen hundred miles from the coast as 
among those at the open ports. No station is con- 
sidered complete unless women are found on its staff. 
And a thorough organisation for facilitating the work 
of such is now an integral part of the Inland Mission. 

How different the experience of the young worker 
going out at present in connection with the C. I. M. 
from what it was ten years ago ! From the moment 
of landing in China she finds herself surrounded 
by those whose chief aim it is to help her to learn 
the language, get into touch WMth the people, under- 
stand and accommodate herself to her new sur- 
roundings, discover the sphere for which she is most 
suited, and safely accomplish the journey thither. 

Ladies are ready to receive her in Shanghai, and 
arrange her Chinese outfit. A happy, quiet home 
awaits her at Yang-chau, two days' journey inland, 
where helpful missionary friends expect her coming, 
and a capital staff of teachers, both foreigners and 
Chinese, are ready to initiate her into the mysteries 
of the language. There are those at hand ready to 
give all information she may desire about the far- 
reaching operations of the Mission, and to make her 


acquainted with its stations, workers,* and various 
openings and needs. Comfort in hours of loneliness, 
spiritual help and strength, counsel in all matters 
of difficulty, and the noblest inspiration for future 
service, are all to be found in the loving sympathy 
and Christ-like lives of those who have specially 
devoted themselves to increasing the usefulness of her 
missionary career. Experienced escorts are ready, 
later on, to make the journey easy to some distant 
scene of labour, where in many cases she will be 
welcomed by other ladies who have gone before, 
made a home, and found a sphere, affording speedy 
openings for usefulness. And all this complete 
organisation is in the hands of missionary women 
like herself, whose deepest sympathy is with her, 
who have given up the direct personal service so dear 
to their hearts, that they may place their ex^xTrience 
at her disposal, and forward the whole cause by 
strengthening and helping her. 

Her work will not be all easy. Far from it. Real 
self-sacrifice and willingness to suffer loneliness and 
a measure of hardship are needed, if the women of 
inland China are to be reached. There is very little 
romance about the practical work of missions ; less 
perhaps in China than elsewhere ; and the women 
of the C.I.M. have to meet their full share of the 
difficulties and trials that fall to a missionary's lot. 
At the coast and in the open ports there are many 
comforts that cannot be carried inland. There is 
less loneliness, more Christian fellowship, and more 


of the protection afforded by gun-boats and foreign 
consuls. All this must be left behind with the sea- 
board provinces, when one turns toward the great, 
unreached Beyond. So much is this the case that 
the strongest objections are raised to the principles 
and practice of the Mission in allowing ladies to 
be exposed to the hardships involved in such work. 
With a sympathy more kind than strengthening, 
many would counsel "pity thyself"; and urge us to 
draw the line short of really seeking to carry the 
Gospel "to every creature," including women in the 
remotest parts of inland China. 

"What things were gain to me, those I counted 
loss for Christ" must be the missionary's spirit if 
ever this work is to be done. But that it can be 
done, and is attended with marked blessing, the 
experience of our Mission abundantly attests. 

Successful experiment is the best demonstration. 
The following scene and story speak for themselves : — 

Work on the Kwang-sin River.* 

We stand within the compound of a mission-dwelling. 
Around us an inland city, beautifully situated in the heart 
of a fine mountain region, the watershed of three provinces, 
Cheh-kiang, Fuh-kien, and Kiangsi. Two hundred 
miles away lies the coast-line of the Empire, and the 
comparative civilisation of the open ports. A spacious 
but unpretending building is before us, pleasant and home- 
like in spite of its Chinese exterior. 

Pass upstairs into the guest-hall through the open recep- 

• Recollections of the first Kiang-si Conference |ie|d ^t 
Yuh-shan, September 8th and 9th, 189Q. 

present-day pictures, 363 

tion room below. Summer sunshine falls on the simple 
furniture arranged in regular semi-Chinese style — uncarpeted 
floor, heavy chairs and tea-tables placed alternately round 
the walls, bright scrolls with Chinese lettering, and a "baby 
organ " in one corner. 

At the central table a group of ladies are intent on some 
important work ; young most of them, none past thirty-five 
and all in Chinese dress. There are English girls amongst 
them, only lately come to China. There are quiet, brave, 
Scotch lassies, who six years before left their northern 
heme to give themselves to the women of this land; there 
are girls from Canada and the United States, first to join 
the Inland Mission from these countries of the west ; there 
is one at any rate from the continent of Europe, whose 
home lies among Swiss mountains, far away. How sweet 
and bright the light upon those faces, how purposeful and 
strong the spirit that shines there ! And how much, one 
feels, must lie behind the restful, earnest calm so clearly 
written upon many a brow ! Gathered from distant lands ; 
representing five nationalities, and as many different sections 
of the Church of Christ; each with a past so different, 
guided in her own way, but all with equal clearness to 
China's shores ; some from the east, some from the west, 
united here as one large family — what is the meaning of 
this little group? 

Upon the beautiful Kwang-sin river in north-eastern 
KiANG-si, the China Inland Mission has a chain of eight 
important stations. Little churches are formed in all these 
places, and a devoted band of native helpers are spreading 
the Gospel in the districts around. No men missionaries 
are settled in this region. Ladies only are in charge of the 
rapidly growing work. And these sixteen, young, unmarried 
sisters, represent the band of twenty-one who are here 
holding the fort alone. In the whole of this vast province, 
almost as large as England and Scotland put together, and 


with a population of fifteen millions, theirs is the only work 
for women — excepting some efforts on the Po-yang lake, 
and at Kiu-kiang on the Yang-tsi. At a considerable dis- 
tance from any other foreigners, they live together in native 
houses in these Chinese cities, wearing the native dress, 
and going in and out among the people, unprotected, 
and without fear. At intervals their Superintendent, Mr. 
McCarthy, comes over from Yang-chau to visit the stations, 
and give what help he can. At this little Conference he 
ha'i met them now, and very helpful are his words of 
sympathy and encouragement, and his counsels born of 
long experience. 

Together, they bring their difficulties to the Lord in 
prayer. Together, they talk over the best way of working 
their stations, of helping the native Christians, and reaching 
the unreached. And in the earnest, loving atmosphere of 
that consecrated band, one feels a new inspiration to 
service, and a deepened faith in the wonder-w^orking power 
of Got) whose strength is " made perfect in weakness.*' 

Much lies behind this scene. Only four years pre- 
viously there had been no missionaries on the Kwang- 
sin river. No Christians were baptised at any of the 
.stations except Yuh-shan, and nothing was bcin^; 
done among the women. How was the change 
brought about? The story is well worth recording, 
illustrating, as it does, the place and power of woman's 
work for the spread of the Gospel in inland China. 

Back in the summer of 1866 the large and im- 
portant province of KlANG-si had received its first 
missionary, when the Rev. V. C. Hart, of an American 
Methodist Society, .settled at Kiu-kiang on the Yang- 
tsi, its extreme northern border. In December 1869 

hu was followed by Mr. Cardwell, of the China Inland 
Mission, who was the first widely to itinerate amongst 
its iKjpuIous towns and cities.* 

Meanwhile, far away in the eastern extremity of 
the province, where the Kwang-sin river rises among 
the mountains of that picturesque borderland, the 
LOKli had also been working, gathering out a ix:ople 
for Himself. 

The beautiful Ts'ien-tang, flowing eastward through 

• See Chapter VII. 


Cheh-KIANG to the sea, rises in the same watershed. 
Up its rapid course Heralds of the Glad Tidings had 
made their way to Kiu-chau, a large city near the 
KlANG-SI border. Here Dr. and Mrs. Douthwaite 
settled, in 1875, and commenced a Medical Mission, 
whose fame spread far and wide, drawing hundreds 
to Kiu-chau, who thus heard the Gospel for the first 
time. Among those attracted was an old man, who 
had for many years been employed as a Buddhist 
missionary, and had travelled extensively in KlANG- 
SI and elsewhere, winning converts to his faith. The 
story of his conversion and subsequent work, closely 
linked with the matter before us, are given as follows, 
by Dr. Douthwaite : — 

Captain Yu Yuh-shan. 

"During the T'ai-ping rebellion, an officer named Yu 
Yuh-shan, in the service of the Imperial Government, was 
stationed in Ning-po, in command of a company of soldiers, 
and while there, was attracted by the preaching of the 
missionaries. How much he understood of Christian 
doctrine I am unable to say, but what he did understand 
made a lasting impression upon his mind. At the close of 
the rebellion the army was, to a large extent, disbanded ; 
and Captain Yu, being one of the officers no longer needed, 
was cashiered — or, more probably, dismissed without cash, 
as is the usual custom — and had to seek other employment. 
Having the misfortune to be a scholar, it was in/ra dig. 
to work at any trade ; so he purchased a few medical works, 
studied the ancient methods of writing prescriptions, put on 
the indispensable spectacles, and commenced practice as a 
full-fledged physician ! 


" Yu was naturally very religious ; but having no faith in 
idolatry, he joined a sect of reformed Buddhists, who 
oppose image worship. He had that true missionary spirit 
which makes a man fearless in tryihg to constrain others to 
believe what he himself knows to be true. His religion 
was everything to him, and, holding with all his heart the 
doctrines of the sect he had joined, he asked permission of 
the chief men to go out as their accredited agent and win 
converts wherever he could. He would receive no salary, 
but travelled on foot, and lived on the food given him as he 
went from house to house preaching his new doctrines. 
His earnestness, coupled with his gentlemanly bearing, gave 
him influence with the people wherever he went, and ere 
long he had enrolled the names of thousands of converts in 
all parts of Cheh-kiang, and over the border in Kiang-si. 
He continued this itinerant work for several years, and then 
settled in the city of Kin-hwa, and resumed his medical 

"Here I found him, in 1875, ^^^ ^^^e, after regularly 
attending our daily services for about a year, convinced 
of the truth of Christianity, he asked for baptism, adding, — 

" * I believe that what you tell me of the God of heaven 
is true, and that all my preaching for the last twenty years 
has been vain.' 

" Not long afterwards he was taken very ill. During his 
hours of pain the Lord drew near his spirit, and when Dr. 
Yu recovered he was a new man, his soul on fire with 
enthusiasm for the faith and preaching of Christ. 

" * I have led hundreds on the wrong road, and now I 
want to lead them in the way of truth,' he entreated, * Let 
me go out to preach. I ask no wages ; I do not want your 
money. I only seek to serve the Lord Jesus.' 

"We bade him God-speed, and sent him off to the 
province of Kiang-si. Three weeks later he returned, 
bringing with him one of his former converts, a stout, jolly- 


looking old farmer, Liang-hsi, from over the border, who 
seemed almost wild with delight. As soon as he saw me 
he fell down on his knees, bumped his head on the floor,* 
and exclaimed, — 

" * I have been for forty years seeking the Truth, and 
only now have found it — found it through you.' 

" He was literally beside himself with joy ; another of 
China's many seekers after (]oi), dissatisfied with idolatry, 
and groping in the darkness like the blind ! 

" * I want to be baptised at once/ he continued. 

" * Venerable father, that cannot be ; we must know a 
little more about you first.' 

*' * No,' he replied, * I must be baptised how. I am an old 
man. I have come three days ' journey, and may never be 
able to do it again. I must be baptised now before I go 

" * But we must inquire into your antecedents somewhat 
before you become a member of the Church.' 

** * No, teacher ; I am ready. I believe everything 
you say, and there is no reason why I should not be 

** I did not see any reason myself, so I baptised him, and 
he went back rejoicing that he had found the Saviour. 

" Later on he did come back again, bringing six or seven 
of his neighbours, also resolved to give up idolatry and 
become Christians, having heard the Cospel from his lips. 
After a few months' testing I had the joy of receiving them 
all into the Church, and later on nine others through their 

"Then I took a journey myself into that district, to see 
how they were getting on. 

" At one place en route an old man came to see me at 
the inn. 

* See Chapter I., on the Kvh-teo^ 


" * I have heard about Jesus/ he remarked after the 
usual salutations, * from one of your disciples.* 
" I supposed he meant Dr. Yu. 

" * I have heard them talk of Jesus/ he continued, * and 
I want to know more about Him.* 

" ' I will do all in my power to tell you,* said I, and 
began to explain the Gospel to him very simply, By-and- 
by he shook bis head, as the Chinese do when they can't 

" * It is no use,' he said sadly ; * for forty years I have 
been a devotee in a Buddhist temple. For forty years I 
have been sitting in front of idols, worshipping them — 
nothing else ; and now I am become as wooden-headed as 
the idols themselves. I cannot understand what you say. 
But,' he added, a gleam of light crossing his wrinkled 
features, * I understand this much ; you say there is only 
one God?" 
" ' Yes/ 

" * And you say there is only one Saviour— Jesus His 
name ? ' 
*' ' Yes.' 

" * And you say we are all sinners, but Jesus can save us 
from our sins and take us to heaven ? ' 
" * Yes ; perfectly true.' 
" * Well,' he said slowly, * / understand that,^ 
"* Cling to it, old grandfather ! ' said I. * Just stick to 
that; and if you never understand anything more it is 

" * What ! ' he said, * do you think if I don't understand 
any more about it Jesus will save me?* 
" * Yes, I am sure He will.' 

** He grasped it, and went away rejoicing. Eight months 
later we received him into the Church ; and * wooden- 
headed ' though he was, he was a bright and shining light 
in that dark city. 

VOL. II. 24 


"Thus the work spread through old Dr. Yu, where, as yet, 
no missionary had been. Journeying and preaching, and 
carrying his own bed, as many do in China, he met a 
young farmer one day, going to Yuh-shan, who volunteered 
kind-heartedly to carry his bundle for him. Of course old 
Yu preached to him as they went along, urging him to give 
up idolatry and believe in Christ ; and ere they parted he 
gave him a New Testament, with the request that he would 
read it carefully. Young Tung went home some twenty 
miles to Ta-yang, fully convinced of the truth of the 
(iospel, and straightway began himself to preach. When I 
visited him there, nine months later, I found that every 
man and woman in the village had heard the Gospel 
through him, and for thirty miles round many of the 
peasants had also been reached. Every evening he used 
to gather the members of the clan round him, read to them, 
and try to teach them to sing out of the hymn-book they 
possessed. He could not himself sing a note, nor could 
any of the others, but they managed to make a noise ; and 
as it was truly * from heart ' no doubt God accepted it — 
a sweeter note of praise than from many a great cathedral 

" His brother, who was about to be married, told me 
that he and his bride and both the families desired a 
Christian ceremony, as they would have no more idolatrous 
practices. I consented to marry them, and the rite was 
performed before a large company of onlookers. Next 
year I baptised fifteen in that village. 

"Our friend Yu Yuh-shan has long since gone to be 
with the Lord, whose service was his ^delight. But the ^ 
seed he sowed is still springing up and bearing fruit." 

So the good work began in the neighbourhood of 
Yuh-shan, as it has done in many another populous 
Chinese centre, through young native converts. 


During the next five years all went on quietly, the 
most marked advance being the renting of a little 
chapel in the suburbs of Yuh-shan, and the appoint- 
ment of a resident native helper. Dr. and Mrs. 
Douthwaite, leaving Kiu-chau in 1 880, were succeeded 
by Mr. and Mrs. Randall and Miss Boyd, and these 
again in 1885 by Mr. and Mrs. David Thompson. 
Yuh-shan, over the border, had about fifty converts 
at this time, but no missionary. 

Meanwhile there had arrived in China, at the close 
of 1884, a missionary party of ladies who had been 
led to consecrate themselves to the work through 
Mr. McCarthy*s meetings. It was a remarkable 
group, as later years have shown — including Miss 
Murray, Miss M. Murray, Mrs. Arthur and Mrs. 
Cecil Polhill Turner, then both unmarried, a band 
of four young Glasgow workers, Misses Mackintosh, 
Gray, McFarlane, and Gibson, and a young English 
lady, Miss Lily Webb, all of whom are still in con- 
nection with the Mission. There was a little difficulty 
as to where they should go to study the language, 
for we had no homes at that time for receiving and 
training newly arrived helpers, either men or women. 
The first few weeks were spent at Chin-kiang, and 
then it was decided that they should go up to Yang- 
chau,* where during several busy and happy months 

• This city had recently beerf re-occupied as a station of the 
Mission. For eighteen months the work there had been given 
up to another Society. But, as they were unable to carry it on, 
the C. I. M. resumed the premises on January 1st, 1883. 


they worked at the langua^^c and made friends 
amon|Tst the people. 

Kiu-chau, where old Yu was converted, was the 
destination of two of these ladies, Miss Mackintosh and 
Miss Gibson, who in the autumn of 1885 went up to 
help Mr. and Mrs. Thompson in that city. They soon 
found plenty to do studying the language, teaching in 
the girls' school, visiting the women, and hearing a good 
deal about the out-station, over the border, where the 
dear native Christians were still without a missionary. 

In the spring, Miss Gibson, who was needing rest, 
went for change to Ch'ang-shan, one of Dr. Douth- 
waite's first out-stations, charmingly situated at no 
great distance. The little group of Christians here 
were all men, and many of them had to endure much 
persecution from the women of their families, who 
were strongly opposed to the Gospel. Miss Gib.son 
spent a week amongst them, the women flocking to 
see her ; and instead of rest she had a specially busy 
time, making friends, and telling of jESUS, Many 
were impressed, and begged her to stay ; and the 
men subscribed of their own accord ten dollars — a 
large sum for the Chinese— to put the mission-house 
in order, so that ladies might be able to come and 
live there and carry on the work. 

The opening seemed a good one, but how could 
it be used ? How could young sisters go alone to 
take charge of a station in this way ? Such a thing 
had never been attempted in China. " Impossible," 
people said. But the time was not far off. 


A few weeks later Mr. Hudson Taylor, with the 
Misses Murray and some other friends, came on a 
missionary journey down the Kwang-sin river, to the 
Po-yang lake. Miss Mackintosh and Miss Gibson 
joined them at Kiu-chau, and together they crossed 
the border to Yuh-shan. The conviction that woman's 
work might be much developed in China had long 
been in Mr. Taylor's mind. He believed it possible 
for sisters to live with perfect safety, as Miss Gibson 
had done at Ch'ang-shan, among native Christians, 
where no foreigners were residing. And he thought 
the Kwang-sin river out-stations would make a good 

At Yuh-shan they found a little company of 
Christians, but the work in a declining state. At 
Ho-k'eo no baptisms had yet taken place, and nothing 
had been done for the women. Farther down stream 
they passed the city of Ih-yang, and prayed that 
God would open a station there, for the crowds 
attracted by their arrival seemed specially rough and 
boisterous. Still farther on, at Kwei-k'i, they witnessed 
the baptism of the first convert, but found of course 
nothing doing for the women. Many other cities were 
passed, in none of which was there any missionary. 
And very earnest were the prayers of that little party 
day by day, that GOD would make a way for women 
evangelists in this region. Here were the native con- 
verts—sheep, but without a shepherd. Here were 
hundreds of thousands of unreached heathen for 
whom none had ever cared. And here were loving 


labourers who had been used of GOD to seek and 
find many a lost one in the home-lands. Might they 
not do the work and fill the sphere ? 

They were not men ? 

No; only women! But so long as the lost are 
found and brought within the shelter of the fold, 
does it matter much who finds them — shepherd or 
shepherdess ? 

These missionaries thought not. To them one 
question only seemed supreme — How shall the Gospel 
be preached " to every creature " now in KlANG-Sl ? 
It was clear there were only women to do the work. 
But would not He whose Messiahship had been 
proclaimed by the woman of Samaria, He who had 
commissioned a woman to carry the tidings of His 
resurrection, He who called Priscilla to instruct Apollos 
in the faith, and whose SPIRIT endowed the women 
who were Paul's fellow-labourers, and Philip's four 
daughters, with the gift of prophecy, would not He 
use the women who were here, equally willing, equally 
believing, equally His? 

They thought so, and were not mistaken. 

After much prayer and consideration, it was decided 
that Miss Webb and Miss Gray should begin work on 
the lower river, Miss Mackintosh at Yuh-shan, and 
Miss Byron at Ch*ang-shan. 

Together they set out from the Po-yang lake on 
their return journey, with only native escorts, a little 
party of four. Unknown experiences awaited them, 
with the certainty of many difficulties, much hardship, 


loneliness, and responsibility. They were young and 
new to the work, and had to make their way among 
the native Christians and the heathen, and settle 
down as the LORD might guide. It was a brave 

In June 1886 they started, and travelled and 
evangelised till the autumn, staying longer or shorter 
times at various points, as they were able. After the 
first few weeks the feasibility of the plan was proved, 
and from that time women's work has gone on 
steadily in KlANG-SI. 

Miss Webb and Miss Gray, on the lower part of the 
river, made Ho-k eo and Kwei-k'i their headquarters, 
living a good deal in boats, and itinerating widely. 
It was hard work at first, as foreign women had very 
rarely been seen in ail that district before, and excite- 
ment was intense on their appearing. Often the 
question was, " Are they really women ? '* 

Mute with terror, one villager vanished into her 
house on seeing them, and returned with an old lady 
wide-eyed, and rake in hand to meet any possible 
attack ! On the river, guests crowded by the score 
into their little house-boat. 

" Not feivl' remarked the boat-woman one morn- 
ing as she brought in tea for their thronging 

Ashore, friendly women volunteered to guide them 
through the townships, calling out their ages and 
business, and a good deal of the Gospel story in 
advance, as they went from house to house, urging, 


as fresh groups were reached, " Tell them too ! Tell 
them too ! " 

Crowds, sometimes too excited to listen to their 
message, had to b2 faced in silence — the foreign 
feminine folk sitting still, while every detail of their 
dress and appearance was openly discussed. Some- 
times a tea-shop owner would invite them to sit down, 
and provide badly needed refreshment ; as often, 
however, politely requesting them to retire when the 
throng became unwieldy. Mandarins occasionally 
were moved to " exhort the people to be quiet," and 
did their best to look after the notable strangers, often 
not more effectually than Miss Lily Webb describes :- - 

" In the streets of Ih-yang Hien we certainly made a 
great impression on the people. Many followed us. The 
town was busy and crowded, and we had to thread our 
way among throngs of coolies. After we had returned to the 
boat the mandarin sent down a paper to say he would 
protect us ! . . . " 

" I only wish," she continues, " that he knew of the 
one Great Protector who is with us always." It was 
a mighty reality, that protection, in their lives ! And 
God used, as well as kept them. 

" You are all so good ; I love you all ! " exclaimed 
one poor woman of eighty-eight as she held their 

" How do you worship this true GOD ? Can I do 
it too ? " eagerly asked another. 

Miss Gray, kneeling down, prayed with her, amid 


deep silence. Shutting her eyes, and putting her 
hands together, the questioner continued after a few 
minutes, " Is this the way I can worship Him? I 
am afraid I shali forget all you have told me ; will 
you write it down, so that I can get some one at home 
to read it to me ? " 

"They always listen so anxiously," wrote Miss 
Webb, " to know if the good news is really for them'' 

It was worth while, in such work, putting up with 


difficulties and poor accommodation. The Ho-k'eo 
house, of which a sketch is affixed, was — 

** Not very delightful," wrote Mrs Randall, on a visit 
some time previously. "It has just one large room in the 
roof, close to the tiles, and no ceiling. The partition walls 
between it and the next house are only bamboo, plastered 
with mud, and various small holes grew very large on our 
arrival — made by the next-door neighbours, who were 
anxious to acquaint themselves with us and our ways. The 
only way of access is by a very steep ladder and a hole in 
the floor. Our women visitors do not, however, appear to 
mind this much. To-day I have had at least a hundred 
up. . . . Now and then a man comes to have a peep, or 
carries a child up to its mother, doubtless making the 
best of the opportunity secured by his unselfish service ! " 

Mandarins were equally anxious to see the foreign 
ladies ; and at military Yamens they were treated with 
great attention by the Chinese officials and ladies, 
one group of whom besought them to come every 
day, urging, " Do tell us ; we have never heard this 
Gospel, and we should like to know !" 

Some who had never heard were weary waiting. 

" One very old woman," wrote Miss Webb, " looked at us 
wonderingly, as we gently told her of the love of Christ. 
Sadly, she shook her head, as if to say it was too late for 

" *If you believe in Jesus it is not too late,' we urged. 
And tears rolled down her withered cheeks as she repeated 
the words herself." 

Amid such needs they laboured, and the work goes 
on to-day. 


Meanwhile Miss Mackintosh had reached Yuh- 
shan, and after a summer spent in getting to know 
the Christians, visiting the villages, and finding her 
way into many hearts and homes among the people, 
she settled in the city in January 1887, undertaking 
the regular work of the station, with Chang Sien-seng 
as native pastor. 

There, in the old house upon the busy street — 
chapel below and crowded little rooms above — she 
lived alone with this good man and his family. Early 
difficulties and trials they met together, in faith and 
prayer. It was singularly difficult at first. Crowds 
and terrors, evil reports, unfriendliness, and suspicion 
surrounded the foreign lady. No houses were open 
to her, except those of the Christians, and amongst 
them there was a good deal of coldness, jealousy, and 
lack of light and love. But patiently they went 
through the dark and difficult times, learning to under- 
stand one another and the people, and by faith to 
overcome. Very skilfully and wisely Miss Mackintosh 
faced the problem of her post — how to work with 
a native pastor, really leading, and yet keeping in 
the background, so that he should seem to lead. And 
through the grace of Goi) she solved it with marked 

" Chang Sien-seng," she would say of him, " is a 
grave, quiet, warm-hearted man ; simple and sincere 
as a child, but with much wisdom and experience. 
The people love him ; and his dear wife and children 
are all a help in the work. I never do anything 


without consulting him ; and the consequence is, that 
he is equally open with me, and we share all the 
burdens together. The people are aware of this. 
They know he tells me everything, and that I always 
seek his advice, whatever the question may be. I 
find it is helpful in the church. They understand 
that we are thoroughly of one mind about every- 

By degrees the early difficulties passed away. The 
gentle, loving spirit of the foreign lady made itself 
felt ; women of all classes gathered round her ; homes 
were opened to her on every hand ; a valued colleague 
came to join her. Miss Tapscott, now Mrs. Frederick 
Steven ; and six months after that January beginning, 
there were thirty-two candidates for baptism, eighteen 
of whom were received into the church. 

After these first baptisms Chang Sieng-seng went 
on to the stations farther down the river, where 
similar blessing had attended the work of the other 
sisters. Miss Gibson was in charge at Ho-k'eo, and 
at Kwei-k'i* Mr. Hudson Taylor's daughter, now 
Mrs. Coulthard, was living. In both these places 
there were baptisms — twenty-six in all ; the Christians 
and native helpers were growing in grace ; efforts on 
behalf of the women were rapidly developing ; and 
the Gospel was being carried to the surrounding 
districts, where several promising out-stations were 
already springing up. 

* Miss McFarlane had worked there previously, spending the 
winter '87-88 alone amongst the people, with great blessing. 


Six years have passed since those initial days, and 
the work has gone on steadily, until now there is, 
perhaps, no more fruitful sphere in China than the 
Kwang-sin river. The stations and out-stations 
number seventeen ; the lady workers thirty-four ; 
the native helpers thirty-eight ; and the Christians 
between three and four hundred ; while on all hands 
there are increasing prospects of blessing. 

As a training ground for the young sisters upon 
leaving Yang-chau, this district has proved invalu- 
able. Many in the commencement of their missionary 
life, under the loving influence and devoted example 
of these brave workers in their busy stations, have 
learned how to reach the hearts of the people, and 
commend the Gospel among them. 

The missionary ladies, here, seem just like one 
large family. Their stations are interdependent, and 
both natives and foreigners are bound together by 
ties of sympathy and love. Miss Mackintosh and 
Miss Gibson, at Yuh-shan and Ho-k*eo, bear upon 
their mother-hearts the details of all the stations, 
and give the counsel and encouragement that younger 
helpers need. 

Of course the work of these ladies, and the policy 
of the Mission in allowing it, has been the subject of 
criticism both in China and at home. It has been 
objected that young foreign women should not be 
allowed to expose themselves to the dangers and 
hardships of such a life ; that they cannot really 
be safe so far inland, without human protection of 


any sort ; that the responsibilities of such stations 
are too heavy for them to bear ; that the difficulties 
and emergencies that must come, at times, are too 
serious ; that the impropriety of their living alone 
in China must be a hindrance to the Gospel ; and 
that it is unsuitable for women to have the respon- 
sibility of churches which include men and work on 
their behalf. 

In all this, of course, there is truth ; and none feci 
the difficulties more keenly than those directly 
engaged in meeting them. But because all is not 
smooth sailing must we therefore cease our efforts ? 
Besides, are there not compensating advantages of 
great value ? 

Trial, loneliness, and some hardships must be met, 
but those who meet them " learn to lean hard upon 
the Lord, and find His grace sufficient ; learn to 
live in His own presence, and prove it fulness of joy." 

True, there are difficulties at times, and heavy 
responsibility. But help in all graver questions is at 
hand, in the Superintendent of the work — now Mr. 
Orr Ewing, living at Kiu-kiang — and such help will 
increasingly be given. In the autumn of 1892, Miss 
Mackintosh was married to H. N. Lachlan, Esq., M.A., 
who had had four years' experience of missionary life 
in China. He is now labouring on the Kwang-sin 
river, and brings much added strength. 

True, there are times of danger from excitement 
amongst the people, but, strong in faith, our sisters 
remain quietly at their posts, and the native 


Christians learn from their example what it is really 
to trust in the living GOD. Nothing else could be so 
impressive an object lesson in faith ; for they see the 
weakness and helplessness of their teachers, and know 
well that they have no defence but GOD ; and yet 
see them kept in perfect peace, and know that 
however much the enemy may threaten, no harm 
comes to them, God being round about them all the 

It is true that the Chinese do not understand ladies 
living alone, and that it offends their prejudices. But 
it is equally strange to them that we should come to 
China at all, or do anything that a missionary docs. 
If we are not to offend their prejudices, we must stay 
at home, and certainly no unmarried lady could 
venture to go amongst them. Our women-workers 
in KlANG-SI, however, make themselves so thoroughly 
one with the people, living and dressing as they do, 
that their position is soon understood and appreciated. 

True is it, above all, that women cannot fill the 
place of men-missionaries in the church ; that they 
cannot preach and teach as men do, nor hold the 
same leading position. But herein lies one of the 
great compensations of their work. For this very 
inability to take all into their own hands obliges the 
native Christian men to come forward and bear 
responsibility ^themselves. They are made to think, 
and work, and pray, and take the lead, at any rate 
outwardly, in many matters in which, if a foreign 
gentleman were there, they would not interfere. 


The necessar>' -outcome is a native agency, without 
one of its most serious drawbacks ; for the native 
helpers have a large measure of supervision, while 
still left to act upon their own account. 

All acquainted with foreign missions realize that 
this question of native agency is a perplexing one. 
If left to themselves such helpers may get cold, 
worldly-minded, or involved in objectionable courses ; 
their influence becomes a serious hindrance in the 
church ; and the evil is difficult to remedy. Pressingly 
occupied in the central stations, the foreign missionary 
cannot sufficiently supervise them, and is dependent 
for his information upon brief visits at considerable 
intervals — a highly unsatisfactory state of things. 
Yet native pastors and evangelists are essential to 
the healthy life of the native Christian Church. If it 
be vigorous they must appear in its ranks. How is 
their usefulness to be developed ? With judicious 
help, their efficiency may be doubled. But how shall 
such help be given ? Men are all too few to work the 
central stations. Why should not women, trained 
and gifted for such service, fill the gap ? With their 
supervision, the native Christians are still left to do 
their own work, but not alone. The sisters watch 
over their spiritual life, praying for and with them, 
and seeking in every way to help them, but they are 
still them.selves responsible for the men's part of the 
work. It would be difficult to exaggerate the import- 
ance of this solution of what many have felt to be a 
very pressing problem. 

VOL. II.  25 


Of course much of the usefulness of this method 
depends upon the wisdom and grace of the women 
workers. Every lady missionary is not fitted for 
such a post, just as every one would not be able for 
the same kind of work at home. But many arc. 
And experience on the Kwang-sin river has proved 
that such can practically double the usefulness of the 
native helpers, by their quiet, unobtrusive moral and 
spiritual influence, and through them do a noble work 
for the men, as well as personally conducting comple- 
mentary efforts on behalf of the women. Thus 
districts in which there are no men missionaries may 
be thoroughly evangelised, and widely blessed. Would 
that in every out-station in China where a few native 
Christians are gathered beyond the reach of any 
resident missionary, there were such ladies to be 
found, living among the people, strengthening the 
native workers, and spreading new life and light. 

The rich blessing of GOD has rested upon the 
experiment made in KlAN(;-Sl. The dear workers 
themselves, and the Mission to which they belong, 
have much to learn, and realise more than any others 
the weak points, difficulties, and drawbacks of the 
plan ; yet they cannot but thank GOD for all that 
He has wrought through so weak and imperfect 
an agency. Scores of similar districts are waiting 
in China — other rivers, towns, villages, other out- 
stations, and little struggling native churches, needing 
help. Oh, that it may be more and more recognised 
that here is a great sphere for the work of consecrated 


women, who are not afraid to endure hardness as 
good soldiers of jESUS CHRIST. 

In this section we have sought to indicate some- 
thing of the need and darkness of the women of 
inland China, the experiences of those who have been 
pioneers in bringing them the Gospel, the way in 
which that great country is now opened to the work 
of Christian women, and the pressing call for 
hundreds of such, as evangelists, for its as yet 
unreached millions. One question still remains : — 

" Whom shall I send ^ and who will go for us ? " 

Within the last ten years God has opened inland 
China to the women of the Church of Christ. Is it 
little that we are face to face with such a fact ? 
What meaning is there for us in the wonderful 
providences that have brought this continental Empire 
within our reach ? The change these years have 
made is momentous and significant. What does it 
mean, dear reader, for you, for me? Alone with 
these great facts, and GOD, bear with me if I press the 
question — what difference has it made in your life 
that fifty millions of women in the inland provinces 
of China are still without the Gospel, though now 
accessible to us as they were not a few brief years 

The time is short, the end is nearing. GOD has 
brought these myriad homes and hearts within our 
reach for some great purpose. What are our 


responsibilities to Him about it? And how do we 
discharge them day by day ? 

Here is the womanhood of a whole mighty nation, 
to be won for CHRIST. Who would not willingly 
count all things "loss" for the high honour of 
fellowship with Him in such a purpose ? 

Fathers, mothers, do you not want to share this 
privilege? Will you not spare that dear and gifted 
daughter, for His sake, at any cost, to become a 
centre of light and blessing in some distant Chinese 
city where jESUS is not named? 

Dear reader, you who cannot go, could you not 
support one or more such workers? Not a large sum 
is needed to maintain a lady in inland China. Could 
you not have your representatives in the field, follow 
them with sympathy and prayer, and thus become 
a sharer in their service and reward? 

Busy soul-winner, you who are already used in the 
Lord's work at home, have you never heard His call 
to these white, waiting fields where labourers are so 
few? Until you definitely give yourself to Him for 
the women of inland China, can you be quite sure 
that it is not His purpose to send you there? 

Who are the women wanted? 

I. Supremely those who know and love the LORD 
Jesus Christ, and in whose life He lives. As 
McCheyne has well said, "It is not so much great 
talents that GOD blesses as likeness to Himself. 
Therefore love, Divine love for GOD and man, and 


an entire dependence upon the power of the HOLY 
Spirit, are the first great essentials. 

II. Then, those who are sure of the call of GOD. 
No merely human compassion, or enthusiasm of a 
missionary meeting, will prove sufficient to carry one 
through the stress of actual life and work among the 
heathen. Nothing but a sincere and prayerful con- 
viction that God has called to this service, and that 
every step is according to His will and by His 
guidance, is enough to produce the steadfastness and 
full purpose of heart that are absolutely needed. 

III. Women ready to toil and suffer; to whom 
hardships, loneliness, and trial borne for jESUS' sake 
are sweet. Women prepared, if needs be, to " die 
daily " ; willing " for the Gospel's sake " to deny self, 
and be made " all things to all men," — by any means 
to win some. Hearts ready to say with Paul about 
many possible comforts and pleasures, right enough 
in themselves, but a hindrance, it may be, to the 
fullest usefulness and blessing : " We have not used 
this power, but suffer all things, lest we should hinder 
the Gospel of Christ." 

IV. Women of loving hearts, who will bring a 
tender sympathy and sisterly kindness into all their 
relations with those they go to bless ; who will be 
content with nothing less than really getting into 
touch with the people, understanding their joys and 
sorrows, and entering into all their needs. This love 
must be " without dissimulation," for none are quicker 
than the Chinese in detecting real devotion. Ready 


are they also to meet true love with a warm, grateful 
response, and wonderful is its transforming influence 
upon their lives. 

V. Women, patient, persevering, hopeful, and strong 
in faith ; who will not weary in well doing, assured 
that in due season they shall reap. 

VI. Women of ripe Christian experience are 
wanted, whom GOD has been training in His own 
school of suffering and service at home Many a 
younger sister out in the field needs all the help and 
strengthening they can bring, and great may be the 
usefulness of such in deepening the spiritual tone of 
the work. Youth, on the other hand, has all its own 
advantages, and those who can be trained in China 
are wanted as no words can tell. Such learn the 
language and acclimatise more easily, and have less 
difficulty in adapting themselves to the ways of the 

VII. Lady doctors, teachers, nurses, all are needed. 
In a word, whatever GOD has used in His service at 
home cannot fail to be of value in China also. No 
matter what your special gift may be, there is 
certainly a sphere for it there. One talent, five, or 
ten can equally be put to good account. 

And let it never be forgotten that we go to learn 
as well as teach, to receive as well as give. 

In China there are hoary systems of philosophy, 
religion, and culture ; we do not seek to add to these. 
There is an ancient and complex civilisation that it 
is not ours to supersede with new^ ideas from the 



West. One thing, supremely, is lacking ; one blessing 
we wish to bring — the knowledge of a Saviour, and 
a Saviour's love. CHRIST is her paramount need ; 
Christ Himself made real to her through human 

As missionaries, then, our call is — 
to learn CHRIST ; to live CHRIST ; to give CHRIST : 


. . . *' The sun had set, and as the houses were ahready shrouded 
in gloom the strangers could not tell what turn to take, but watched 
and waited under the silent stars — the first Protestant missionaries that 
ever stood on Indian soil, wondering much what would happen next, 
and bethinking themselves that even the Son of Man had not where to 
lay His head. 

*' Now that Ziegenbalg has set foot in India and stands bewildered 
under the stars, we may look at the condition of that tremendous 
problem which he has set himself to solve, exactly the same problem, 
moreover, that we are trying to solve to-day. For when we use this 
phrase, 'winning India/ it is in a prophetic and, as yet, in no way 
historical sense. It is the heading of a long chapter of which only the 
opening pages have been written, but of which we have no more doubt 
that it will be completed, than that it has been begun. It is rather the 
work before the Church than any work the Church has done. . . . But 
to win India was Ziegenbalg's aim, the dream he had as he left 
home, the dream of all that have followed him from Schwartz and 
Carey down to our own day. We are to look at something larger than 
the gathering of a few natives, whether they are hundreds or thousands, 
out of indescribable error and woe. . . . The greatness of the modem 
mission, as we apprehend it, is in this . . . that it does not recognise 
any limits short of those which Christ assigned to His Church — 
the whole world ; and that it aims to win for Him the busy life of 
vast peoples, their existence as nations or races, their polity, their 
literature and commerce, and all the springs of national being ; to 
change, in fact, and that everywhere, heathenism into Christendom. 

" It is this conviction, that they have engaged in a superb and far- 
reaching enterprise, which lends a pathetic interest to the figures of 
those two men, as we see rising up beyond them the unbroken heights 
and fortress of the Hindoo faith ; which lends that pathos to every 
lonely figure that passes out of our sight to-day into any mission-field. 
The work seems so far beyond the workers, that the faith which lies 
behind it rises into the highest chivalry." — The Dawn of the Modem 
Mission J Fleming Stevenson, D.D. 



** China in life's journey fell early among thieves. They wore the 
philosopher's cloak. They filled its ear with worldly wisdom, and its 
heart with worldly tastes. And so they robbed it of its birthright, and 
taught it to mind earthly things. 

*'It is a noble task to bring to it the title-deeds of the inheritance of 
which it has besn defrauded; to unorphan it, to renew its youth, to 
bring it through Christ to His Father, not less industrious, not less 
patient, not less enduring, but emptied of emptiness and washed from 
impurity, the most experienced of all prodigals in wandering, the 
happiest in its repentance and return. At once the oldest child of 
Adam, the youngest child of God." 



OUR last two chapters have carried us sorhewhat 
beyond the point at which we must now 
resume the Mission's story. 

It was the spring of 1878 when Mrs. Hudson 
Taylor, leaving family and friends, sailed for famine- 
stricken S HAN-SI, in the hope that very soon her 
husband might be able to rejoin her. But in the 
home department there were many claims, and for 
almost twelve months Mr. Taylor found it impossible 
to leave. 

The Council of the Mission, formed six years 
previously,* had all along rendered valuable assist- 
ance in England, but now the growing sphere and 
responsibilities of the work made further organisation 
necessary. Thus in the spring of 1879 months of 
deliberation and prayer resulted in the appointment 
of Mr. Benjamin Broomhall as Secretary to the Mis- 
sion ; while Mr. Theodore Howard, Chairman of the 
Council, consented to assume the responsible position 
of Home Director, which he still continues to occupy. 

• See vol. i., p. 454. 


The story of the Inland Mission would be sadly 
incomplete did it lack a tribute to the painstaking, 
devoted, and unwearied service of our long-tried and 
valued helpers at home. It is no small thing that the 
Director and members of Council, busy, most of them, 
in the rush of London life, should be willing, year by 
year, to devote one evening nearly every week to the 
affairs of the Mission. It is no small thing that they 
should consecrate to its well-being so much earnest 
thought and prayerful sympathy; their only reward 
the grateful appreciation of all connected with the 
work, and the Master's word, " Yc did it unto Me." 
Long may every member of our beloved and honoured 
London Council be spared to continue this valuable 
service ! 

To those acquainted with the Mission, Mr. and 
Mrs. Broomhall need no introduction. It is enough to 
mention their names. All that have come under their 
loving influence at once fill in the rest. Since 1876 
Mr. Broomhall has been the mainspring of the busy, 
toilsome office work at Pyrland Road, for two and a 
half years informally, and for the last fourteen as 
recognised head. His genial presence and sympathy, 
and those of his devoted wife,* have made the C. I. M. 
headquarters a home in the truest sense. Not only 
have they there brought up their own children, four 
of whom have joined the Mission in China, but 
their hospitable welcome has ever been extended to 

* Mr. Hudson Taylor's sister. 



those interested in the work, to returned mis- 
sionaries, and out-going candidates, large numbers 
of whom have been received into their family 
circle and helped by them in ways too numerous to 
detail. Mrs. Broomhall, in spite of her household 
cares, has regularly kept up th? midday prayer- 
meeting for China, and undertaken the outfits of 
scores of departing missionaries, amongst whom 
the writer, with many others, can never cease 
gratefully to remember the motherly tenderness 
and sympathy she blended with all her helpful 
counsels. From full hearts we say, " The Lord 
reward them ! " 

Strengthened by these arrangements, Mr. Taylor 
was liberated to return to China early in 1879. On 
his way out to the East an invitation from the Hague 
led to his visiting Holland. Interesting meetings 
were held there, and at Amsterdam and Marseilles, 
the C. I. M. thus becoming known on the Continent 
for the first time. This small beginning, fourteen 
years ago, is interesting in the light of recent de- 
velopments which have brought into our ranks many 
valuable workers from Germany, Norway, Sweden, 
and even Finland. 

Upon landing in China Mr. Hudson Taylor and 
his companions were met by Mrs. Taylor, amongst 
others, who had come down from Shan-SI to rejoin 
her husband. He was now very ill, and before long 
his life was almost despaired of. As a last resort, his 
medical advisers sent him to Chefoo, Kindly received 


by Christian friends in the Settlement, he spent the 
summer at that pleasant health-resort, greatly bene- 
fited by the bracing air. A further result of his visit 
was the establishment at Chefoo of the C. I. M. 
sanatorium and schools. Beautifully situated close 
to the sea, these, with Dr. Douthwaite's large medical 
work, form a combination of needed and healthful 
agencies that have proved of incalculable benefit to 
the Mission.* 

By degrees, as Mr. Taylor regained strength, he 
was able to visit the stations along the Yang-Lsi 
valley, and take part in forwarding the pioneer 
journeys of our women-evangelists, who were just 
beginning to go to the far Interior, as described in 
the last .section. 

It was a time of rapid progress and advance — 1879 
to 1880. At the older stations blessing was being 
given, and new and important openings were to be 
found on every hand. Both the sphere and staff of 
the Mission were larger than ever before, .seventy 
stations in eleven provinces, being occupied by .seventy 
mi.ssionaries and twenty-six missionaries' wives, and 

* The Sanatorium accommodates from twenty to twenty-five 
visitors, and the schools about sixty boys and forty girls re- 
spectively. The children of our own Mission can here be 
educated free of charge, and in addition the children of other 
foreign residents are received. The educational standard is high, 
and the moral and spiritual tone of the schools excellent. All 
the teaching and direction are supplied by members of the 
Mission, who have wilHngly consecrated their special gifts to 
this service. 


widespread itinerations were being carried on in 
districts where as yet no workers were settled. Still, 
though there was much to cheer and encourage, it 
was also a period of unusual trial. Mr. Taylor's 
life seemed more than once in the balance ; a 
diminished income caused grave financial difficulty ; 
and at the .same time reinforcements were badly 
needed in every province. 

Four years had now elapsed since the Chcfoo 
Convention ; and their experience had proved that 
China was indeed open to the GosiJcl. Journeys had 


been freely taken throughout the hitherto unreached 
Interior, and not men only, but ladies, were now 
settled in the far West. Surely it was a time for 
advance and redoubled effort ! Yet, sad to say, the 
work was being seriously retarded and crippled for 
lack of men and means. 

As 1880 passed away much prayer was made 
about the pressing need, which seemed all the more 
painful in view of the wide and increasing oppor- 
tunities that abounded in districts so long closed to 
the Gospel. Throughout the following year similar 
conditions prevailed ; and in the autumn of 1881, as 
many of the missionaries as possible gathered to 
meet Mr. Hudson Taylor at Wu-ch'ang for prayer 
and conference. 

This great and important city, far in the heart of 
China, was then, as it still is, a centre of widely 
extended ari.stocratic, literary, and official influences. 
Its walls, twelve miles in circumference, enclose hand- 
some buildings, pagodas, temples, and official resi- 
dences of all sorts. Wealthy, busy, and populous, 
Wu-ch'ang — with its full tide of life ever flowing, like 
the rolling waters of the Yang-tsi, at its feet — took 
but little notice of the handful of .strangers who had 
found a home within its gates. Three or four mis- 
sionary households represented various Societies at 
work in the city, while the C. I. M. had a house of call, 
.specially for the convenience of travellers bound for 
the Interior. Here it was that in November 1881 
the little group of C. I. M. workers united to wait 


upon the Lord, seeking labourers for the great harvest. 
Above them the blue skies of Hu-PEH, around them 
the noise and turmoil of a vast heathen metropolis, 
within their hearts the righteousness, peace, and joy 
of the inner Kingdom of GOD, they gathered there 
amid all the superstition, idolatry, and practical in- 
fidelity of paganism, a band of men and women who 
believed in prayer. 

On the steep slope of a low ridge of hills running 
through the city, picture the modest Chinese dwell- 
ing, surrounded by narrow, crowded, dirty streets* 
Within is the guest-hall, with its raised daYs, small 
square tea-tables, and straight-backed Chinese chairs 
down either side, its walls hung with brightly 
coloured scrolls in Chinese character. Here, and in 
the smaller sitting-room, the daily meetings were 
held. From the window a magnificent view of the 
city lies outspread below — whitewashed walls and 
crowded, sloping roofs, right down to the banks of the 
swiftly flowing Yang-tsi, and across to the foreign 
settlement and populous native city of Hankow on 
the further shore. On the wall of the sitting-room, 
amongst other texts was one that seemed strangely 
appropriate to that little conference : — 

" A/though the fig-tree shall not blossom^ neither 
shall fruit be in the vines ; the labour of t/ie olive shall 
fail, and the field shall yield no meat ; the flock be cut 
off from the fold, and tliere sJiall be no herd in tJie 
stalls ; yet will I rejoice in the Lord, I zuill Joy in the 
God of my salvation^ 

VOL. II. 26 


Those were earnest days of waiting upon GOD, and 
His presence was very real. The whole position of 
the Mission, and the principles upon which it was 
based, were prayerfully reviewed. 

" The Lord is giving us happy fellowship here/' wrote 
Mr. Taylor, "and is confirming us in the principles on 
which we are acting. We are indeed rich in His presence 
and love. Hoth are so real. Are they not ? Our Lord 
has a great heart of love, as well as an arm of strength for 
us to lean upon and be enfolded in." 

And all the while as they prajxd, and rejoiced in 
God, in spite of shortness of funds and lack of 
workers, the background of ever-present thought in 
every heart was the great Beyond of need and 
darkness in the still uncvangeliscd though accessible 
interior of the vast Empire. 

** God is rich and great," they say ; • " He has 
opened to us doors of access on all hands in this 
once-sealed land. The needs arc overwhelming ; the 
opportunities wonderful ! J/o7i' is it that the labourers 
are so few ? " 

" You have been very definite in faith and prayer 
for an entrance into all the unreached provinces," the 
answer seemed to come, *' but have you sought in the 
same way the reinforcements needed to fill each place 
as it was given ? " 

And here there was a consciousness of failure. 
Prayer had not been as definite for workers as for 
openings, and a deep sense of responsibility was felt by 
all to seek in this respect also great things from GoD. 


True, funds were short, and the Mission staff 
already large. But face to face with such needs, 
and such a GOD, even that could not hinder ! And 
so these men and women rose from their knees 
with strengthened faith and enlarged desire, feeling 
that they must be definite in their request for more 

Then came the question, " For how many shall we 
ask ? What is exactly the need ? What are we to 
expect from Goi) ? " 

" There are several ways," writes Mr. Taylor, in this 
connection, "of working for CjOD. We may make the 
wisest plans we can, and then carry them out to the best 
of our ability. This is perhaps better than working without 
any plan, but it is by no means the best way to serve our 

"Or, having carefully laid oar plans and determined to 
carry them through, we may bring them to CioD, and ask 
Him to help and prosper us in connection with them. 

" Yet another way is to Ifegin with (Jod, and to ask His 
plans, and offer ourselves to Him to help in carryings them 

Deeply feeling the importance of beginning thus 
with God, the little band first sought His guidance 
as to what they should expect, before making any 
definite petitions. Then, taking a sheet of paper — 
too familiar with the land of their love and adoption 
to need any map — they went over, province by 
province, the whole of their wide field, the great 
far-reaching country lying around them on every 


Station by station all the workers were named — 
one little band far off in KaN-slh ; a group of three 
lonely toilers in SlIKN-sr, and a mother's quiet grave ; 
one station for SI-ch'UEn ; one in KWKI-CIIAU ; and a 
single lonely outpost at Ta-li Fu in YuN-NAN, West 
of them that was all : five stations in five provinces, 
stretching from the borders of Mongolia to the 
mountains of Burmah and Thibet, a region lai^er far 
than Ent;land, Ireland, Scotland, France, and Italy, 
and with a population of thirty-nine millions at the 
very least 

To north and south of themjiay other vast-regions : 



B iSI>s.  tilHvtiBtqilitcriJvdiac**^!^*^" 



towards the Great Wall two provinces larger than the 
States of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Vir- 
ginia, put together, with a population of twenty-four 
millions, and only three little stations : southward 
to the Tong-king Gulf, two more, as far-reaching as 
Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and half Ohio, peopled 
with twenty millions of heathen, and amongst them 
only one evangelist, with no settled dwelling-place. 
East of them, were two more inland provinces, larger 
than New Zealand and Wales twice over, with a 
population of twenty-four millions, and only three 
stations where Protestant missionaries were at work. 
And eastward still, the sea-board provinces, best off 
of any, but dark and unevangelised in parts, were 
also badly needing labourers. 

Province by province was gone over by these men 
and women, waiting to know what GOD would have 
them ask of Him in faith ; and as they talked and 
pondered their hearts were burdened with the vast, 
the overwhelming need ! 

Station by station was named, and a note made of 
the reinforcements absolutely required for each one, 
if the older work were to be sustained and some 
advance attempted. 

The list grew long. 

" For this unentered province at least two men. To 
reinforce the Clarkes alone at Ta-li Fu certainly one 
brother and his wife. For the great openings in 
Si-CH'uen some one must be given. And for these 
older stations, where the baptisms have been numerous 


of late and the younj^ converts need loving help and 
supervision, we badly want men and women of grace 
and power." Thus the needs were reckoned, and 
written down before the LORD. 

At last they came to an end, and then the list was 
counted. What a total ! Twenty-eight women were 
wanted and forty-two men — seventy in all. How 
few it seemed compared to the great field ! And 
yet, se%'efity for this one Mission ! How dared they 
dream of asking such a number? Poor, uninflucntial, 
with no denomination at their back, how could the 
C. 1. M., at that time but little known in England, 
and without connections in any other part of the 
world, venture to plead such a petition for reinforce- 
ments ? Seventy men and women ? Why, their 
whole staff was under a hundred — the growth of fifteen 
years. How could they think of asking seventy more, 
when their funds were already short, their friends 
few, their circle small ! What a prayer — looked at 
from any point of view ! Yes, except from the 
standing ground of faith it did seem preposterous. 
And yet, there was the need, and here were all the 
promises of Goi). They had asked Him to teach them 
what to pray for as they ought. Could they, dared they 
tone down their petitions to any level lower than the 
need ? He had been with them as they travelled, in 
thought, to all those stations. He knew every word 
upon that paper was true. Dared they ask less, for 
fear He would not, could not, give ? 

It was God's plan that lay before them. And with 


the petition based upon the need, He gave faith for 
claiming the supply. 

" VVe then and there determined," wrote Mr. Taylor, 
" daily to plead with GOD in agreed prayer for seventy 
additional workers, forty-two men and twenty-eight 
women for our own Mission, and for large reinforce- 
ments for all the evangelical Societies." 

Conscious of the greatness of their request, and of 
the very limited powers of the Mission both at home 
and in China, the Conference realised at once that 
they could not receive such reinforcements in any 
brief space of time. There would not be strength 
enough in the home staff to send out so large a 
number in one season. Nor could the available 
accommodation near the coast in China be adapted to 
receive them. Escorts, too, for the long journeys 
inland were none too easily obtained. It would be 
needful, therefore, that the new workers should come 
out in relays, with a few months' interval, so that the 
first arrivals might learn enough of the language to 
travel farther inland, and those escorting them might 
have time to return for succeeding parties. It seemed, 
however, that a period of three years would be long 
enough to admit of all being satisfactorily accom- 
plished. So the prayer was for seventy workers, to 
be given during the next three years— 1882, '83, '84. 

It was certainly no superfluity of funds that en- 
couraged those men and women to pray. They had 
been passing through a tinie of severe trial in this 



" But," wrote Mr. Taylor, " we felt that if God saw it 
needful to try our faiih, He could do so, whether we were 
seventy more or seventy less ; and if He were pleased to 
supply us abundantly, the additional Seventy would be no 
difficulty to Him. We had not fixed arbitrarily upon the 
number, and then distributed them over our stations. We 
had been led to ask for so many, seeing they were all 
needed. And it was cheering to remember that the Lord 
who had sent forth * other seventy/ to assist the twelve 
disciples in little Palestine, could easily give us the same 
number for great, needy China. 

" As to their support, the God who had found no difficulty 
in sustaining in the wilderness the millions of Israel, was 
not likely to feel burdened with the care of a few extra 
workers for inland China. His arm had not waxed short. 
There was no fear that we should all have to become 
vegetarians ! The cattle on a thousand hills, and all the 
fowls of the air, are His. And were the currency of the 
whole world to fail or be insufficient, He has abundance of 
unmined stores of silver and gold. We can afford to be 
poor with so rich a Father. So we agreed to pray." 

It was with great confidence and joy that, on the 
afternoon of November 25th, 1881, the friends in 
the Mission-house at Wu-ch*ang knelt together to 
spread out their petitions before the LORD. Around 
them on every hand stretched the far-reaching con- 
tinental Empire to which they longed to bring the 
Gospel ; before them lay the memorable paper with 
its record of their pressing need ; above them bent 
the Hearer and Answerer of prayer, and their hearts 
overflowed with the gladness and certainty of a God- 
inspired faith, that it should be vmto them according 
to their cjesire, 


Gathered at the tea-table, a little later, some one 
said : — 

" How delightful it would be if all who have joined 
in the petition for reinforcements to-day, could meet 
to give thanks in three years* time, when the last of 
the Seventy shall have reached China." Clearly that 
could not be. How scattered would that group be 
found, long before that time ! 

" Why not to-night ? " suggested another. " Why 
not have a thanksgiving service this very evening, in 
which we may all unite ? " 

And so it was. Every one present at the prayer 
meeting was also present to give thanks, rejoicing in 
confident faith. 

Then they drew up a petition, laying this request 
for prayer before the home Churches. It was sent 
first for signature to the scattered members of the 
mission in China, and ran thus : — 

" We, the undersigned members of the C. I. M., having 
had the privilege of personally labouring in many of the 
provinces of this needy land, and having seen with our own 
eyes something of its extent, and of the great spiritual 
needs of the untold millions of its inhabitants, feel pressed 
in spirit to make a united appeal to the Churches of the 
living God in Great Britain and Ireland for earnest and 
persevering prayer for more labourers. 

" We saw with thankfulness a few years ago the generous 
sympathy called forth by a knowledge of the terrible 
famine for bread that perisheth in the northern provinces. 
Some of us personally took part in distributing the practical 
fruits of this sympathy among the needy and dying. Many 


lives were saved ; many hungry were fed ; many naked 
were clothed ; and needy, destitute children were taken and 
cared for, some of whom are still under Christian instruction. 

" A more widespread and awful famine for the Bread of 
Life exists to-day in every province in China. Souls on 
every hand are perishing for lack of knowledge. A 
thousand every hour are passing away into death and 
darkness. We and many others have been sent by God 
and by the Churches to minister the Bread of Life to these 
perishing ones, but our number collectively is utterly inade- 
(juate to the crying needs around us. 

** Provinces in China compare in area with kingdoms in 
Europe, and average between ten and twenty millions in 
population. One province has no missionary. Another 
has only one, an unmarried man. In each of two other 
provinces only one missionary and his ivife are resident. 
And none are sufficiently supplied with labourers. Can we 
leave matters thus, without incurring the sin of blood- 
guiltiness ? 

" We plead, then, with the Churches of God at home 
to unite with us in fervent, effectual prayer, that the Lord 
of the Harvest may thrust forth more labourers into His 
harvest, in connection with every Protestant Missionary 
.Society on both sides of the Atlantic. 

" A careful survey of the spiritual work to which we 
ourselves are called, as members of the C. L M., has led 
us to feel the importance of immediate and large reinforce- 
ments ; and many of us are daily pleading with God in 
agreed prayer for forty-two additional men and twenty-eight 
additional women, called and sent out by Himself to assist 
us in carrying on and extending the work committed to 
our charge. 

" We ask our brothcis and sisters in Christ at home 
to join us in praying the Lord of the Harvest to thrust 
out this * other seventy also.' 


" We are not anxious as to means for sending them forth 
or sustaining them. He has told us to look at the birds 
and flowers, and to take no thought for these things; to 
seek first the Kingdom of God and His righteousness, and 
th^t all these shall be added unto us. But we are con- 
cerned that only men and women called of God, fully 
consecrated to Him, and counting every precious thing as 
dross * for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jksus 
our Lord,* should come out to join us. And we would 
add to this appeal a word of caution and encouragement to 
any who may feel drawn to offer themselves for this work. 

" Of caution — urging such to count the cost ; prayerfully 
to wait on God ; and to ask themselves whether they will 
really trust Him for everything, wherever He may call them 
to go. Mere romantic feeling must soon die out in the 
toilsome labour and constant discomforts and trials of 
inland work, and will not be worth much when severe 
illness arises, and perhaps the money is all gone. Faith 
in the living Goo alone gives joy and rest in such circum- 

" Of encouragement — for we ourselves have proved 
God's faithfulness, and the blessedness of dependence on 
Him alone. He is supplying, and ever has supplied, all our 
need. And if not seldom we have fellowship in poverty 
with Him who for our sakes became poor, shall we not 
rejoice if the day prove that, like the great missionary 
apostle, we have been * poor, yet making many rich * ? 
The Lord makes us very happy in His service, and^ those 
of us who have children desire nothing better for them, 
should He tarry, than that they may be called to similar 
work and to similar joys. 

"May He, dear Christian friends at home, ever be to 
you * a living, bright Reality,' and enable you to fulfil His 
calling, and live as witnesses to Him in the power of the 
Holy Ghost/' 


The Circulation of this appeal in all the stations in 
China took a long time. Many of the nearer posts 
were two or three weeks* journey from the coast, while 
the most distant were three, four, and five months 

Great was the rejoicing in many a distant station 
when the little paper made its message known. The 
courage of weary toilers was revived, and many a 
lonely one was cheered in anticipation of help so 
sorely needed. There was not, however, perfect 
unanimity of feeling in every station. Some doubted 
the wisdom of asking so many new workers ; some 
thought it better, while praying for reinforcements, 
to fix no special number. But most felt that prayer 
could not be too definite, so that when the answer 
came it might be clearly recognised. Seventy-seven 
signatures were affixed to the appeal, which tlien 
went home for publication in ChHstian journals. 

Early in the following year, 1882, the first party 
of the Seventy arrived, and before twelve months from 
the time of the Conference had passed nine of the 
prayed-for workers were in China. But only nine 
out of seventy. 

It was a year of a good deal of testing and trial 
of faith to those on the field. Funds continued low, 
and during the last three months matters came to 
a climax. 

" In October we were looking with special expectancy," 
wrote Mr. Hudson Taylor, ** for liberal supplies, as money 


for the expenses of long autumn journeys seemed needed. 
And when, one day, we received home letters at table, and 
opening one of them found, instead of the expected sum of 
eight hundred pounds or more, only ^96 9^. 5^. — our 
feelings may be better imagined than described. 

"The envelope was closed again, and soon I sought my 
room, and, locking the door, knelt down and spread the 
letter before the Lord, asking Him what was to be done 
with less than a hundred pounds — a sum impossible to 
distribute over seventy stations in which were ninety 
missionaries, not to speak of a hundred native helpers, and 
as many more native children to board and clothe in our 
schools. Having first rolled the burden on the Lord, I 
then mentioned the need to others of our own Mission, 
and we unitedly looked to Him to come to our aid, but no 
hint of our circumstances was given to outsiders. 

" Soon the answer to our prayer began to come, in local 
gifts from kind friends, who little knew the value of their 
donations, and in other ways, until ere long the needs of 
the month were all met, and met without our having been 
burdened for one hour with anxious care. 

" We had similar experiences in November, and again in 
December; and on each occasion, after spreading the 
letter before the Lord, we left the burden with Him, and 
were * helped.' 'Therefore our hearts greatly rejoice, and 
with our song will we praise Him.' 

y if 

A little later, just before Mr. Taylor's return to 
England in the spring of 1883, it appeared from 
various home letters that some warm friends of the 
Mission were feeling really troubled about the matter, 
fearing that while the Seventy might be given, in 
answer to prayer, means would prove insufficient to 
send them out and support them in China. Mr. 


Taylor was at Chefoo at the time ; and at one of the 
usual morning praycr-mcctings he and a few others 
united definitely to ask the LoKl) to put His seal 
upon the matter for the encouragement of those who 
were fearful. 

" Not more than half a dozen were present," he writes, 
**and the little prayer-meeting was held either during one 
of the last days of January or on the ist of February. I 
regret that the date was not noted at the time ; but I sailed 
from Chefoo on February 5th or 6th, and it must have been 
a few days before then. 

*' We knew that our Father loves to please His children 
— what father does not? — and we asked Him lovingly to 
please us, as well as encourage the timid ones, by leading 
some one of His wealthy stewards to make room for a large 
blessing for himself and his family, by giving liberally of 
his substance for this special object. 

** No account of this prayer meeting was written home, 
and had it been written the letter could not have reached 
England before the latter part of March. It was tele- 
graphed straight up to heaven, and Gon at once telegraphed 
down the desire into the heart of one of His servants, who, 
on February 2nd, sent in anonymously ;^3,ooo for this very 

" By the time 1 was halfway home to England the 
tidings, halfway out, reached me at Aden, and it may be 
imagined with what joy I received them. 

" Nor was this all. When I reached Marseilles, and went 
on to spend a few days with our much-valued friend, 
\V. T. Berger, Escj., at Cannes, the April number of 
C/iinas Mil/ions was put into my hands. There I saw in 
the list of donations, this ^^3,000, acknowledged under 
date of February 2nd, as follows :— 


Psalm ii. 8. 
"Ask of Me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine 
inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy pos- 

Father jf 1,000 Mary ^^200 Bertie ;f 200 Henry ^^'200 
Mother 1,000 Rosie 200 Amy 200 

" It was most striking to notice how literally God had 
fulfilled our prayer, and led His servant to make room for a 
lar^e blessing for himself and his family. Never before had 
a donation been received and acknowledged in this way, 
and never since — save once, eighteen months later, when 
another gift for the same fund is entered thus : — 

Psalm ii. 8. 

Father ;f 200 Mary/'ioo Bertie /" 100 Henry /^loo 
Mother 200 Rosie 100 Amy 100 Baby 100 


** A beautiful instance, this, of a loving father who seeks 
that his children shall have treasure in heaven." 

And what of the prayer for the Seventy and its 
answer ? 

" We had prayed in faith,'* continued Mr. Taylor, " and 
made our boast in (iou. When the time elapsed we were 
put to shame ? Nay, verily ! Not only was the number 
we had been led to ask for duly given, but our prayer was 
answered according to God's own scale, * Exceeding 
abundantly, above all that ye ask or think.' Seventy-six 
actually reached China in the years 1882, '83, '84 ; while 
a further number accepted would have followed, had not 
the French war rendered it advisable to defer the time of 
their sailing. 

*' Another point is interesting in connection with this 


prayer. Our petition was that God would send us * willing, 
skilful * men and * willing, skilful * women for every depart- 
ment of service. There are many workers to be found who 
are willing, but far from skilful ; and some who have much 
skill, but are not always very willing. We asked for 
* willing, skilful ' men and women for every branch of the 
Mission. That God has indeed granted this request, in 
large measure, in sending us the Seventy is well known to 
those familiar with the new workers. Many have proved 
themselves to be not (}od-sent merely, but God-sends in 
the truest sense ; and great have been the joy and thank- 
fulness of those who in many provinces have welcomed 
their seasonable aid." 

Among so large and valued a band of helpers 
many names might be mentioned in proof of this. 
Suffice it to say that the Seventy included no fewer 
than three medical men, who are still spared to the 
Mission in China ; and that the last party of all was 
Miss Murray's well-known group, since so much used 
of God at Yang-chau and on the Kvvang-sin River. 



AMONGST those in China who longed and prayed 
for the coming of the Seventy, none, perhaps, 
did so more earnestly than Dr, Harold Schofield, of 
T'ai-yuen Fa, Shan-si. He was a man of rich and 
rare endowments, and had given himself to the work 
of the Lord in China with enthusiasm and devotion. 
It was a deep and constant sorrow to him that 
Christians at home so little realised the appalling 
needs of heathendom. About the prayer for the 
reinforcements he wrote to Mr. Taylor : — 

" We learn that you have begun to ask the LORD 
for forty-two brethren and twenty-eight sisters to 
labour in China ; and that you seek others to join you 
in laying this petition before GOD. My dear wife 
and I wish to put down our names. We have begun 
daily to pray for this, and / believe the Lord will 
grant itr 

The life of Harold Schofield is one of singular 
interest. Born in 185 1, he was the third son of Robert 
Schofield, Esq., of Heybrook, Rochdale. At nine years 
old he gave his heart to GOD, and from that time 
forward sought first the things of the Kingdom. As a 

VOL. II. 4»7 27 


school-boy and student at Owen's College, Manchester, 
he was always to the front in athletic sports, manly 
exercises, and scholastic attainments, obtaining the 
Victoria Scholarship in classics, the London University 
B. A. and B.Sc. degrees, and being subsequently elected 
an Associate of Owen's College. 

" His next achievement was an exhibition to 
Lincoln College, Oxford. Entering there in October 
1870, he graduated with first-class honours in Natural 
Science, and afterwards filled an appointment in the 
Museum of Comparative Anatomy under the late 
Professor RoUeston. Gaining the open scholarship 
in Natural Science at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
London, he began there, in 1873, the study of medi- 
cine, prosecuting his work with so much vigour as 
successively to win the Foster Scholarship in Anatomy, 
the Junior and Senior Scholarships, in their respective 
years, the Brackenbury Medical Scholarship, and the 
Laurence Scholarship and gold medal. 

" About this time he gained the Radcliffe Travelling 
Fellowship in Natural Science at Oxford, and, having 
graduated, he proceeded to Vienna and Prague to 
follow his studies there. War between Turkey and 
Servia breaking out about this time, he offered his 
services as surgeon to the Red Cross Society, and 
was put in charge of the hospital at Belgrade during 
the campaign. Next year he served in a like capacity 
in the Turkish army during the Russo-Turkish war. 
On the expiration of his Radcliffe Fellowship he 
returned to St Bartholomew's Hospital, and filled 


successively the appointments of house-surgeon and 
house-physician." * 

A brilliant career was thus opening before him. 
Eminence in his profession, honour, wealth, and a 
life of distinguished usefulness were all within his 
reach. Respected and loved by a large circle of 
friends, he however valued far more highly than 
popularity or success the opportunities for usefulness 
in the Lord's service, open to him amongst young 
men in his own profession, amongst his patients, and 
in evangelistic work. 

Above all things Harold Schofield was a Christian. 
" What the LORD blesses everywhere," he would say, 
" is not great knowledge, but great devotedness of 
heart to Himself" 

" Make me real," was his earnest prayer. " Make 
me like one who waits for his LORD. Give me to 
meditate continually upon Thy Word. . . . Enable me 
to aim at nothing less than walking in this world as 
Christ Himself walked. Save me from the subtle 
snare of lowering my standard bit by bit to meet my 
miserable attainments. Oh, take my all, fill my heart, 
and make me wholly Thine." 

He was a constant student of the Bible ; and his 
attitude towards the claims of GOD upon his life was 
uncompromising. " My health, my time, my all," he 
wrote, " is a sacred trust from GOD, to be used and 
improved for Him." 

Obituary Notice from the Lancet. 


No wonder that this man heard the call of GOD 
to preach the Gospel amongst China's millions ! 
Reading the life of Dr. Elmslie, of the C. M. S., in 
Kashmir, decided him to become a medical missionary. 
After sorne years of thought and prayer, and just 
as he was concluding his duties as house-physician at 
St Bartholomew's Hospital, he announced his resolve. 

Great surprise and opposition were awakened. 
What, such a man throw himself away upon such 
work ? " He had spent many years in getting the 
best medical training possible. Large sums of money 
had been lavished upon his education. The value 
of his scholarships alone amounted to nearly fifteen 
hundred pounds ! He was known to be one of the 
ablest young men in his profession. To many it 
seemed a waste of power for such a man to go out 
to China." All possible urgency was used to dissuade 
him, and the needs of the heathen at home pleaded 
as quite as great as those of the heathen abroad. 
But the young doctor was sure of the call of GOD, 
and no earthly ambition or advantage had any weight 
with him compared to the joy of fellowship with his 
Lord in a life of self-sacrificing service for the salva- 
tion of the world. 

" Not tliose that need you, but those that need you 
mostr He had heard of the darkness of China, and 
felt the supreme claim was there, with the supreme 

He was young, strong, well equipped, and free to 
go. Surely if Jie held back bloodguiltiness would 


be upon him. Was it a loss to go ? He felt it would 
be loss to stay. To all eternity he would be able to 
serve his Lord ; but would he ever have, in another 
life, the opportunity of sacrificing anything, of suffer- 
ing for His sake ? That he had what the world called 
much to give, was surely an added reason for joy 
and thankfulness in laying all at jESUS' feet " A 
million a month in China are dying without GOD." 
This was his call. He heard it, and obeyed. 

The simplicity and, as he felt, spiritual principles 
of the C. I. M. attracted him. He acquainted himself 
thoroughly with its methods, sphere, and needs, and 
heartily threw in his lot with its workers. At the 
age of twenty-nine, he sailed for China, having been 
united in marriage to a lady thoroughly one with him 
in spirit. 

Summer was alread\' full, when, upon the last day 
of June 1880, Dr. and Mrs. Schofield landed in 
Shanghai. The first few months they spent at 
Chefoo studying the language, and looking forward 
with glad hearts to life-labour in the far Interior. 

The year in which they joined the Mission was, 
as we have seen, one of special crisis in its history. 
It was the year before the prayer for the Seventy, 
when openings abounded on all hands, but to blessing 
and encouragement were united great shortness of 
funds and serious lack of helpers in every province. 
Ladies had just begun to go far inland, and the tidings 
of their brave journeys called forth much thankful 


Keenly did Dr. Schoficld appreciate and rejoice in 
the wide sphere and wonderful opportunities of the 
Mission. He longed himself to be where the need 
was greatest, and had a warm heart for the work of 
women in these high places of the field. 

Four months after his arrival in China he started 
westward from Chefoo for the great inland province 
of Shan-si. T'ai-yuen, its capital, was his destina- 
tion — an important city, standing on the "northern 
border of a fertile plain three thousand feet above sea- 
level. Studded with populous centres, this wide />/ateau 
stretches away from the capital, covering an area of 
two thousand square miles. To the south of it lies 
the city of Ping-yang Fu, influential throughout the 
southern part of the province, bordering on HONAN. 
In 1880 these two cities, T'ai-yuen and P'ing-yang, 
were the only places in Shan-si where missionaries 
were stationed. Round them lay the vast province, 
as large as the State of Iowa, or New York and 
Massachusetts together, with more than the entire 
population of all three, shrouded in heathen darkness. 

Into such a sphere Dr. and Mrs. Schofield found 
themselves introduced, when, in the end of November 
1880, they reached T*ai-yuen. Seyen missionaries 
of the C. I. M. were working there and at P*ing-yang, 
and one or two connected with other Societies ; but, 
all told, they were not one man to a million of the 
surrounding heathen. 

What a sphere ! What needs ! Did the young 
missionary doctor regret t/ien that he had given up 


home and fame, wealth and ease, to live Christ 
in the midst of such darkness? Did he feci that 
the claims of Christian England outweighed these ? 
Here he was, the first and only medical missionary, 
in a province larger than the whole of England, 
where seven men were seeking to bring the Gospel 
to nine millions of people ! Was such a position 
unworthy compared with the distinctions he had left 
behind? True, he was poor in this world's wealth, 
lived only in a simple Chinese dwelling, and dressed 
in the costume of the people, with cotton gown 
and braided gueue ; true, the language had to be 
mastered, and the work that lay before him was 
well-nigh overwhelming. But, as GoD sees things, 
was Harold Schofield's life thrown away and wasted 
in such a sphere ? Or were those ten talents invested 
to the very best account? Ponder the question, 
young men, and miy GOD give us all to see things 
in their true proportions, in the light of Eternity ! 

" To me it seems unutterably sad," he wrote, " that now, 
more than eighteen hundred years after the ascending 
Saviour gave His great commission to 'go into all the 
world and preach the Gospel to every creature,' there should 
be hundreds of millions in this vast empire who have never 
so much as heard of Christ. 

" When I was preparing to come to China . , . some of 
my best friends tried to dissuade me on the plea that there 
was so much to be done at home. How 1 wish that they, 
and all who use this argument, could but live here for 
awhile, and see and feel the need for themselves ! They 
would then be disposed to ask, not whether I had a special 


call to go to China, but whether they have any special call 
to remain in England." 

1 88 1 and *82 were busy years for the T'ai-yuen 
workers. As soon as it became known that a foreign 
doctor had arrived patients began to crowd to the 
hospital. It was hard for him, at first, to study, heal, 
and preach all at the same time. But he quickly 
became familiar with the language, having remark- 
able linguistic talent, and an intense longing to be 
able to tell of jESUS. Although enthusiastic in his 
profession, he always kept the more directly spiritual 
part of his work in view, not only conducting the 
daily morning service for the patients himself, but in 
the Sunday meetings, in the street-chapel, tea-shops, 
or crowded thoroughfares, rejoicing to preach the glad 
tidings of a Saviour's love. 

" Did I tell you," wrote one of his fellow-mission- 
aries in August 1882, " what a capital street-preacher 
Dr. Schofield is becoming? I often envy him the 
power. He reiterates a truth until some one takes 
it up and translates it into the local dialect, which is 
very different from the Mandarin." 

" He healed and preached with glad hopefulness," 
wrote another. " We are very happy," he said him- 
self. " And I feel more thankful every day for the 
privilege of being permitted to labour for the LORD 
where the need is so great." 

During his first year (1881) he treated about fifty 
in-patients and fifteen hundred out-patients in the 


dispensary. In 1882 the numbers doubled. During 
all this year prayer was going up for the Seventy, 
in which Dr. and Mrs. Schofield daily joined. Keenly 
did he feeJ the need of reinforcements. Many of his 
patients came from long distances, and returning, 
healed and grateful, begged that some one might be 
sent to their country villages to teach them more 
about Jesus. But none were free to go. 

"There are three or four towns," wrote the doctor, 
" within a day or two's journey, in each of which we have 
old patients, three of them double cataract cases who can 
now see well. . . . These openings I long to follow up. 

" Again, the village work is developing most hopefully. 
There are far more doors than we can possibly enter. . . . 

"We have had four baptisms this week, February 12th, 
1883, and our hearts are full of joy and gratitude. ... It is, 
indeed, an unspeakable happiness to see these poor souls 
turning from their gross darkness to God's marvellous 

A man of intense and ready sympathy, Dr. Scho- 
field continually rejoiced to see suffering relieved, 
blindness removed, and life saved through his patient 

" One poor man," he wrote, " fifty-five years of age, with 
double cataract, practically blind, groped and begged his 
way to the hospital, a distance of fifty miles, taking about 
a fortnight to accomplish the journey. He recovered good 
vision in both eyes, and was greatly delighted at being able 
to walk home in two or three days. 

" Another patient, a woman aged forty-seven, was dis- 
missed from her situation, being blind in the same way. 


In her despair she twice attempted suicide, by jumping into 
a river, and down a well, but was saved on both occasions. 
A friend brought her to us. Both eyes were successfully 
operated on. She is now able to sew and do housework, 
and will probably remain with us to attend the female 

Such cases might be multiplied did space permit. 

Opium was found to be a fruitful cause of suffering, 
sin, and death. Out of thirty cases of suicide during 
'82, twenty -seven had taken opium. Most of them re- 
covered under prompt treatment ; but in one instance 
artificial respiration, steadily persevered in for three 
or four hours, alone proved availing. 

Even among little babies poisoning by this means 
was not uncommon. Left to crawl about upon the 
large k'ang, or heated brick bed, used in northern 
China, they would often find the small jar containing 
thick, black, treacle-like opium, used by the father or 
mother for smoking purposes. Naturally, the little 
fingers went in, and tRen up to the baby-mouth, 
carrying quite enough of the deadly poison to put 
an end, within a few brief hours, to the little life ! 
Two infants of ten months old were brought to the 
hospital poisoned in this way, and only the most 
careful treatment saved them. 

Opium smokers were estimated to be fifty per cent, 
of the male population of the city. 

" Another year's experience," wrote Dr. Schofield, 
" deepens my conviction that opium smoking is a 
terrible curse, physically, socially, and morally." 


Thus in busy, useful service the months sped 
quickly by. Larger premises had to be obtained as 
the number of patients increased, and bright pro- 
spects of extending influence and blessing cheered the 
workers' hearts. A son and a little daughter were 
given to perfect the happiness of that missionary 
home. Honoured and beloved by Chinese and 
foreigners alike, rejoicing in the sphere and service 
for which he was so singularly fitted, and happy in 
the consciousness that he was in the place where GoD 
would have him be, Harold Schofield's life-work 
seemed to have come to him in China. 

It was now the summer of 1883, Every month 
brought increasing opportunities of usefulness, and 
seemed to deepen his earnest consecration. During 
the busy, long, hot days he was more than usual in 
prayer. Often as Mrs. Schofield passed through the 
courtyard she would hear him pleading with GoD 
for more labourers and for blessing on the work. 
One special burden on his heart was the need for 
men of superior gifts, training, and social culture. 
He felt that China called for the best that the 
Church of CHRIST could give ; that, while offering 
a sphere to all, she required in a special way the 
highest talents, education, and force of character, as 
well as lofty spiritual endowments. Often during 
those summer months he earnestly sought from GOD 
an outpouring of His Spirit upon young men in the 
home Colleges and Universities, that the choicest and 


best from Oxford, Cambridge, and other such centres 
might be sent to the crowded cities and towns of 
China. He prayed that they might come, and come 
to Shan-si ; and he believed that his prayers would 
be answered. 

Answered they assuredly were, within two years 
from that time. Did he see it, know it, far in the 
Homeland, when he had entered into the rest that 
remains for the people of GOD? 

One hot July day, amongst other patients, a man 
was brought suffering from virulent diphtheria. 
Dr. Schofield, always full of eagerness to help, did 
what was in his power, but told the poor fellow that 
he could not remain in the hospital, as the disease 
was so terribly infectious. The man retired, but 
not to go away. He succeeded, somehow, in duping 
the gatekeeper, and, unknown to any of the household, 
passed the night in a room on the front courtyard. 

Next morning the doctor heard that some one 
had died on the premises. Startled, he went at once 
to see who it was, thinking of a patient upon whom 
he had lately operated. The close little room was 
entered, and there upon the k*ang he saw, to his 
surprise, the body of the poor man he had treated 
for diphtheria ! To that poison-charged atmosphere 
Dr. Schofield was exposed until the remains were 
taken away for burial. 

Four days later the doctor felt far from well. At 
the end of the week he was in high fever, and 


obliged to give up his work. Trusting, at first, that 
it was only a malarial attack, all hoped for the best. 
But soon symptoms of typhus set in, and it was 
clearly to be a fight for life. He was young and 
strong, and had all that skill and love could do to 
help him. Prayer was unremitting on his behalf. 
Surely it could not be that his work was done! 

For a week the terrible fever ran its course, hope 
alternating with fear. One desire seemed to fill the 
mind of the sufferer — that the will of GOD might be 
accomplished. His constant prayer was for patience. 
Even in pain his soul was filled with joy and peace, 
and his face seemed to grow more and more radiant 
with the passing hours. 

Towards evening, on the last, long day of July, 
the fever rose rapidly, and nothing could abate it 
. . . 105 ^ 106° ... At midnight it was over 107". 
And at one' o'clock in the morning it stood above 
108.° About an hour later he peacefully passed 

On the afternoon of that summer day, August ist, 
1883 — darkened for them with the shadow of an un- 
utterable sorrow — his fellow-workers committed the 
precious dust to rest, in the eastern hills overlooking 
the city ; and coming back through the familiar 
streets, that seemed so deserted now they should see 
his face no more, heard the Chinese remark in 
softened tones, — 

" Is the good doctor gone ? Alas ! Alas ! " 

Yes, he was gone from the scenes of his bright 


earthly service. After only three years in China he 
was called into the presence of the King. Did he 
regret t/ien that he had left all to follow Him ? Or 
did those closing days shine out as the brightest and 
best he had known ? 

"Loving farewell," he said, "to Mr. Taylor and 
the Council. . . . Tell them that these three years in 
China have been by far the happiest of my life." 
And to all who loved him he sent this message : — 
" A little while — and He that shall come will come, 
and will not tarry." 

" A little while for winning souls to Jesus, 
Ere we behold His beauty face to face ; 
A little while for healing soul diseases 
By telling others of a Saviour's grace." 

Upon whom shall his mantle fall ? 

" Where are the others who stand in full view of 
earthly honours and emoluments, and rejoice to make 
them a sacrifice to Christ for the extension of His 
Kingdom ? " 

Christian doctors, there is no class of men to 
whom God has entrusted more responsibility in 
connection with the heathen than He has to you ; 
for none have grander opportunities. To your hands 
is committed a double gift, and with it the command 
— " Heal the sick and preach the Gospel." 

The Divine idea embodied in the life of CHRIST 
seeks, through you, present expression ; for you 
especially arc called to follow in His steps, who 


"went about doing good," revealing the heart of 
God, in its compassion, to suffering, sinning man. 

It is harder to gain access to the people than to 
learn their language. And hardest of all is to win 
their hearts, making them feel, through our lives, that 
God loves them. In your hands lies a wonderful 
power to accomplish this. The medical missionary 
is everywhere understood and appreciated. He, 
better than any other, can disarm prejudice, gain 
confidence, friendly relations, and by his 
sympathy and kindness win a way for the Gospel. 
He can bring to the suffering and distressed not only 
hope for hereafter, but comfort and help in the 
pressing daily now. " It is the love of GoD in him, 
alike in message and in deed, which is the mighty 
force whereby the HOLY Spirit wins the day." 

Christ claims our every talent. Will you not 
rejoice to lay yours at His feet ? 

The need is great — overwhelming ! Remember : — 

1. "There are over one thousand million heathen and 
Mohammedans in the world to-day. 

2. "They are perishing, no less physically for lack of 
medical aid, than spiritually from ignorance of the Gospel. 

3. "There is only one medical missionary, on an 
average, to almost as many as the entire population of 

4. "They are dying at about the rate of forty millions 
every year, the greater number having never heard of 

".And these poor sufferers have bodies like our own. 
They have nerves, and feel as we do. We know it. But^ 


are we not in danger of forgetting sometimes, and uncon- 
sciously assuming that they are made of the same stuff as 
the very idols that they worship ? We know from experience 
what sickness is, with all the aids of modern medical 
science. What must it be without any of these ? " * 

Pre-eminent in need, China appeals most strongly 
to the medical missionary. Her vast and crowded 
population, her utter ignorance of surgical science, 
her fearful sufferings from smallpox, cholera, ophthal- 
mia, fever, leprosy, and skin diseases, lay upon every 
physician and surgeon who belongs to CHRIST a 
tremendous claim. In the United Kingdom there 
is one doctor to every fifteen hundred of the popula- 
tion. In China medical missionaries average one 
among two millions.f 

Tzuo millions — every one of whom at some period 
of his or her life is in extreme need of just the help 
that you can give. Wax is hard till touched by heat, 
but then it will take any impress you wish. Softened 
by suffering, melted by kindness, how easily those 
hearts might be turned to the Saviour in their hour 
of distress. 

Compassion calls. 

* See " Report of the Missionary Conference/' London, vol. ii., 
p. 108. 

t There are 120 medical missionaries of all Societies in China. 
A large number are American. Of the remainder 63 hold British 
qualifications, 61 being men, and 2 women. The C.I.M. has 
14 fully qualified doctors, 7 hospitals, and 16 dispensaries. 
More medical men are urgently needed in this field. 

VOL. 11. 28 


"Think of their sad condition — denied proper food, 
tortured with needle and cautery, uncared for, and lying 
often on the bare ground. Think of the neglected eye 
diseases, ending in blindness ; of the neglected bone diseases, 
enfeebling and crippling; of the malignant tumours, 
disfiguring, torturing, killing! 

"Brothers, your skill, if consecrated to their service, 
would give sight to many who otherwise must remain blind ; 
would restore strength and usefulness to diseased lihibs; 
and give back bread-winners to their families. It would 
also preserve other missionaries in health. Ay, and more 
than this, it would open doors still closed to the Gospel. 
You would win immortal souls for your hire, a crown of 
rejoicing, and an exceeding weight of glory in that day 
when He makes up His jewels."* 

" Sir," said a swarthy African, his face lined with 
care, a group of sick and suffering round him, that 
he had brought to the missionary, " we dwell in a 
town distant more than one march of the sun from 
you. We often heard of the white man and his 
wondrous medicines, but never till now had the 
courage to come. Of late sickness has been rife, and 
we became bold in our despair. I went through all 
my neighbours* yards and sought out all the sick, 
laid them in a long canoe, and paddled them slowly 
here. Sir, what could we do ? Many were sick, and 
some were dying, and there was none to heal. So 
to you we have brought them. To you we come. 
Help us, we pray you help us ! " 

* Appeal from four medical missionaries of the Church 
Missionary Society. 


Will you not thank GOD that you may be a medical 
missionary? Surely here is a nobler sphere for all 
your powers than can be found at home in the 
ranks of an over- stocked profession ? " True, you may 
hope for success. You will certainly earn a com- 
petency, and perhaps attain wealth. You may justly 
win a local if not an European reputation. But your 
success will only make the struggle harder for other 
practitioners. And your reputation} Have we not 
read, * He made Himself of no reputation ' ? " 

If it were only the call of a noble philanthropy, 
that in itself would be overwhelmingly strong ; but 
there is a far higher claim to those who would be 
workers together with GOD." 

"We believe," writes an American missionary, "that if 
the spiritual fruits of our Medical Missions in China could 
be tabulated, the fact would be revealed that in that great 
Empire no method of missionary work has been more 
signally blessed in spreading a knowledge of the Gospel. 
. . . The seed sown in the hearts of patients has in many 
cases brought forth fruit, in some thirty, in some sixty, and 
in some a hundredfold. In not a few instances native 
churches have sprung up in towns and villages far distant 
from the headquarters of the medical work. . . . The 
patients having received the * double cure,' returned to 
their homes, and told among their friends what the Lord 
had done for their souls. Thus Medical Missions have 
not only broken down prejudice, and opened * wide doors 
and effectual ' among the exclusive Chinese, but have also 
been in a very marked degree the nurseries of the native 

" The congregation gathered in the hospital-chapel," says 


Dr. Maxwell, " is unique in its comprehensiveness. It is 
not merely one or two hundred souls, it is one or two 
hundred souls representing, probably, fifty different towns 
and villages ; and it means of necessity a diffusion of a 
measure of Gospel truth in all these different places. As 
many as twelve to fourteen hundred towns and villages 
have been represented in a single year amongst the in- 
patients of a single hospital. Does not this speak of rare 
and glorious possibilities ? Can we overestimate the value 
of such opportunities as these ? " 

Take one instance. 

" In China the late Dr. Mackenzie operated upon 
the eyes of two girls in one family, and gave them 
sight. And then the mother was operated on 
successfully. She had never seen her children, and 
her delight and gratitude knew no bounds ! As a 
result, all three were converted, the father also, and 
many others. And a successful church of a hundred 
or more is now to be found In their village." 

Thus works the " double cure." And even where 
perfect healing for the body is impossible healing for 
the soul may be found. 

" It is extraordinary," writes Mr. Wellesley Bailey, ** the 
number of lepers who receive the Gospel of the Lord Jesus 
Christ. As a class, I do not know any in India so accessible. 
. . . And my experience is that we have had among fthem 
some of the brightest converts we have made in any class 
of the community. I have met with lepers who were as 
true Christians as any I have known. Let me give the 
testimony of one. It went so deeply to my heart that 
I can never forget it. . . . 


" I stood beside a poor mutilated form — a man literally 
falling to pieces before my eyes. And when I commiserated 
him upon his terrible sufferings, that poor man said to me 
in a hoarse, broken whisper : — 

" * No, sir, no ! God is very good to me. For the last 
nineteen years, since I have trusted Christ, I have known 
neither pain of body nor pain of mind.* 

"So wonderfully had Christ lifted him above all his 
sufferings that he was able to say that ! I was so astonished 
that I could hardly believe it, and questioned whether 
I had heard him aright. And again the old man whispered, 
'Since I trusted Christ, nineteen years ago, 1 have known 
neither pain of body nor pain of mind.' " 

Who shall question the value of medical missionary 
work in face of such facts as these ? No, ** Christ 
commands it ; compassion requires it ; wisdom 
approves it, experience proclaims its value." 
But in conclusion, one question more : — 
" 7^0 k?ioiv that millions are perishing^ body and 
soul ; to possess the means which might save both ; to 
withhold the sameland let the7n perish^ is — What ? ^ 



EIGHTEEN months have passed since the death 
of Harold Schofield from typhus fever, far away 
in inland China. Instead of the early dawning of 
a long hot summer day over a Chinese city, we 
stand in the gloaming of a chill, wet January night 
in London's busy Strand. Down pours the persistent 
rain. But crowds of people throng the entrances to 
Exeter Hall, regardless of weather, and the great 
area of the building is filled to its utmost limit, long 
before the hour fixed for as.sembly. 

Evidently some deep interest and strong enthusiasm 
move this vast throng. What is it that has brought 
them thus together ? Only a mi.ssionary meeting ? 
Surely one of unusual interest! 

Enter with the multitudes. It is a sight that even 
Exeter Hall, with its long roll of enthusiastic gather- 
ings, rarely equals. Hundreds of young men throng 
the vast building, mingling with a representative 
gathering of all ranks and ages, of all sections of the 
Church and grades in social life. Upon the platform, 
amongst others waiting for the speakers, is a deputa- 
tion of forty undergraduates from Cambridge. 



It IS not difficult to discover the centre of interest 
to-night. Across the hall large maps of China are 
suspended, showing the stations of the Inland Mission. 

A missionary farewell . has summoned this great 
multitude. Seven young men are upon the eve of 
starting for work in inland China. Who are they? 
And how comes it that their going has awakened 
such enthusiastic interest ? 

The answer is on every lip — ^* The Cambridge 
Band sail to-morrow. To-night is their farewell. 
Five from the University, and two young officers 
from crack regiments, have together given themselves 
to the work of GOD in China ; not only relinquishing 
brilliant prospects and social distinction, to become 
poor mi.ssionaries, but actually joining the China 
Inland Mission, which means so much ! They are 
going to put on Chinese dress and braided tail ; going 
to bury themselves, nobody knows where, in the heart 
of that strange land, to live in the people's houses and 
eat their food, and rough it in long, trying journeys 
and all sorts of other ways. Strange infatuation ! and 
yet they seem intensely happy about it — count it 
quite an honour and privilege, and never can be got 
to say a word as to any sacrifice involved." 

Silence steals over the vast assembly. The Chair- 
man enters, and with him the outgoing band. 
Stanley P. Smith, and his friend, C. T. Studd, from 
Trinity College, Cambridge, both distinguished in 
the athletic world ; the Rev. VV. W. Cassels, of St. 
John's ; Montagu Beauchamp and Arthur Polhill- 

Turner, from Trinity, and Ridley Hall ; D. E. Hostc, 
late of the Royal Artillery ;'and Cecil Polhill-Turner, 
of the 2nd Dragoon Guards. Young all of them— in 
the full strength and vigour of their manhood — 


embodying all that is noblest and best in the 
estimation of their fellows, all that most readily stirs 
admiration, and wins regard. No wonder the heart 
of Christian England was moved. Consecration to 
the work of missions is not, thank GOD, unusual in 
our day. 

" But when before,'* wrote one who was present, " were 
the stroke of a University eight, the captain of a University 
eleven, an officer of the Royal Artillery, and an officer of 
the Dragoon Guards seen standing side by side, renouncing 
the careers in which they had already gained no small 
distinction, putting aside the splendid prizes of earthly 
ambition which they might reasonably expect to win, 
taking leave of the social circles in which they shone with 
no mern brilliance, and plunging into that warfare whose 
splendours are seen by faith alone, and whose rewards 
seem so s'ladowy to the unopened vision of ordinary men ? 

" It was a sight to stir the heart, and a striking testimony 
to the power of the uplifted Christ to draw to Himself 
not the weak, the emotional, and the illiterate only, but all 
that is noblest in strength and finest in culture." 

One glance at the faces of these men is enough to 
assure the most casual observer that they are intensely 
in earnest, and that they are filled with a peace and 
joy the world, cannot give. As they address the 
assembled multitudes, not one heart but is convinced 
of the loftiness of their aims, the depth and devotion 
of their love to CHRIST, and the grandeur of the 
cause to which their lives are given. 

"We began to understand," wrote one, "how much 
more noble a sphere of service was offered by Christ to 


young men with great possessions and good abilities, than 
any the cricket field, or the river, the army, or the bar 
could afford." 

Earnest, loving words of eloquence and power 
carry home the message so deeply upon their hearts. 
It is Christ alone they preach. The joy of being 
His ; the joy of living to serve and love Him ; 
of leading others into His liberty and light ; of 
following Him even into lives of self-emptying, 
loneliness, and toil — for the life of the world ; and the 
necessity for absolute self-surrender and obedience 
if one would know the rest in Him and peace that 
passes understanding. And then, the depth of our 
indebtedness to those who know not GOD. 

"We are all under obligation to spread the knowledge 
of a good thing,'* said Mr. Stanley Smith. "It is simply 
this fact, coupled with our having clearly heard the Master's 
call, that is sending us out to China. 

"We do not go to that far field to tell of doctrines 
merely, but of a living, present, reigning Christ. . . . 

" We want to come to the Chinaman, buried in theories 
and prejudices, and bound by chains of lust, and say to 
him, * Brother, I bring you an almighty Saviour ! ' And it 
is our earnest hope and desire that the outcome of this 
meeting will be that scores and scores of those whom we 
now see before us will ere long go forth not to China only, 
but to every part of the world, to spread the glorious 

" For years in England we have been debtors. . . . And 
the knowledge of this precious Jesus, who to most of us is 
everything in the world, is absolutely wanting to thousands 
and millions of our fellow-men and women to-day. 


" Wliat are we going to do ? What is the use of great 
meetings like this if the outcome is not to be something 
worthy of the name of Jesus ? He wants us to take up 
our Cross and follow Him, — to leave fathers, mothers, 
brothers, sisters, friends, property, and everything we hold 
dear, to carry the Gospel to the perishing. . . . 

"Oh, to think that Gordon at Khartoum has but to 
speak a word, and millions of money go from England . . . 
and in Egypt our noblest and bravest shed their blood. . . . 
A greater than Gordon appeals to the Church. From the 
Cross of Calvary the voice of Jesus still cries . . . *I 

" Ah, that Divine thirst ! It has not yet been quenched. 
It has hardly begun to be quenched. 

" He thirsts for the Chinese, the African, the Hindu, the 
South American. Are there none here who would fain 
quench His thirst? Would you pass by that Christ? 
Behold His agony ! You could not do so had you seen 
Him in the flesh. But now He thirsts with a deeper than 
bodily thirst. With His great soul He thirsts for the 
millions of this earth. 

" David once thirsted for the waters of Bethlehem . . . 
and three of his followers broke through the ranks of the 
enemy, and, at the risk of their lives, brought him that 
water. . . . 

"Shall not this Mightier than David have His thirst 
quenched to-night ? Shall not the Divine Lord have His 
thirst quenched ? Shall not the Man of Sorrows have His 
great heart rejoiced by men and women offering themselves 
for the work of spreading the glorious Gospel ? Chrisi 
yearns over this earth. What are we going to do? , , » 

" Does some one ask, * What is it that is sending you out ? ' 
We cannot tell you to-night of visions or dreams ; but we 
can point ... to the great needs of the heathen abroad, 
that prevent us from staying in England. 


"And now a last word. How can one leave such an 
audience as this ? It seems to me as if Christ has come 
right into our midst, and has looked into each face amongst 
us — men and women, old and young. To each He comes 
with tender love . . . and, pointing to the wounds in His 
pierced side. He asks, * Lai^est thou Me V , . , 

" * Yes, Lord, Thou knowest that I love Thee.' 

" What is the test of love ? . . . * Keep My command- 

"What is the test of friendship? * Slake My thirst.' 
* Ye are My friends if ye do whatsoever I command you.' 

" And what, Master, do you command ? * Go ye into all 
the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.' 

y » 

The results of that evening's meeting in blessing 

to the world, eternity alone will reveal. 

« « « « « « 

But why recall a scene so familiar to most of us ? 
To link it with another, that may be more deeply 
connected with it than we think. Only eighteen 
months before, in the summer of 1883, a solitary 
figure knelt in the little study on the inner courtyard 
of a Chinese dwelling in distant Shan-SI. Harold 
Schofield's prayers that GOD would send out to China 
— send to that very spot — men of culture, education, 
and distinguished gifts, intellectual as well as spiritual, 
were silent now. His work seemed to have ended 
with an early death and lonely grave upon the 
eastern hills above the city. But was it done ? Had 
those prayers no connection with the sailing of this 
group ? 

" About the end of 1883," said Stanley Smith — first 
of the Cambridge Band to give himself to GOD for 


missionary work — '^ About t/ie end of 188 j I wrote to 
Mr, Taylor telling him I wanted to come out to China^ 
Not long, that, between the prayer and answer! 
Had Dr. Schofield but known it, he might have 
echoed the prophet's words, " Whiles I was kneeling 
in prayer." . . . For at the beginning of his prayer the 
commandment went forth, and at the very time he 
was pleading with GOD, this young heart was being 
prepared for the call and consecration that were to 
bring the answer. Stanley Smith volunteered before 
the year closed. And two years later he and four 
of his companions from Cambridge were working 
on the T*ai-yuen plain, in the very towns and cities 
that had so heavily burdened Dr. Schofield's heart. 

Nor was this all. Part of the missionary's plea 
had been that GOD would pour out a great blessing 
upon the Universities at home ; that large numbers 
of college men might be converted, and consecrate 
their lives to foreign work. 

One of the most remarkable features of the out- 
going of the Cambridge Band in 1885 ^^s the wiay 
in which their departure was used to bring this about 
During that year the University of Edinburgh ex- 
perienced a wonderful revival — the first wave of an 
incoming tide of unparalleled spiritual life and power. 
In February 1885 Dr. Moxey wrote : — 

" The event that has precipitated the shower of blessing 
that has fallen in our midst is the recent visit of the two 
young Christian athletes f;:om Cambridge who are now on 
their way to preach Christ to the Chinese. 


" Students, like other young men, are apt to regard 
professedly religious men of their omi age as wanting in 
manliness, unfit for the river or cricket-field, and only good 
for psalm-singing and pulling a long face, fiut the big, 
muscular hands and long arms of the ex-captain of the 
Cambridge eight, stretched out in entreaty, while he 
eloquently told the old story of redeeming love, capsized 
their theory. And when Mr. C. T. Studd, whose name 
is to them familiar as a household word as perhaps the 
greatest gentleman bowler in England, supplemented his 
brother athlete's words by quiet but intense and burning 
utterances of personal testimony to the love and power of 
a personal Saviour, opposition and criticism were alike 
disarmed, and professors and students together were seen 
in tears, to be followed in the after meeting by the glorious 
sight of professors dealing with students and students with 
one another." 

One of the promoters of this movement speaks of 
it as perhaps the most wonderful that ever took 
place in the history of university students. 

" I have," he says, " to tell you how our great Edinburgh 
University and the allied medical schools, with between 
three and four thousand students, have been shaken to 
their very depths ; how the blessing has spread to all the 
other universities of Scotland; and how already, as the 
students have scattered far and wide, the work is extending 
in its depth and reality throughout the whole country — I 
might almost say, throughout the world." 

Oxford and Cambridge also v^ere visited by the 
departing missionaries, with rich results in blessing. 
A deputation of men from Cambridge who had 
known and esteemed them during their college course 


came to bid them farewell at the Exeter Hall 
meeting, as we have mentioned. 

"We come," said the spokesman, "to wish these dear 
friends, whom we have known and respected for years past, 
every blessing. . . . Since I have been in this hall it has 
been said to me — 

" * What a pity that such men should be going abroad ! 
We want them here at home. Those who have distinguished 
themselves as they have could win young men to Christ, 
and do a work that others, less known, cannot accomplish.' 
And he went on to add, * I hope it will be for the best.' 

" Now, sirs, I do not hope it. I thank God that I know 
it is for the best. I know what their going out has done 
for me. I know what it has done for Cambridge. For 
years past Cambridge has not been behind other uni- 
versities in missionary interest. Perhaps it has been before 
them. We have had missionary meetings, and missionaries 
have addressed us from time to time. But when men 
whom everybody had heard of, and many personally knew, 
came up and said, * We are going^ it seemed to bring us 
face to face, in a new way, with the needs of the heathen 
world. . . . We had meetings in room after room, night by 
night, at Cambridge, and at one over forty men stood up 
and gave themselves to missionary work. 

"But not only has their going stirred up missionary 
interest ; it has also taught us what it is to give ourselves 
wholly to Christ. ... It has shown us that we must take 
up our cross and follow Him ; that there is to be no com- 
promise, however small; that we must be all for our 
Master, with nothing between our souls and Him. 

" Now could these men hope to do a greater work by 
stopping at home? While they were here we loved and 
respected them, but they were never used of God as they 
are now." 


The story of this remarkable movement is to be 
found in Mr. BroomhalFs valuable book, The Evange- 
lisation of the World. One quotation further may 
be given, as expressing a thought that naturally 
occurs in this connection. A correspondent writes 
to the Record^ of the farewell meeting that took place 
at Cambridge when many hundreds of gownsmen 
were present : — 

" As I sat last evening among the audience at the great 
' China Inland ' meeting in our Guildhall, a meeting of sur- 
passing interest, and not least to an earnest Evangelical 
Churchman, I could not but ponder what the main reasons 
were for the might of a movement which has drawn to it 
man after man of a very noble type, and of just the qualities 
most influential in the young Cambridge world. 

" My main reasons, after all, reduced themselves to one — 
the uncompromising spirituality and unworldliness of the 
programme of the Mission, responded to by hearts which 
have truly laid all at the Lord's feet, and whose delight is 
the most open confession of His name and its power upon 

" I venture to pronounce it inconceivable, impossible, 
that such a meeting should have been held in connection 
with any mission enterprise of mixed aims, or in which 
such great truths as personal conversion, present peace 
and joy in believing, the present sanctifying power of the 
Spirit, the necessity among the heathen of faith in Christ 
for* salvation, and the loss of the soul as the alternative, 
were ignored, or treated with hesitation. Nor could such 
a profound interest possibly be called out did the work not 
demand of the workers very real and manifest self-sacrifice, 
and acts of faith." 

That a mission so little known — poor, unsupported 



by any great denomination, and with methods so 
distasteful to the natural mind— should have attracted 
these men, was indeed no small part of the surprise 
evoked by the whole movement ; but to those who 
remember Harold Schofield's life, consecration, prayers, 
and early death, and the promise, " If it die, it 
bringeth forth much fruit,'* there may appear less 
wonder in the harvest reaped from buried seed. 

On Thursday morning, February 5th, 1885, Mr. 
Stanley Smith and his companions started for China. 
Seldom has any departure excited wider interest, or 
called forth more prayer. 

"Thoughtful minds," wrote Dr. Wilder, of Princeton, 
"will be waiting to see how the glow of their piety endures 
the tug and toil of learning the Chinese language, and thtir 
close contact, daily, with masses of ignorant and super- 
stitious idolaters, no bracing influences around them from 
cultured Christian society." 

How deadening such contact is, and how trying 
the sudden transition from crowded meetings and all 
the active service of life at home, to the isolation of 
an inland city, the difficulties of an unknown language, 
the restraints of Chinese custom and prejudice, and 
the burdens, big and little, that daily press upon the 
soul, face to face with heathenism, none but a 
missionary can fully know. 

One of two very opposite effects is usually the 
result. Either the Divine life suffers and declines, 
or else, by prayer in the Sl'IRIT,*;and daily faithful 
study of the Word of GOD, the inward man is 

VOL. II. 29 


strengthened to " run and not be weary," to *' walk and 
not faint." But the missionary must carry his own 
atmosphere with him, only possible through the 
constant renewing of the HOLY Ghost." 

Fully realising this, the journey out to China was 
made a time of special waiting upon GOD. In spite 
of much opposition and scorn, a bright testimony to 
Christ was maintained on board the ship, and souls 
were saved. The Cambridge men travelling second 
class, as missionaries, were a source of much wonder 
and amusement to their fellovv-pas.sengers, until they 
began to find out the power of those Christ-filled lives. 

** Everything was ordered by our gracious God," wrote 
Mr. Stanley Smith, " to bring us to the shores of China in 
the fulness of the blessing of the Gospel of Christ ; just 
seeing that all we have to do is to recognise that we are 
nothing, Christ is all, and trusting in Him to enter into 
the rest that remains for the people of God — the rest of 
faith » For surely God is strong enough to fight our 
battles. And surely God is rich enough to supply our 
needs. And surely God is wise enough to teach us and 
direct our paths." 

The blessing which had so remarkably attended 
the meetings held in England and upon the voyage 
was repeated in Shanghai, Pckin, and elsewhere, upon 
the travellers' arrival. Meetings were held for English- 
speaking residents, and missionaries. Many young 
men and others were converted, and a remarkable 
outpouring of the Spn<lT OF GoD took place amongst 
the missionaries, especially at Pekin.* 

 — I — II .  m, * ■■■,  ■■■■■M»    -^ 11^ 

• See Evangelisation of the World, pp. 36, 64. 


Landing on March i8th, the young men were met 
by Mr. Hudson Taylor, who had preceded them by a 
fortnight to make ail arrangements for their going 
inland at once. Chinese dress was put on, a long 
farewell said to foreign life and surroundings, and at 
Shanghai they parted ; C. T. Studd and the Polhill- 
Turners going westward to Hankow, and thence by 
the Han to Shen-SI ; while Messrs. Stanley Smith, 
Hoste, and Cassels, and subsequently Mr. Beauchamp, 
went northward, vid Pekin, to Shan-SI. 

In the lovely month of May, full of the hope and 
promise of spring, they reached T'ai-yuen, the capital 
of the province, and Dr. Harold Schofield's old home. 
Almost two years before, he had been called away 
from earthly service, and now they stood where his 
work had been laid down, the living answer to his 
many prayers. 

Vast, needy, populous Shan-si, the sphere of their 
labours, was everywhere wonderfully open to the 
Gospel. The people, won by the kindness of the 
foreigners during the awful famine, were on all hands 
accessible, and favourably disposed. Dr. Schofield's 
medical skill had done much to deepen friendly feel- 
ing, and in many places Christian teachers had only 
to go, to be welcome. Larger than the whole of 
England, or the States of New York and Massachu- 
setts put together, and with a population of nine 
millions, Shan-SI had as yet only three mission 
stations. Over one hundred important walled cities, 
centres of government and influence, dotted her wide 

452 The China iNiANb mission. 

plains and mountainous uplands ; and over one 
hundred were still without a missionary. At T'ai- 
yuen and P'ing-yang Fu little churches were now 
gathered ; and at T'ai-kuh, about forty miles south 
of the capital, representatives of the American Board 
had recently settled. But that was all. Still there 
were more than a hundred cities, with towns and 
villages innumerable ; still there were thousands and 
thousands of homesteads, millions upon millions of 
souls, untouched by the Light of Life. 

Such was Shan-SI as the newly arrived Cambridge 
men found it, in May 1885. 

That it was a fruitful and promising field there 
could be no doubt ; for especially in the south of the 
province there were remarkable signs of blessing. 
The one station in that region, P'ing-yang Fu, had 
been opened by the Rev. David Hill, of the English 
Wesleyan Mission, during the time of the famine. 
Admirably situated in a populous district, this beauti- 
ful and important city became a centre from which 
the Gospel spread far and wide. Mr. Hill's Christlikc 
spirit made itself deeply felt. His life was a blessing, 
and the people loved him. 

In 1879 he was joined by Mr. J. J. Turner, of our 
Mission, who remained on after Mr. Hill was obliged 
to return to his important work in Hankow. 

One of the most notable results of Mr. Hill's 
residence at P'ing-yang was the conversion of Pastor 
Hsi, at that time a proud Confucianist, and strongly 
opposed to foreigners. 



A man of remarkable gifts and good family, Mr. 
Hsi was a scholar by training, and by heredity a 
doctor! He owned a small farm in a village near 
P'ing-yang, and was well known in the neighbourhood 
as a person of influence and standing. Hard times 
during the famine had made him poor, like every- 
body else, and thus it was he came under the influence 
of the foreigner. In 1880 Mr. David Hill offered 
a prize to the scholars of the city for the best essay 
upon Christian doctrines, supplying them with books. 
Mr. Hsi's essay gained the prize. He was introduced 
to Mr. Hill, and from the first greatly respected 
and loved him. The conversion that followed was 
gradual but decided. Mr. Hsi became an earnest 
spiritually-minded Christian, and continues a mighty 
power in the church to this day. 

In 1882 Mr. Turner went home on furlough, and 
Mr. S. B. Drake, who had been helping him at 
P'ing-yang, took up the work, and began to organise 
the rapidly growing church with much wisdom. 
Recognising the remarkable gifts of Mr. Hsi, he 
appointed him an elder, and the Christians speedily 
came to look upon him as their head. 

For about three years Mr. and Mrs. Drake worked 
on at P'ing-yang, most of the time singled-handed ; 
and during that period the blessing of GOD rested 
upon their labours to a remarkable degree. In the 
spring of 1884, just a year before the arrival of the 
Cambridge Band, there were about fifty baptised 
members in the church, all of them tried believers, 


well known to the missionaries, who watched over 
them with constant care. The rule of the church 
was clear and decided — to receive no one by baptism 
imtil their earnestness and consistency had been fully 
proved by at least a year of Christian life. 

Besides the members, there were large numbers of 
interested inquirers, who had put away their idols, 
and were meeting to worship GOD, in more than 
twenty villages round about the city. Services were 
held at eight village out-stations, and those who 
gathered regularly were fully three hundred persons. 

Not a little persecution had attended the work, but 
the Christians only clung together the more firmly. 
Elder Hsi, full of life and fire, devoted his time 
voluntarily to travelling through the district, helping 
the believers in every possible way. Himself a saved 
opium smoker, he felt the deepest sympathy for others 
enthralled by the vice, and a large part of his efforts 
was on behalf of such. He commenced Opium 
Refuges in many places, and sold pills of his own 
making, as well as preaching the Gospel of a full 

In the spring of 1885, Mr. and Mrs. Drake were 
obliged to leave for needed rest and change. And 
for a few months the Christians were left without 
missionary supervision. 

To this interesting district four of the Cambridge 
Band were designated. Perhaps no more promising 
.sphere could have been found in China. It was a 
great field, ripe for harvest, and very eagerly the 


young missionaries anticipated the privilege of labour- 
ing there. 

Leaving T'ai-yucn in the middle of June, they 
went southward across the great and populous plain, 
journeying through crowded towns and cities and 
countless villages among the cornfields, where the 
wheat was turning golden, and the maize was green 
and young, or amid acres of glowing opium poppy, 
brightening the landscape, but saddening the heart. 
The fine mountain ranges to east and west of them 
gradually approached, until at last the road ascended 
their lower slopes, the valleys narrowing so that only 
the river could find its way below. Fertile and well- 
wooded, some of the hillsides were lovely, and reminded 
the travellers of home. But no mission-station was 
passed on .that long ten days' journey. 

At last, however, signs of blessing indicated the 
neighbourhood of P'ing-yang. 

" One day before reaching this city," wrote Mr. Cassels, 
"Stanley Smith was on in front . . . when a Chinaman 
came up and shook him warmly by the hand. Surprised 
at this,* Stanley at once thought the man must be a 
Christian, and said inquiringly, — 

" * Ye-sutih mentu ? ' — * A disciple of Jesus ? ' 

" The man signed that it was so ; and then came and 

shook hands with me. He forthwith made us take some 

refreshment at a little place by the roadside . . . and invited 

• us to his house, hard by, for our midday meal. As we 

went, he said he had known we were coming. 

* For the Chinese mode of salutation is a deep bow, with 
clasped Iiands, raised to the forehead. 


r. Key. 

' ' Because,' he 
swered, ' I have 
en praying that 
might soon be 
sent to us.' . . . 
" Pointing 
up a valley, 
continued, ' All 
e people living 
ere are giving up 
eir idols.' 
"You can ima- 
tie how we were 
leered by this, 
id how deh'ghtful 
was to meet five 
six other Chris- 
ms at his house, 
id to join in 
aytT and praise, 
though we could 
>t understand." 

_ py paity that 
occupied the roomy miss ion -premises at P'ing-yang 
that summer of 1885:— 

"The four of us," wrote Mr. Cassds, " Beauchamp, 
Stanley Smith, Hoste, and I, occupy three sides of one 
little courtyard, each having a room to ourselves. On the 
fourth side is the room used as a chai>el. In another court 
Mr. Bailer and Mr. Key put up.'and our dining-room and 


kitchen are there. And in still another the evangelist 
lives. . . . 

" We are very happy ; enjoying our work, enjoying our 
walks on the city wall with views of the not distant moun- 
tains — wonderfully lighted at times by the setting sun, and 
enjoying, above all, our little gatherings for prayer and 
praise and study of God's Word." 

Here at last were the reinforcements so long needed. 
They were warmly welcomed by the Christians. 

Rapid progress was made with the language ; work 
came thick and threefold ; and the friends could not 
long remain together. In eight months four new 
.stations were opened — so that in May *86 Mr. Studd, 
who had come over from Han-chung to join them, 
was at K'uh-wu, an important city about forty miles 
south of P'ing-yang ; Mr. Beauchamp at Sih-chau, 
three days' journey to the north-west ; Mr. Cassels 
still farther on, at Ta-ning, among the mountains ; 
Mr. Stanley Smith at the busy town of Hung-t ung, 
twenty miles to the north-cast ; while Mr. Hoste 
was alone at P'ing-yang Fu. 

July 1886 witnessed a happy reunion, when Mr. 
Hudson Taylor was at last able to pay a long-pro- 
mised visit to Shan-si, and all the missionaries 
gathered at the capital to meet him. Days of bless- 
ing* followed, as in that inland city they waited on 
the Lord, and found refreshment in mutual fellow- 
ship and communion. 

* Days of Blessing, compiled by Mr. Montagu Beauchamp, 
tells the storj^ of this visit, and the Conferences, both native and 


After the Conference in T'ai-yuen Mr. Taylor went 
south to meet the native Christians in the P'ing-yang 
district, and hold similar meetings there. Hung-t'ung, 
Mr. Stanley Smith's new station, was the first visited. 
Over a hundred church members assembled, for two 
days ; the inner courtyard of the mission-house being 
set apart for the women, and the outer for the men. 
The meetings were full of life and power. As many as 
three hundred listeners gathered on Sunday morning, 
August 1st, and wonderful testimonies were given to 
the saving Christ. On the second day of the Con- 
ference a deeply impressive service was held, at which 
a number of the native Christians were set apart as 
elders and deacons. Mr. Hsi, up to that time an 
elder at P*ing-yang, was ordained Superintending 
Pastor of the whole district, and another devoted 
native brother was appointed to P'ing-yang. 

A few days later a similar Conference was held in that 
city, when about fifty Christians gathered, and there 
also men were set apart for the work. None of these 
helpers received regular salaries, many of them, on the 
contrary, giving largely of their substance to the Lord. 

Mr. Taylor, who had never before been so far 
inland, felt it a great privilege to be able thus to visit 
Shan-si. For the first time he found himself in 
one of the nine formerly unevangeliscd provinces 
for which he had so long laboured and prayed. 
The parting came all too soon. He was going on 
south-west, three or four hundred miles overland, to 
Han-chung ; and those who were remaining went out 


to bid him a long farewell. It was the middle of 
August, and overpoweringly hot, so the start was 
made at night. 

"The first stage was by moonlight," wrote Mr. Stanley 
Smith, "and we accompanied them some way. A few last 
words of helpful counsel, a few last words of mutual love, 
a few last words in solemn stillness, as with hands locked in 
his we each received his parting blessing, and the visit to 
Sh.\n-s[--so long expected, so long deferred, but now so 
blessed in its outcome, so treasured in our hearts— was over." 

From that time the development of the work all 
over southern Shan-SI was rapid and wonderful. 


Earnest spirituality and devotion on the part of the 
missionaries was met with equal consecration and en- 
thusiasm amongst the native helpers. All had but 
one aim — to spread the knowledge of the love of 
Jksus ; and the women were not behind the men, as 
the following incident will attest : — 

"Some time before the Conferences, the city of Hoh- 
chau, on the main road to the capital, was much on the 
heart of Pastor Hsi. Day by day, at family prayers, he 
pleaded for that place and neighbourhood, deeply feeling 
its spiritual destitution. At last his wife said to him — 

** You are always praying for Hoh-chau. Why do you 
not go and commence an Opium Refuge there, as you have 
done in so many other places ? " 

" I have spent all," h^ replied, " that I can use in this 
way ; unless the Lord supply the means, no more can be 

** Why," she responded, ** what do you think it would 
cost ? " 

" Twenty to thirty thousand cash," he answered gravely. 
(About fiyt pounds sterling.) 

When the wife heard that she went away and said no 
more. But she could not forget it. There was a city 
needing the Gospel. Here were ready, willing workers, 
longing to enter it. But means were lacking. What could 
she do ? 

Next morning the good Pastor pleaded, as usual, the need 
and darkness of Hoh-chau. What was his surprise, as he 
rose from his knees, to see his wife standing beside him 
with all her jewellery, including many much-prized posses- 
sions, which she handed to him, saying — 

" I can do without these. Sell them, and let Hoh-chau 
have the Gospel." 


^ - — -._--- . 

Christian sisters, how many of us have ever done 
as much? In how many a jewel case, in how 
many a wardrobe, " costly array " is treasured, while 
hundreds of similar cities are to-day unentered, and 
missions on all hands lack funds? Might we not echo 
that Chinese woman's words — 

" / can do without t/iese. Let Hoh-chau Jiave the 

An Opium Refuge was soon opened in that city, 
and a good work commenced. But there, as in all 
the neighbouring stations, there was no one to go to 
the women. 

Lady-workers were badly wanted, and this need 
led to much prayer, until in the winter of 1886 a new 
house was taken in Hoh-chau, specially for work 
amongst the women. Two Norwegian ladies, Misses 
Reuter and Jakobscn, came down. Their lives of 
singular Christ-likeness and devotion were exceedingly 
blessed in that station, and thus began a woman's 
work in southern ShaN-SI, much on the lines of that 
commenced a few months earlier along the Kwang-sin 

The year that followed was one of remarkable in- 
gathering. Pastor Hsi and his wife came to live with 
Mr. Stanley Smith and Mr. Hoste at Hung-t'ung ; but, 
though their hands were thus strengthened, they had 
more than they could do to overtake the work. 
Hundreds of villages surrounded them in the populous 
mountain valleys, and the Christians, widely scattered, 
had to be visited in their own homes. In scores of 


houses the idols had been destroyed, and Christian 
worship was conducted daily, it being quite a common 
thing to see texts put up outside the doors, instead of 
idolatrous papers, for good luck. 

During April and May, two hundred and fifty 
persons were baptised in this part of the province, 
two hundred and sixteen of whom were at Hung-t*ung. 

Very memorable was the day on which fifty-two 
women and one hundred and fifty-eight men thus con- 
fessed Christ at one station. It was Saturday, April 
23rd, 1887, in the midst of a three days' Conference, 
at which three hundred Christians and inquirers were 
assembled. The enthusiasm of the meetings it would 
be impossible to describe. Pastor Hsi spoke with 
wonderful power, and the testimonies from the Chris- 
tians were deeply impressive. 

So large an ingathering was the cause of great 
rejoicing when the tidings were received in England ; 
but many in China could not but question the wisdom 
of baptising two hundred and sixteen people at one 
station in one day. 

The incident calls up a wide and important question 
in missionary policy — whether persons should be bap- 
tised upon profession, merely, of their faith in CHRIST, 
or whether sufficient time should be required for them 
to give full and satisfactory evidence of a change of 
heart and life. 

The dear workers at Hung-t'ung now act upon 
the latter principle, having fully come to see that 
nothing short of clear evidence of a turning from sin 


to God is sufficient to warrant baptism and outward 
membership in the flock of Christ. But in 1887 
some of the brethren in that station did not fully 
realise the importance of this course. Of the two 
hundred and sixteen baptised in the spring of that 
year many subsequently gave cause for sorrow ; but 
on the whole, they were a band of sincere believers. 
For when, after the lapse of six years, Mr. Hoste 
carefully examined the Church roll at Hung-t'ung 
to see what had become of the two hundred and 
sixteen baptised in April 1887, one hundred and 
thirty-five were found to be still in regular fellowship 
with the Church. Seven had been transferred ; four 
had been removed by death ; twenty had been lost 
sight of ; and fifty were known to be backsliders, the 
majority of whom had returned to opium smoking. 
Very few had relapsed into idolatry. 

That one hundred and thirty-five should have stood 
the test of six years certainly speaks well for the work. 

Time fails to follow further the details of recent 
developments in Shan-SI. Suffice it to say, that in 
the four years from 1886 to 1890 over six hundred 
baptisms had taken place. Eight new stations were 
opened during the same time in various parts of the 
province, three of them occupied by ladies only. 

At the time of Dr. Schoficld's death two little 
bands of workers, with fifty or sixty converts, in two 
widely separated stations, had been the only 
Christians among nine millions of heathen. In 1890, 
seven years later, there were more than forty 


misrfonarics of the C I. M. working in the same 
sphere, at ten stations, with thirty native helpers, and 
between seven and eight hundred native Christians. 
And since that time the work has gone on growing, 
until now, in 1893, more than seventy missionaries are 
labouring: in seventeen stations in ShaN-si. 

How little, even so, in a region as large as England 
and Wales put together ! 

Mr. Hoste and Pastor Hsi are still labouring at 
Hung-t'ung, Mr. Studd, no longer connected with the 
Inland Mission, holds the fort in a neighbouring city, 
while the other members of the Cambridge Band 
are all occupying important C. 1. M. stations in 
western China. 

God has used them, and taught them many lessons, 
fitting them for wider service in days to come. 
Does one of them regret, now, the con.secration that 
led them to China ? Would one of them return and 
choose an easier pathway? No, a thousand times 
no ! Every word, every appeal of theirs they would 
re-echo to-day with tenfold earnestness. What they 
have given they would give again, and more if it were 
possible ; counting it an honour to follow in His 
footprints who yielded Himself " for the life of the 



1 ftftfi WAS fast drawing to a close. To all 
responsible for the Mission, it had been a 
busy and eventful year. A steadily increasing wave 
of enthusiasm had for some time been rising in 
connection with the C. I. M. The prayer for the 
Seventy and their being given had attracted not 
a little attention ; and the overwhelming sympathy 
and interest aroused by the Cambridge Band had 
suddenly lifted the work into prominence and popu- 
larity throughout English-speaking lands. Many 
candidates were applying for China. And all were 
wanted. For upon the field openings seemed more 
and more to abound. But reinforcements were not 
the only need. 

With the rapid growth and development of the 
Mission new wants began to be pressingly felt. 
Before the coming of the Seventy, when the total 
staff of the C. I. M. was under one hundred, and 
its stations only about threescore, it was com- 
paratively an easy matter for Mr. Taylor to super- 
vise and direct the whole. But now the workers 

VOL. II. 465 30 


numbered considerably over two hundred, and the 
stations and out-stations one hundred and eight, 
scattered in fourteen provinces — a territory almost 
five times as large as Germany — it was much more 
difficult to give to all the help and counsel they 

For two years Mr. Taylor had been in China. 
Before leaving England, early in 1885, he had fully 
discussed with the Council the pressing question of 
how best to meet the claims of the rapidly growing 
work. Much thought and prayer were given to this 
subject, and a careful scheme devised that was laid 
])efore the brethren on the field. 

Meanwhile Mr. Taylor had been enabled to visit 
many of the older stations, and to take more than 
one long inland journey. He had travelled with the 
sisters down the Kwang-sin River, in KlANG-SI, and 
started them in their new work ; he had gone round 
by T*ien-tsin to visit the Cambridge Band in their 
recently opened stations, twelve hundred miles to the 
north-west ; he had crossed the Yellow River and the 
plains of Shen-SI to cheer the lonely workers at 
Hang-chung ; and had come down the rapid waters 
of the Han and the Yang-tsi to the coast. He had 
met a large proportion of the Seventy, had found 
them happy in their work, quite at home in the 
language, and very busy amongst the people. He 
had seen that they were none too many for the 
sphere to be occupied, and that even in spite of their 
presence every station was still crying out for more 

TZTj^- J ^^^ 


labourers. But now his return to England could be 
no longer delayed, and arrangements must be com- 
pleted for carrying on the work in his absence. 

One charm of the Inland Mission during its earliest 
years . had been the great simplicity of its prin- 
ciples and arrangements. The C. I. M. was just a 
large family, and knew no rules nor red-tapeism. 
Mr. Hudson Taylor was its responsible head, and 
during his absence in China Mr. Berger represented 
him at home. Now, however, from a family it had 
grown into a clan, or group of families, needing more 
organisation in its management. But the principles 
upon which it had been founded remained the same, 
and were capable of development. Hitherto Mr. 
Taylor had been able, wisely to guide the work 
because he himself was a missionary, acquainted 
with the country and language, and personally 
present on the field. More help of this sort was 
urgently needed. But direction from home, however 
kindly, could not possibly supply it. To multiply 
himself, in China, was the only way. 

All over the Mission men of experience were 
wanted to whom younger workers could turn for 
counsel and help. And in Shanghai a Deputy- 
Director had become a necessity ; some one to attend 
to the China correspondence ; to receive and forward 
money to the Interior ; to welcome new parties as 
they arrived ; and to act without delay in every 
matter of gravity during Mr. Taylor's absence from 


In the gradual growth of the work, men of grace 
and experience, fitted for such responsibilities, had 
naturally been developed. Here and there among 
the stations they were to be found. All that was 
needed was that the Mission should recognise such, 
and that they themselves should be willing to assume 
the onerous duties involved in godly rule, and to 
sacrifice a measure of their own direct missionary 
service for the wider interest of the work. 

Ten of the senior brethren, after prayerfully con- 
sidering the subject, consented to help Mr. Taylor by 
becoming thus responsible for the stations in their 
several districts. And for the more difficult post of 
Deputy-Director, at Shangai, the right man was also 

Twenty years of missionary experience in China 
and Upper Burmah had remarkably fitted Mr. J. W. 
Stevenson .for the duties he was now to assume. 
Arriving in China before the Lammennuir party, he 
had been used of GOD to open the great city of 
Shao-hing to the Gospel. After eight years of devoted 
and successful work in that centre, he returned to 
England on furlough. Western China, vid Burmah, 
was his next call. With Mr. Henry Soltau he 
founded the first mission-station at Bhamo, and six 
years later crossed from the Irawaddy to the Pacific 
by the Yang-t>>i valley, thus traversing China for 
the first time from west to cast. After a further 
spell of work at Bhamo, and a second visit to England, 
Mr. Stevenson returned again to China, intending to 


make the province of YUN-NAN his parish. He 
reached Shanghai in December 1885, full of spiritual 
power and blessing. Mr. Taylor pressingly needed 
help in various matters, so that Mr. Stevenson was 
unable to go at once inland. Several journeys were 
taken to distant stations, including those recently 
opened in Shan-SI, and it became clear to Mr. Taylor, 
and many others, that GOD had prepared this man 
to fill the difficult post of Deputy-Director in China. 
After much thought and prayer Mr. Stevenson 
consented, fully realising the responsible labours 
involved ; and more than seven years of faithful 
service have attested his call of GOD to the work. 

The new helpers thus given were formed into an 
advisory Council, to assist Mr Taylor in China in the 
same way as the London Council had long done at 
home. The month of November 1886 witnessed 
their first meeting, when Mr. Taylor, Mr. Stevenson, 
and five of the provincial .Superintendents gathered 
at Gan-k'ing for several days of fasting and prayer 
followed by business meetings. 

Little did they think, as they prayerfully pondered 
the needs of the work, how far-reaching would be 
the outcome of those days .spent with Goi). Many 
matters of importance came under consideration, in- 
cluding urgent appeals from most of the stations for 
more helpers, both men and women. Everywhere 
open doors ! everywhere need of labourers ! How 
many were wanted it would be hard to say. At any 
rate, fifty stations could be found where additional 


workers would be thankfully welcomed. The call was 
pressing, urgent ! What could be done to meet it ? 

"Shall we not pray," suggested Mr. Stevenson, 
" for immediate reinforcements — a hundred new 
workers during the coming year?'' 

A hundred ? What a request ! But indeed they 
would not be one too many. With over a hundred 
stations and out-stations, and the whole of China 
marvellously opened for, at any rate, evangelistic effort, 
one hundred, after all, was but a small supply. 

Faith burned brightly in every heart. Then and 
there the Hundred were asked and accepted from GOD, 
in fullest confidence ; after which the Council set to 
work to make the best arrangements in their power 
for receiving them during 1887. 

In view of such large reinforcements, it was 
necessary to organise a plan by which the young 
workers might be helped as much as possible in 
beginning their missionary life. Careful attention to 
this subject is a most important element in the 
success of any mission. How full the first years are 
of difficulty and risk only those who have passed 
through them can fully know. Everything in the 
after-service may depend upon the missionary's 
introduction to his or her sphere. Habits are formed 
and ideas contracted of the utmost influence in days 
to come. Dangers to the spiritual life abound. Mis- 
takes, from ignorance of the customs and manners of 
the people, are very easy to make, but difficult to 
repair. The mind is open to right influences and 


impressions, as perhaps never again. In a word, 
those months or years are like the first decade in 
the life of a child — formative for the future. How 
important, then, at such a time, that the young 
missionary should be under the influence of those 
who know the danger and the needs, and whose 
sympathy and experience are devoted to his service, 
for Christ's sake! How important that competent 
teachers of the language, both foreigners and natives, 
should be at his disposal ; that kindly supervision 
in matters of health and acclimatisation should be 
afforded him ; that good and economical housekeep- 
ing should be provided, and his time and thoughts 
saved from all such details for his preparatory 
studies ; that helpful friends should be at hand who 
have practically tasted the faith principles and the 
missionary methods upon which he is to work, 
and who can speak from a personal knowledge of 
their adaptability and usefulness ; and above all that 
the most earnest, spiritual influences should be 
brought to bear upon his life, to deepen consecration, 
quicken zeal, and in every way gird him for the 
coming battle, in which he will have to stand so 
much alone ! 

Realising the exceeding value of such arrange- 
ments, Mr. Taylor and the China Council proceeded 
to plan homes for receiving and training newly 
arrived missionary candidates.* Miss M. Murray, 

* The Home Dei.artmcnts of the C. I. M, only accept and 
seud out workers to China as probationers. After two years 


at Yang-chau, was thankfully recognised as given of 
God for the work of helping sisters. She consented 
to devote herself to this branch of service, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Bailer undertook to receive the young men 
at Gan-k'ing. The mission premises in both these 
centres were suitably enlarged, and set apart for their 
new, important use. 

The next step was the preparation of a series of 
class books to facilitate progress in the language. A 
complete course of study was also sketched out 
divided into six sections, including all that is most 
essential for a missionary to know. Mr. Bailer, an 
admirable Chinese scholar, with the help of Mr. 
Landale and four competent native teachers, com- 
menced the laborious task of preparing the books, 
which has since been continued with the most 
satisfactoiy results. Thus, on the arrival of the 
first party of the Hundred in China, all was ready 
to receive them, and every help could be placed at 
their disposal. 

Words fail to tell the strength and blessing that 
the Inland Mission has derived from these apparently 
simple arrangements. Certainly its remarkable in- 
crease and development since that time would have 
been impossible, but for the organisation thus 

The presence of the Deputy-Director and China 

ill the field, when suitability has been fully proved, they are 
accepted by the China Department, and enrolled as junior 


Council always upon the field, in touch with the 
daily interests of every station, and of the provincial 
Superintendents scattered over the country, ready 
at any time to give needed aid, have made it 
possible for Mr. Hudson Taylor to be frequently 
away from China, attending to the home claims of 
the Mission in various lands. In spite of his absence, 
the work has been attended to in every part, and 
important matters, requiring immediate decision, have 
been settled without delay. 

" God's best gifts to the Church are men " — men 
and women filled with His Spirit, and fitted for the 
duties He assigns. In the Inland Mission a period 
of rapid growth and extension was at hand. Up to 
this time new arrivals had been received at the older 
stations, and passed on without any regular plan. 
Now, however, that the Hundred were expected in 
one year, former resources would have been utterly 
swamped, and the whole Mission burdened. But 
the Lord, foreseeing the need, had prepared willing, 
skilful helpers, and when the time came the organisa- 
tion was possible. 

These devoted men and women have been precious 
gifts of God to us as a Mission. Losing their own 
lives in the service of others, they have willingly 
made of all their endowments of knowledge, ex- 
perience, and grace, stepping-stones by which younger 
workers may the more readily cross initial difficulties 
and attain efficiency in the great cause for which all 
are united. Those of us who know something of the 


help and blessing thus afforded, thank GOD for these 
buried lives that bring forth " much fruit." 

Had nothing else been the result of the Gan-k'ing 
Conference, it would have been most memorable in 
the history of the Inland Mission for this alone — 
that the Yang-chau and Gan-k'ing Homes were then 
established. Homes they have been in the truest 
sense — centres of love and usefulness, felt to the 
utmost verge of our wide sphere.* But this was 
not the only outcome. A definite request had been 
registered in heaven. Faith had claimed a great gift 
from God — one hundred new missionaries within the 
following year ! What was the result ? 

A hundred workers for one Mission within a year 
—and that the China Inland Mission ! A thrill of 
surprise and wonder followed the record of this 
prayer on its way to England and around the world. 
Surely the men must be very bold, or very foolish, 
who made such a request. A faith Mission, that had 
already almost doubled its number since 1881 ; that 
had no guarantee funds or influential committee to 
back it up in case of emergency ; a Mission that 
would not go into debt, even if the worst came to 

• One most useful feature of these Training Homes is the 
excellent opportunity they give for studying the various cha- 
racters and qualifications of the young workers, so that appoint- 
ments to future spheres can be made with much more intelligent 
probability of success. Opportunity for the formation of friend- 
ships also is afforded, which may prove most helpful in indicating 
who should be thrown together wlien the time comes for leaving 
the Homes. 


the worst, and no money were forthcoming ; a 
Mission dependent, apparently, upon the efforts of 
one man for support and direction — such a Mission 
to ask for a hundred new workers in one year ! 
What could they be thinking of? 

Ah ! they were thinking of the vast needs of China ; 
of the shortness of the time ; of the Master's great 
command, disobeyed and unregarded by the Church ; 
and of the boundless resources of GOD. A hundred, 
at any rate, were needed. And for a hundred they 
would pray. This was in November 1886. 

What was the story of the following year ? 

In the month of January Mr. Taylor left for home, 
the tidings of the Gan-k'ing Conference having pre- 
ceded him. The long voyage ended at Marseilles ; 
he found letters awaiting him there, telling that 
twenty-five new candidates for China had already 
been accepted by the Council. Upon arrival in 
England he found the number raised to thirty, while 
funds had come in even more rapidly ; and of the 
;^S,5oo required for passages and outfits, almost half 
was already in hand. No one had been asked for a 
penny. No appeals had been made. The facts had 
simply been stated. And this was the response of a 
prayer-hearing GoD to the faith of His children. 

Profoundly encouraged, Mr. Hudson Taylor and 
those at home were cheered to go forward into the 
overwhelming work and serious responsibilities of 
that year, feeling sure that GOD, who was answering 
their prayer for men and means, would give them 


wisdom in the selection of the workers, and guidance 
about everything connected with sending them out. 

Meanwhile, all over China prayer was continually 
going up about the matter. The Yang-chau and 
Gan-k*ing homes were full and busy. Lonely toilers 
in many distant stations were cheered with the pro- 
spect of reinforcements, so much needed. And from 
end to end of the land there were many who daily 
joined in singing, to the old familiar tune — 

" Oh, send the hundred workers, Lord ! 

Those of Thy heart and mind and choice, 
To tell Thy love both far and wide, 

So shall we praise Thee and rejoice. 
And above the rest this note shall swell, 
Our Jesus hath done all things well." 

The lovely month of May brought round the 
annual meetings, and the twenty-first anniversary of 
the Mission. It was the year of the Queen's Jubilee ; 
and naturally thought was carried back half a century, 
to the time when China had been a sealed land. 
The death of Dr. Morrison, shortly before, had left 
two young American missionaries the sole representa- 
tives of Protestant Christianity in China. Living 
under the protection of fellow-countrymen engaged 
in commerce at Canton, they were unable to travel 
anywhere beyond the city, and were sadly hampered 
and restricted in their efforts ; while before them 
stretched the whole vast, populous land, utterly un- 
reached by the Gospel. Only fifty years' interval. 
And now, at the Jubilee, China, from end to end, was 


open to evangelisation ; missionaries and their wives 
were living in almost all the provinces ; and the 
C. I. M. alone, with a staff of two hundred and twenty- 
five workers, upon attaining its majority, was appeal- 
ing for a hundred to reinforce its ranks in one year I 
How notable a change ! 

"We have been led to pray," said Mr. Taylor, at the 
anniversary meetings, " for a hundred new workers this 
year. We have the sure word, ' Whatsoever ye shall ask 
in my Name, I will do it, that the Father may be glorified 
in the Son.* Resting on this promise, it would not have 
added to our confidence one whit, if, when we began to 
pray in November, my dear brother-in-law, Mr. Broomhall, 
had sent out a printed list of a hundred accepted candidates. 
We had been spending some days in fasting and prayer for 
guidance and blessing before the thought was first suggested 
to our minds. We began the matter aright — with God — 
and we are quite sure that we shall end aright. It is a 
great joy to know that thirty-one of the Hundred are 
already in China, but it is a greater joy still to be assured 
that many more than a hundred of our members, there, 
are banded together in daily pleading with God to send the 
whole number out. 

"He is giving us encouragement. A letter of inquiry 
about the new missionaries and funds led me, a few days 
ago, to ask in our office how the accounts stood. I found 
that sufficient money had come in to cover all the outlay 
connected with those who are already gone. Some of 
them were Associates, and their expenses were met in- 
dependently of us. Others had used their own means. 
And sufficient had come in for the remainder. But there 
was not enough in hand to send out even one additional 
worker. I was much struck by this fact, because I have 


frequently asked my brother-in-law whether it was not 
possible for more of the accepted volunteers to go forward 
before the summer, and he has each time assured me that 
it was out of the question, the circumstances of every one 
requiring delay. Thus I saw that God had supplied amply 
sufficient to cover all the outfit and travelling expenses of 
those who were able to go. It seemed like the fingers of 
a hand, and of a glove, so perfectly did the circumstances 
correspond. The way had not been opened for any of 
those twenty accepted candidates to go out in the spring, 
and God did not provide the money to send them. 

"But this very day, at noon, from another country a 
cheque for jQs^^ reached me towards the further expenses 
of the Hundred. We have also a promise of ;^2,ooo to be 
paid on the ist of July. This of course will be far from 
sufficient to complete what is needed. Nearly ;;^4,ooo will 
be required. But if it were forty thousand it would be 
nothing to the Lord. It would mean a great deal of 
blessing to a great many donors, for we have been earnestly 
praying that God will richly bless each one who gives to 
this fund. But, thank God, it is not forty thousand that is 
required, although it would be no more difficult for our 
Father to supply. 

" Be careful for nothing ; prayerful for everything. 

*' I do want you, dear friends, to realise this principle of 
working with God, and trusting Him for all. If the work 
is at the command of God we can go to Him with fullest 
confidence for workers. And when God gives the workers, 
then we can go to Him for the means. We always accept 
a suitable volunteer, whether we have funds in hand or not. 
Then we very often say, — 

" Now, dear friend, your first work will be to join us in 
praying for the money to send you to China. 

" As soon as there is money enough, the time of year 
and other circumstances being suitable, the volunteer goes 


out. We do not wait until there is a remittance in hand 
to give him when he gets there. The Lord will, in the 
meanwhile, provide the means, and the money will be 
wired to China in time to supply his wants. 

" Let us see that we keep God before our eyes ; that we 
walk in His ways, and seek to please and glorify Him in 
everything, great and small. Depend upon it, Gor)*s work 
done in God*s way will never lack God*s supplies." 

The autumn that followed proved the truth and 
reality of this faith ; for before the year was ended 
the last detachment of the Hundred sailed, and a 
further party, including the writer, was also arranged 
for, that left in January 1888. 

The increase of numbers on the field in no wise 
diminished the family feeling, so strong in the C. L M. 

** I have had to do," said Mr. Bailer, at the annual meet- 
ings of the following year, " with a large number of the 
Hundred, all the young men having come to Gan-k'ing. 
And it has been an unspeakable blessing and privilege to 
help them in preparing for their work. We have tried, as 
far as possible, to make Gan-k'ing a home. ... I feel 
towards the dear fellows I have left there just as though 
they were my own sons. . . . 

** Ours has been a most representative household. We 
have included men from almost every part of this country — 
from Land's End to John o' Groat's, and from Ireland, 
Wales, Sweden, and Norway. But there has been perfect 
union and harmony amongst us. Whatever differences of 
thought or opinion have arisen, all have been lost sight of 
in one supreme aim — that Christ may be glorified in the 
salvation of the Chinese. 

" In the name of the brethren I have left behind, I 


thank you for your prayers and sympathy, and for your gifts. 
The battle is only just beginning. We want each one of 
them to quit himself as a good soldier of Jesus Christ. 
Continue to pray for them. Continue to pray for us all." 

Six years have passed since then, and most of 
those who came out in the Hundred are experienced 
missionaries to-day. Five have been called Home to 
their reward ; seventy-eight are still in our ranks 
doing valued service ; and of the seventeen who 
have left us, several have joined other missions, and 
are still labouring in China. 

VOL. 11. .31 


JUST before Christmas 1887, when the last of the 
Hundred were on the eve of departure for China, 
a young American stranger came to Pyrland 
Road to see Mr. Hudson Taylor. A successful man 
of business in the state of New York, Mr. H. W. Frost, 
had a warm heart for missions, and recently had con- 
secrated his life to GOD for service on behalf of China. 
Hearing of the C. I. M., his sympathies had been drawn 
towards it, specially on account of the simplicity and 
breadth of its principles. 

" Here," thought he, " is a Mission that is sending out 
laymen from all evangelical denominations, provided 
they are spiritually fit for the work. There is room and 
need in our country for such an organisation as that." 

And the more he prayed and pondered, the clearer 
did it become that he should go to England, and 
urge Mr. Taylor to establish a branch of the C. 1. M. 
in North America. 

The proposal was unexpected and interesting. 
But, to the visitor's great disappointment, Mr. Taylor's 
reply was not hopeful. 

" The Lord has given me no light about it. I do 
not think it is His purpose thus to extend the work." 



This was the first step. 

The second was, that a few weeks later another 
American sti;^nger reached Pyrland Road, bringing 
a request from Mr. Moody that Mr. Taylor would 
come to Northfield for the Students' Summer School 
of the following year. About the same time a letter 
also arrived, asking him to take part in the Niagara 
Conference of July. Both these invitations were 
accepted, but without any thought of the important 
results destined to follow. 

A two months* visit to the United States and 
Canada, en route for China, was all that Mr. Taylor 
planned ; but it was not all that was purposed in the 
counsels of GOD. The Mission that during the 
previous twenty-one years had so rapidly extended 
its borders in China, was now to develop its home 
organisation as well, and spread to other lands, 
embracing not only workers from all sections of the 
Church in Great Britain and Ireland, but from 
Protestant communities on the Continent also, and 
from far-distant countries, peopled with the English- 
speaking race. 

Limitations of space forbid our entering here 
upon the story of the North American branch of the 
C. I. M. Many are familiar with it already. They 
have followed Mr. Taylor through the crowded, 
impressive meetings held at Northfield, Niagara, and 
Chicago ; have felt with him the wonder and 
solemnity of that midnight hour at Attica, when he 
learnt that from most unexpected sources money had 


been contributed to support eight American workers 
in connection with our Mission ; have sympathised 
with the unusual perplexity he experienced in finding 
himself thus possessed of money, but with no men 
to use it ; and have realised the sense of respon- 
sibility that overwhelmed him, when he saw that 
he must pray for missionaries, and organise without 
delay the very extension he had declined only a few 
months before. Many have traced the hand of GOD in 
bringing together the first band of fourteen, who sailed 
with Mr. Taylof just twelve weeks after he had landed 
in New York without a thought of their existence ; 
and have marvelled at the providences connected with 
the formation of the tentative Toronto Council, which 
undertook to carry on the North American work. 

Suffice it to say that the story is ere long to be fully 
told in pamphlet form, when it will be obtainable at 
the offices of the Mission. 

Unparalleled blessing and encouragement had now 
for several years attended the efforts of the C. I. M. 
Since the prayer for the Seventy, at the close of 
1 88 1, its numbers had steadily increased, its sphere 
had extended, its income grown, its organisation 
developed ; and now for the first time it had taken 
root in new and fruitful soil, on the other side of the 
Atlantic. All this could not be without correspond- 
ing discipline and trial. And during 1888 dark clouds 
began to gather. Earnest and continued prayer had 
for some time been made that the Lord would keep 
the hearts of His servants in days of prosperity as in 


days of adversity, and glorify Himself through all. 
These prayers were needed now. 

Full of joyous anticipation, the first American 
party, on board the great Pacific steamer, sighted 
Japan. Mr. Taylor, after nearly two years* absence, 
was looking forward to reunion with the workers on 
the field, and eagerly expecting news. Already in 
the spring of the year three had been taken, by death, 
from the ranks of the Mission in China, but now the 
summer was over, and less danger was apprehended. 

At Yokohama, a large bundle of letters was put 
into Mr. Taylor's hand. There was only time to 
glance through them and select the most recent. 
Prayerfully it was opened and scanned — then dropped, 
in sorrow and amazement! Adam Dorward and 
Herbert Norris — gone ? What could it mean ? The 
Lord makes no mistakes. But these two ! 

Dorward, the brave, patient pioneer of Hu-NAN, 
the man whose life had been centred in one long, 
undaunted effort to win a footing in that province 
for the Gospel of Christ — who could ever fill his 
place ? Norris, the beloved and gifted head-master at 
Chefoo, carried away by hydrophobia, from the bite of 
a dog he had driven from the playground in protect- 
ing his boys — who could be to them now what he had 
been, or wield his noble influence for good ? The blow 
was severe, unexpected, and crushing in its weight. 

" A few days later, upon reaching Shanghai," wrote Mr. 
Taylor, " the first news that met me was of the removal 
of our dear brother Sayers ; and in the mission-house we 


found Miss Barrett dying. From that time onward it 
seemed as though the Master were asking, almost daily, 
* Can you say to this new trial : " Even so, Father, for so 
it seemed good in Thy sight " ? * 

" Soon after we learnt of the sickness and removal of 
some of our leading native helpers, of trials in the way 
of persecution, and of defection too. Then the daughter 
of beloved Mr. Stevenson, my co-director in the work in 
China, was taken seriously ill ; Mr. Eason also, who had 
just returned from his furlough, took typhoid fever, and a 
second and third in the house developed it at the same 
time, and were brought very low. We could not under- 
stand the Lord's dealings ; but we knew it was our 
Father's hand, and felt that perhaps He was giving us 
these sorrows lest we should be lifted up through the 
blessings of the year, which had been very great. 

*' He sustains and will sustain the spirit, however much 
the flesh may fail. But never was there more need for 
grace and help all round, especially for the leaders of the 
work. For while the spiritual tone of the Mission is higher 
than ever before, the trials and conflicts are many. We 
know the LokD's ways are best, and we would not have 
them altered. Glad tidings of souls won for Christ, and of 
real progress in many directions, cheer us amid the sorrows.*' 

And then, a little later : — 

" Dear Maggie McKee is with the King. A telegram on 
January nth brought us the news. She was only ill six 
days — black small-pox. One of our most promising flowers 
— the Master has taken her ! Would 'we give Him weeds 
only ? But 1 feel sometimes as if my heart must break." 

In addition to all this, the exigencies of the work 
at home required Mr. Taylor's presence, so that in 
spite of the need on the field he was obliged to leave 
for England early in March '89. 


In the midst of distress and difficulty, however, 
God was giving blessing. Thirteen new stations 
were opened in seven provinces, and more than four 
hundred and seventy souls were added to the Church 
during the twelve months, May *88 to '89. A large 
amount of relief-work also had been accomplished, 
in districts terribly desolated by famine and flood, 
in Ho-NAN.* 

Time fails to tell of all the progress made about 
this time in China ; of encouragement in the older 
stations ; of advance in the great province Si-CH'uen ; 
of the devotion of native Christians, and the opening 
up of fruitful fields through their unaided efforts ; 
or of the growing usefulness of the Canadian band 
and those that followed them from North America. 
Events of still more importance claim our attention 
as we hasten to a close. 

The summer that followed Mr. Taylor's return to 
England witnessed development in several depart- 
ments of the home work. Inglcsby House was 
opened as a centre for receiving and training young 
men for China, while 41 and 41a, Pyrland Road, 

• In September '87 a breach had occurred in the embankments 
of the Yellow River, which flooded one-sixth of the province 
of Ho-NAN, and wrought unutterable ruin. This whole region, 
larger than Wales and far more populous, was turned into a 
raging sea, the people all either drowned or fled ! Drought and 
famine followed, throughout adjacent provinces ; and for two 
years the distress was beyond expression. As late as January 
'89 Dr. Douthwaite wrote from Chefoo: "A district of 6,000 
square miles is devastated so completely that a million and a half 
are reduced to the verge of starvation." 


Were secured for the young women candidates. A 
Ladies' Council was formed, and Miss Soltau became 
its Secretary.* Long training in the school of faith 
had specially fitted this beloved servant of GOD for 
the responsible duties that devolved upon her when 
she relinquished her large sphere in Hastings to 
come to London and take charge of the Women's 
Department of the C. I. M. Four years of fruitful 
labour, since that time, have fully proved her call of 
God to the work. 

In Scotland sympathy with the Inland Mission 
had grown, until it was felt desirable to establish a 
regular centre at Glasgow. Eight gentlemen kindly 
undertook to form an Auxiliary Council, to test all 
applications north of the Tweed. f 

* The Ladies* Council was formed September 23rd, 1889. 
The first party that went out from Miss Soltau's sailed in 
September 1890. Altogether one hundred and four young mis- 
sionary sisters have left that home for China. Three have been 
called to higher service above ; one has been invalided and 
obliged to return to England ; and one hundred are on the field 
to-day — January 1894. 

t The present members of this Council are : — 

George Graham Brown, Sec. William M. Oatts, Hon. Sec. 
Provost Colville, Motherwell. , Alexander Sloan, Glasgow. 
Rev. J. Elder Cumming, D.D., | William Sloan, Helensburgh. 

Glasgow. ; James Smith, Dundee. 

William Lamont, Greenock. Charles Sherriffs, Aberdeen. 

J. S. Napier, Glasgow. , R. B. Stewart, Stirling. 

The Rev. George Wilson, of St. Michael's, Edinburgh, has also 
kindly promised to see candidates, forward contributions, and 
ptherwise represent the work of the C. I. M. in Edinburgh. 

otk Last six VEAns. 491 

A month's visit to Scandinavia in the autumn of 
the year also led to important results. 

In response to a long-standing invitation from 
Pastor Holmgren, Secretary of the " Swedish Mission 
in China," Mr. Hudson Taylor, and his second son. 
Dr. Howard Taylor, went over to Sweden in 
November '89. During the days that followed twenty- 
four towns were visited, including Stockholm, Upsala, 
and Christiania, and fifty or sixty thousand persons 
were present at the meetings. Deep interest was 
awakened, and the Swedish and Norwegian China 
Missions, aflfiliated with the C. I. M., were helped and 
strengthened. These devoted workers now have 
twenty-five representatives on the field, supported 
by their own Churches, and labouring under the 
direction of the Inland Mission. 

During the following summer deep interest in 
China was awakened in the neighbourhood of Barmen, 
near the Rhine. A German Alliance Mission was 
started on similar lines, which now has eight members 
working with us in China. 

Since that time the Free Church of Finland, also, 
has sent three ladies to join us, the first missionaries 
to represent that country in the foreign field. And 
more recently, from the solitudes of Iceland, an offer 
of service has come, telling of consecrated hearts 
even there, prayerfully interested in China and the 
Inland Mission. 

Thus the Spirit of God, moving and guiding in 
many spheres, carries steadily forward the evangelisa- 


tion of that great land. Here a seed-thought, there 
a living word, or the powerful influence of consecrated 
example — better than precept — all doing their silent 
work towards the supreme end. 

Such a seed-thought, replete with living power, fell 
at this time into good ground. 

It was early in October, 1889, and Mr. Hudson 
Taylor, wearied with continued labours, went down 
for a little rest to Hastings. Pondering and praying 
over the needs of China, he was struck afresh with 
the direct command expressed in the Master's 
words, " To every creature'^ If he had not meant 
it He would not have said it. And since He both 
said it and meant it, we are responsible literally to 

This led to a careful consideration of what would 
be involved in carrying out the Divine commission 
and really preaching the Gospel " to every creature " 
in China during the present generation. 

" Were the Government of England," wrote Mr. Taylor, 
" to determine on the conquest of a distant country, they 
would think it a small matter to land ten thousand troops 
on any part of the world's circumference ; and the Church 
of God, to-day, could easily, within the next five years, 
preach the Gospel as a witness to every one of China's 

" No very great effort was needed in America to secure 
the signatures of over three thousand college students to a 
pledge that if God opened the way they would devote them- 
selves to missionary enterprise. Were the enthusiasm and 
devotion of all our churches aroused, and not merely that 


of a few individuals, more than that number of effective 
workers might easily be found on each side of the Atlantic 
for China alone. But no such numbers are needed in 
order that every man, woman, and child in that land 
should hear the Gospel once, at least 

"If, in addition to the workers now in the field, one 
thousand whole-hearted evangelists, male and female, were 
set free and kept free for this special work, they might 
reach the whole number of China's millions before the 
end of the year '95, and this allowing two years for study 
of the language and preparation for the work. 

" Estimating the population of China as we do at two 
hundred and fifty millions, there will be about fifty millions 
of families. If fifty families, or one hundred and fifty 
adults, unreached before, were influenced daily for a 
thousand days, by each of the thousand evangelists, every 
family in China might hear the Gospel within a period of 
three years, leaving the workers two or three Sundays in 
every month for rest. 

" If it be said that unexpected hindrances would be sure 
to arise, it must be remembered that this calculation takes 
no account of the large number of missionary workers 
already in China, nor of the native Christians, whose help 
would, of course, be invaluable. 

" Shail an undertaking which a thousand men and women 
might accomplish in three yeUrs of steady work^ after tivo 
year^ preparation^ be thought chimerical^ and beyond the 
resources of the Church of Christ? ^^ 

The little paper, entitled To Every Creature^ which 
embodied these facts, went forth at the close of the 
year '89. Soon it was scattered far and wide, bring- 
ing its stirring message to. many a heart 

Five months later, the Missionary Conference, 
assembled in Shanghai, made their remarkable appeal 


to the home churches. In words of intense earnest- 
ness they pleaded for one thousajid men within the 
next five years for the work of Christian evangelisa- 
tion in China. 

" We make this appeal," they wrote, " on behalf of three 
hundred millions of unevangelised heathen ; we make it 
with all the earnestness of our whole hearts, as men over- 
whelmed with the magnitude and responsibility of the work 
before us ; we make it with unwavering faith in the power 
of a risen Saviour to call men into His vineyard, and to 
open the hearts of those who are His stewards to send out 
and sustain them, and we shall not cease to cry mightily 
to God that He will do this thing, and that our eyes may 
see it." 

In other directions also the thought was taken 
up, notably among the Scandinavian Churches of the 
United States, who early in the following year sent 
out a detachment of fifty missionary evangelists, as 
part of their response. 

That God was moving wondrously on behalf of 
China none could doubt, certainly none connected 
with the C. I. M. 

Shortly before the Conference above alluded to, 
the new buildings forming our C. I. M. headquarters 
at Shanghai— provided by one kind donor without 
cost to the Mission — were completed and opened. 
Among the earliest arrivals welcomed there, was one 
young clergyman,* who had come all the way from 

• The Rev. C. Parsons. 


Australia to join the Inland Mission. His presence 
at the Conference was significant, for he was the 
forerunner of an Australian contingent, that bids fair 
to do its part towards the coming Thousand. 

About the time that Mr. Taylor was writing his 
appeal for men and women to carry the Gospel 
" to every creature " in China without delay, other 
hearts were being stirred with the same impulse and 
longing, under the Southern Cross. 

"The origin of the Australian branch of the C. I. M.,*' 
writes the Rev. Alfred Bird,* " was on this wise. 

"Towards the close of 1889 the hearts of four ministers 
of the Gospel in Melbourne — two Episcopalians,! one 
Presbyterian, % and one Baptist, § were stirred in a very 
special manner to consider and pray over the awful need 
of China, as the greatest heathen continent in the world, 
and the heathen continent geographically and commercially 
nearest to Australia. 

"Although these ministers were close personal friends, 
the conviction that the Church of Christ in Australia 
ought to send the Gospel to China, was not a conviction 
caught from one another, or produced as the result of 
mutual Conference, but one that came upon them simul- 
taneously. The first outcome was that one of these brethren 
offered himself for service in China, was accepted, and 
is now labouring in connection with the C. I. M. The 
three remaining brethren met on several occasions to con- 
sider how best the God-inspired desire and purpose could 

• Then the Honorary Secretary of the Council in Melbourne. 
+ Rev. H. B. Macartney, Rev. C, Parsons. 
J Rev. Lockhart Morton. 
§iRev. A. Bird. 


be fulfilled, and came speedily to the conclusion that the 
faith principles and interdenominational character of the 
C. I. M. made it the agency which would most fully and 
blessedly accomplish the end in view. The next thing was 
to find out how Australian Christians could co-operate with 
this organisation in London and in China. 

"About this time it came to the knowledge of the 
brethren concerned, that the present beloved Australian 
Treasurer* was an old and tried friend of the Inland 
Mission. He was taken into consultation, and a letter was 
sent to the Rev. J. Hudson Taylor giving some account 
of what had already occurred, and naming the brethren 

" In the interval between sending the letter to Mr. 
Taylor and receiving his reply, Miss Mary Reed, of 
Tasmania, who had shortly before been invalided home 
from China, was invited to visit Victoria for the purpose of 
holding a series of drawing-room meetings. These proved 
to be of the most interesting and valuable character, and 
as a result many became deeply concerned for the evangeli- 
sation of China's millions, and some were led to personal 
surrender for this glorious service. 

" A telegram from Mr. Taylor in Shanghai authorised 
the formation of an Australian branch of the Mission, and 
on May 22nd, 1890, the Council was formed in Melbourne, 
consisting of nine members. 

"Soon after came the welcome news, that Mr. Taylor 
himself intended to visit the Australian colonies. He 
arrived in July 1890, and remained till November, when 
he returned to China accompanied by the first party of 
eleven missionaries. His meetings were fraught with un- 
speakable blessing to the churches visited, and resulted in 
a great missionary awakening in all the colonies.'' 

• Philip Kitchen, Esq. 


Under the helpful influence of its devoted Honorary 
Secretary the work grew rapidly, and spread to other 
Colonies. There are now Auxiliary Councils in 
Adelaide, Sydney, and Brisbane, while between 
thirty and forty workers are already on the field. 
" One pleasing feature," writes Mr. Bird, " of our 
present experience, is that more men are now 
oflfering than at any previous time, and many of 
them give promise of being in every way suited to 
the work." 

A few weeks after Mr. Taylor's return to Shanghai 
with the first reinforcements from Australia, the 
largest missionary party ever known to arrive in 
China was given to the C. I. M. in one day, and 
that without our having done anything in the matter, 
either written a word, or spent a penny, or made one 
single eflfort to bring them ; just given of GOD, in 
answer to prayer, part of the coming Thousand ! 
They were the first thirty-five members of the 
Scandinavian China Alliance Mission, before alluded 
to, and were immediately followed by fifteen others, 
making a total of fifty within a fortnight. 

Sent out and supported by the Scandinavian 
churches of North America, these earnest evangelists 
had come in direct response to the appeal for the 
Thousand. It was no small tax upon the resources 
of the Mission to undertake the reception of so large a 
party without much warning. But within a few days 
of their arrival all were in Chinese dress, hard at 
work studying the language, and before many weeks 

VOL. II. 32 


had elapsed suitable accommodation had been pro- 
vided for them in the Interior. 

As typical of no unusual experience in the spacious 
compound of our Shanghai headquarters, the following 
notes are added : — 

March l2//i, 1 89 1. 

Thirteen of the Scandinavian brethren leave, to-night, 
for the Interior. How we shall miss them ! Strangers only 
a few days ago, they are now dear to us in the Lord. 
Forth they step into the darkness, their faces bright with 
Heaven's own radiance, songs on their lips, and the music 
of love Divine filling their hearts. No fears, no forebodings. 
God for thera, and their lives for the perishing. 

An hour ago, silence fell over the crowded room as the 
last words of our hymn died away, and Mr. Taylor, rising, 
came into the midst, and opened the Word of God. Eagerly 
all turned towards him, with the bright look upon each face 
that told of heart-expectancy. Quietly fell the precious 
words of the 145th Psalm, as he read, verse by verse, on 
to the triumphant end. And then he talked to us in his 
own way, each sentence the very essence of deep and 
blessed experience of what God is and can be to the soul 
that leans on Him alone. 

It was all about " the Lord." 

First — He "keepeth truth for ever." "To the dear 
brethren who are leaving us He says, * Lo I am with you 
always.' Yes, and He 'keepeth truth for ever.* This 
has been the first home God has given you in China, but 
you will find that He has many homes here, and He will 
bring you to them as you go on. Wherever He is is home. 
Is not home always where the Father is? Well, He is 


with us everywhere, and always. So we are never away 
from home. 

" You may be oppressed sometimes in China, and un- 
kindly treated. But the Lord 'executeth judgment for 
the oppressed.* You may sometimes be without money \ 
your friends may forget you, or you may lose your all, and 
be in want. The Lord * giveth food to the hungry.' You 
may be put in prison perhaps, for the GospeFs sake, as 
many good men have been before. The Lord Mooseth 
the prisoners.' And sometimes we are blind indeed^ not 
seeing any way out of our difficulty, or how to find the 
right path. But it says, *the Lord openeth the eyes of 
the blind.' How much better to be blind if He is leading 
us, and is going to open our eyes at the right time, than 
to be very sharp-sighted on our own account, and spy out 
a way for ourselves, that is sure to lead into difficulty and 

"And then sometimes we are * bowed down.' Who is 
there here that has never been discouraged? Although 
we ought not to be, for it is a sin to be discouraged. Let 
us remember that ' He shall not fail nor be discouraged ' ; 
and while He does not, how dare we? If the General 
is going to win the battle the soldiers cannot lose it ! 
Our Jesus has never lost a battle yet ; so we are on the 
winning side. But sometimes we are * bowed down' 
Well, * the Lord raiseth up them that are bowed down ' 

And finally, whoever may hate or despise us, ' the Lord 
iaveth the righteous.' 

" And now let us remember it, * the Lord shall reign for 
ever.' There will never be a day in your Jife or mine when 
the Lord is not reigning." 

Upon our knees, with full hearts, we commended one 
another to God in prayer. 

" Remember always, dear Lord, that they are not very 
strong, and let Thy strength be made perfect in their 


weakness. Remember always that they are not very wise, 
and may Thy wisdom be their sufficiency." 

His voice ceased. But, ere we could rise from our 
knees, dear brother Gullbrandson followed in impassioned 
pleading, his whole heart overflowing in broken words, 
and forceful quaint expression, carrying blessing with each 
sentence. And Hagquist followed, amid the fervently 
expressed sympathy of all the rest. Touching, manly, 
brave, and tender prayers, all for Jesvs stamped on each 

As we stood together then, a moment, brother Pilquist*s 
voice was heard saying that he wished to try and express 
the feeling of all their hearts towards those from whom 
they were parting to-night, the love, the gratitude. They 
felt as they had done when leaving their old homes in 
Scandinavia, leaving their fathers' roof. And he turned 
to Mr. Taylor standing there, and said, ** I have found a 
father here in China and a home I " And many an earnest 
voice responded "Yes." "Amen." He thanked the 
Mission, on behalf of the Scandinavian Churches of 
America, and on behalf of the whole party — all the first 
Fifty, of whom only nineteen will be left with us now. 

When he had finished speaking, and Mr. Taylor's reply 
was done, before anything further could be said, they 
burst again into song, and the room rang, through and 
through, with their soul-filled music. It was very touching 
to watch their faces then. So bright, so moved, so purpose- 
ful ! The whole band seemed to gather to the chorus of 
their own special hymn — " It^s best to go singing, singing all 
the way" And to me they seemed, indeed, Heralds of 
Coming Footsteps ! Thrust-forth labourers are these if 
ever there were any. The plentiful harvest is waiting. 
At the eleventh hour He sends in His last reapers, simple 
earnest loyal-hearted lovers of the Lord ; sends them in to 
garner the precious sheaves, and join the Harvest Home. 


A little later, in the darkness, they gather to say good- 
bye. The lamplight falls on the group at the foot of the 
verandah steps, upon which the singers stand to lead their 
last united song of praise. 

A solemn feeling of wonder is upon many hearts, what 
is this the Lord is doing in our very midst } Heralds 
of Coming Footsteps I Ye go forth, surely, in response to 
the midnight cry. Yes, let it ring round China, and back 
again across the ocean foam, to the homelands sleeping far 
over the seas, " Behold the Bridegroom cometh ! Wc go 
to meet Him ! " 




ANY, very many memories of God's great 
goodness still remain to be recorded. But 
for the present our story is done. 

Three months after the arrival of the Scandinavain 
Fifty, the C. I. M. completed a missionary experience 
of a quarter of a century. Wonderful was the ad- 
vance those years had witnessed. 

As the Lamtnermuir party put out to sea, that 

bright May morning in 1866, what had been the 

position of the little group of workers they went 

to reinforce? Far away among the broad plains of 

Cheh-KIANG, a native boat was slowly traversing 

the rivers and canals that stretch between the Venice 

of China and the great city of Ning-po. On board 

her were two passengers from Shao-hing, Messrs. 

Meadows and Stevenson, who had just succeeded in 

renting a small house in that important centre, thus 

opening the third station of the infant Mission. 

Three stations, in one province, near the shore-line of 

the Yellow Sea ; seven missionaries, two of whom 

were ladies ; and the outward-bound friends in thg 

Lamtnermuir — that was all. 




Twenty-five years later, 93 stations and a band of 
480 workers scattered throughout 14 provinces, testi- 
fied to the faithfulness of a prayer-hearing GOD. 

Two years have passed since then ; and now, in 
January 1894, the Inland Mission is at work in 
no principal stations, with more than 100 out- 
stations ; its members and associates number over 
550 ; its native helpers 326 ; and its present roll of 
baptised communicants, about 4,000. Seven different 
Missions from Europe and America are labouring in 
connection with us, while fourteen nationalities and 
all evangelical sections of the Church of CHRIST are 
represented in our ranks. 

Thus, at the close of twenty-seven years, we pause 
to review, with gratitude to GOD, the way by which 
His hand has led us hitherto. How often, midst our 
blindness, failure of faith, weakness, shortcomings, 
fears. His grace has triumphed and His strength 
prevailed ! How often He has answered prayer, ful- 
filled the promises of His precious Word, sustained 
and strengthened those whose only trust is in His 
mercy, and proved Himself sufficient for all the needs 
of His own work ! 

"In connection with this Mission, weak in human 
resources,'* writes Dr. Grattan Guinness, "and yet the 
largest Mission in the largest mission-field in the world, 
this passage is much upon my heart : — 

" ' What'ailed thee, O thou sea, that thou fleddest ? thou 
Jordan, that thou wast driven back ? ' 

" And its magnificent answer : — 


"* Tremble, thou earth, at the presence of the Lord, at 
the presence of the God of Jacob.* 

" John Wesley has well said : * TAe best of all is — Gon is 
with us.^ Let this be our confidence and our song. He 
before whom the earth trembles assuredly is in us and 
with us." 

Strong in this faith we can go forward to meet the 
future with its wider needs and ever-growing work. 
The time is short, the Master's call is urgent. The 
past is but an inspiration for the future, a vantage 
ground from which to press on with renewed faith 
and quickened zeal. Far from satisfied with what 
has already been accomplished, the leaders of the 
Inland Mission and many of its workers look forward 
with deep desire to future developments more in pro- 
portion to the greatness of the need. Providential 
indications, also, clearly point to growth and extension 
yet to come. 

In connection with our home department, the most 
recent developments are suggestive. Upon a piece 
of freehold land, the property of the Mission, building 
operations are now commencing, quite close to Pyr- 
land Road. Suitable offices, a meeting-room, and 
missionary home, arc to be erected on this site ; and 
further premises to accommodate the women's branch, 
under the care of Miss Soltau, for which a special gift 
of jf 4,000 has just been received.* 

• There is also room for a third large building, facing Newing- 
ton Green, needed for permanent offices, and the young men's 
department of the home work. When funds are given for the 


Out in China, also, commodious premises are soon 
to be constructed, at Chefoo, to meet the growing 
needs of our Mission schools for European children. 
One donation of ;^5,ooo has recently been promised 
for this purpose, and the buildings, long wanted, will 
greatly facilitate the work. 

Do not such facts and providences, like lengthened 
cords and strengthened stakes, point to coming 
enlargement and blessing? 

Surely our GOD, whom we trust, is able to do 
wondrously, beyond anything faith has yet appre- 
hended ! " Much more than this " must be our watch- 
word if China is really to be evangelised in these last 

In answer to prayer GOD has opened this vast 
land to the efforts. of His people. More than fifty 
societies, with a total staff of about sixteen hundred 
missionaries, are to be found in China to-day. 
Medical Missions, Schools, Christian literature, and 
many other agencies are gradually influencing thought 
and feeling — doing a widespread work, often unseen. 
But as yet, even in regions longest evangelised, the 
great masses of the people are in total ignorance of 
the Gospel. 

The accompanying map represents the principal 
stations occupied by all Protestant Missions in China. 
Thank GOD they are now dotted far and wide across 

purpose, this building will be put in hand, completing our London 
head-quarters, and liberating the Missionary Home for its own 
special uses. 


that continental length and breadth — but how many 
a vast expanse still stretches between them ! Those 
sombre seas of heathen darkness might float on their 
black waters many a Christian land. Three Eng- 
lands would lie easily, side by side, south of the 
Yang-tsi River, where no white dots indicate light- 
centres to pierce the gloom. And .beyond the limits 
of this little map, hundreds of miles to north and 
west, extend great countries still within the borders 
of the Empire — all unreached, all shrouded in Christ- 
less night. 

Rightly is it a map in mourning ; black as 
heathenism is at heart. How long it shall remain so 
rests with us. " CHRIST alone can save the world ; 
but Christ cannot save the world alone." He waits 
for you and me to be His fellow- workers. Shall He 
still wait in vain ? 

What IS to hinder the darkness of this land from 
being illumined with the light of GOD? Nothing — 
save our indifference, lack of power, lack of love ! 
Have we not all the resources of Christ at the 
disposal of faith, wherewith to do the work ? Have 
we not the Divine command? Have we not the 
almighty, indwelling enablement of the HOLY 
Ghost? To men and women filled with the SPIRIT 
nothing shall be impossible. It is in ourselves we 
are straitened. It is darkness within that hinders 
us from banishing that night of sin. Is there any- 
thing that weakens faith so much as the lack of a 
clean conscience? While we arc living in comfort 

and ease, unwilling to give to the point of suffering, 
to empty ourselves for the life of the world, is not our 
selfish forgetfulness making faith, for us, impossible; 
cutting us off from Divine power ; deepening the 
darkness of heathendom's millions by hiding the 
light that was meant to shine, through us, on 

Still, a vast work remains. And it must begin in 
our own hearts. When Christ has fully conquered 
there, He can use us to bless the world. Let us pray. 


then, and ponder over this land in shadow, asking 
whether our lives are really helping to bring it light 
God grant that, individually and as a Mission, we 
may know more of the shining of His face, and 
increasingly reflect that brightness upon others. 

Twenty-seven years ago, when the C. I. M. was 
founded, the need and darkness of inland China were 
our raison d'itre. Great has been the advance since 
then. Scores of stations are now opened, and 
hundreds of converts gathered, where at that time 
the name of jESUS was unknown. But we must not 
on this account relax our efforts, All the converts 
of all Protestant Missions put together as yet only 
number about 40,cxx>, so small a proportion of the 
whole population as to be almost imperceptible. 

On the accompanying diagran) every square 
represents a million souls. More than two hundred 

and forty-nine of these millions are still living, dying, 
afar from GOD. One twenty-fifth of the remaining 
square is amply sufficient to represent those 


lives are lighted with wisdom from on high. Consider 
for a moment what this means. 

The daily death-rate and birth-rate in China each 
average about 24,000. In other words, that little 
white spot which stands for our 40,000 Christians, 
would be completely blotted out within two days^ by 
the deaths alone, from among the heathen ; while 
the simple birth-rate in that vast land would far more 
than outnumber those it represents three times within 
a week. We have not yet begun to overtake the 
natural increase of the population, to say nothing of 
influencing the whole nation for GOD. 

It is time indeed that the Church of Christ should 
awake to her responsibilities. " We have been acting 
as though we had an eternity to do the work, and the 
people whom we seek to reach an eternity on earth 
in which to be reached ; whereas the fact is that our 
term of service and their term of life must both very 
soon expire." 

Let us afresh consecrate ourselves to GOD for this 
service. Let us unite in faith and love to press 
forward, forgetting the things that are behind. Let 
us see to it that we live lives that He can use and 
bless ; that we give, and go, and pray, daily asking 
from hearts ready for anything He may appoint — 

"Lord, what wilt Thou have me to do?" 

** What things were gain to me those I counted loss for Christ. 
Yea, doubtless, and I count all thuigs but loss, for the excellency of 
the knowledge of Christ Jbsus my Lord : for whom I have suffered 
the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win 
Christ. . . . 

"That I may know Him, and the power of His resurrection, and 
the fellowship of His sufferings, being made conformable unto His 
death ; if by any means I might attain unto the resurrection from the 

" Not that I have already attained, or am already made perfect ; but 
I press on, if so be that I may apprehend that for which also I was 
apprehended by Christ Jesus. Brethren, I count pot myself yet to 
have apprehended : but one thing I do, forgetting the things which are 
behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before, I press 
on toward the goal unto the prize of the upward calling of GoD in 
Christ Jesus. 

" Let us therefore, as many as be perfect, be thus minded : and if in 
(uiylhingye be otherwise mindedy Cod shall reveal even this unto you" 


I. Mr. John Brock. 


2. Mr. William Russell. 

3. Mr. John Darroch. 


4. Mr. Erik Folke. 


5. Mr, F. Dymond, 

6. Mr. S, Pollard, 


7. Miss G. Muir. 

8. Miss Stewart (Mrs. 



T. Studd). 


9. Miss Thomson. 


10. Miss McWatters (Mrs. 


S. McKee). 

II. Miss Burroughes. 


12. Miss Britton. 


13. Miss Johnson (Mrs. 





14. Miss McQuillian. 


15. Miss Gates. 


16. Miss Miller. 


17. Miss McKee. 


18. Miss Parker. 


19. Miss Webber (Mrs. 





20. Miss Groves (Mrs. A. 




21. Miss Knight. 


22. Miss L. K. Ellis. 


Mr. Alex. Armstrong, 

Mrs. Armstrong. 
Miss Scott (Mrs. Orr- 

Miss Miles (Mrs. H. 

Miss Judd. 
Miss Culverwell. 
Miss Forth. 
Miss Stewartson (Mrs. 

T. G. Vanstone). 
Mr. W. J. Lewis. 
Mr. A. Hoddle. 
Mr. J. O. Cumow. 
Mr, A. H. Faers. 
Mr. I. F. Drysdale. 
Mr. D. J. Mills. 
Mr. James Adams. 
Mr. Arch. Gracie. 
Mr. Ed. Tomkinson. 
Mrs. Tomkinson. 
, Miss K. Maud Holme. 
. Miss H. R. Waldie (Mrs. 

A. Gracie). 
, Miss A. K. Ferriman. 
Miss S. £. Bastone. 




45. Miss A. K. Hook (Mrs- 

A. H. Faers). 

46. Miss Harriet Cutt (Mrs. 


47. Miss Kmma Fryer (Mrs. 

A. Phelps). 

48. Mr. H. N. MacGre- 


49. Mr J. A. Stooke. 

50. Mrs. Stooke 

51. Mr. A. Ewing. 

52. Mr. D. Lawson. 

5 J. Mr. A. H. Huntley. 

54. Miss Florence Ellis (Mrs. 

F. A. Redfern). 

55. Miss Clara Ellis. 

56. Miss K. Williamson. 

57. Miss M. Palmer (Mrs. E 

38. Miss E. Hainge (Mrs. S. 

59. Miss M. Mitchell (Mrs. 

G. Miller). 

60. Miss £. Marchbank. 

61. Miss I. W. Ramsay. 

62. Miss Gertrude Ord (Mrs. 

T. Eyres). 

63. Mr. B. Ririe. 

64. Mr. F. A. Redfern. 

65. Mr. R. Wellwood. 

66. Mr. A. R. Saunders. 

67. Mr. A. Bland. 

68. Mr. A. Lutley. 
69 Mr. Joseph Vale. 

70. Mr. C. S. Tanson. 

71. Mr. B. Curtis Waters. 

72. Miss M. Graham Brown 

(Mrs. W. Sloan). 

73. Miss F. M. Williams. 

74. Miss J. Arthur (Mrs. D. 


75. Miss M. J. Eland (Mrs. 

Y. O. Curnow). 

76. Miss E. Kentfield. 

77. Miss. L. Chilton (Mrs. T. 

H. King). 

78. Miss A. Barrett. 

79. Mr. W. G. Peat. 

80. Mr. W. M. Belcher. 

81. Mr. F. E. Lund. 

82. Mr. A. H. Bridge. 

83. Mr. E. Murray. 

84. Mr. G. A. Cox, L.R.CP.S. 

85. Miss Campbell. 

86. Miss. E. Hanbury. 

87. Mr. J. T. Reid. 

88. Mrs. Reid. 

89. Miss Anna Crewdson. 

(Mrs. M. Walker). 

90. Miss Robina Crewdson. 

91. Miss N. R. Rogers (Mrs. 

A. Huntley). 
9>. Miss T. E. Dawson. 

93. Miss J. Sutherland (Mrs. 

C. Horobin). 

94. Miss Baker (Mrs. J. Reid). 

95. Mr. James Simpson. 

96. Mrs. Simpson. 

97. Mr. W. E. Shearer. 

98. Mr. T. I). Begg. 

99. Mr. Thomas Eyres. 
100. Mr. O. S. Naestegaard. 

Printed by Hazell, Watsoo, & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury 

Zbe Stori? of tbe C. 3. flD* 




Ch. I. Our Position and Sphere. 
II. Looking Back. 
III. The Century's Advance. 





Ch. I. The Power of Prayer. 

II. The Call to Service. 

III. Life in London. 

IV. Voyage to China. 
V. Early Missionary Experiences. 

VI. With the Rev. William Burns. 

VII. Man Proposes, GOD Disposes. 

VIII. Settlement in Ningpo. 

IX. Timely Supplies, and Return to England,